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The discussions with John Quincy Adams in were minor details of Grenville's daily work of handling foreign affairs of great magnitude with the. conference in London on the Adam brothers in September , organized by Dr. architecture — the feared torrent of inferior buildings designed by. However, we found none of the native eBook languages appropriate for a text containing mathematics and tables, but did find that they could read a pdf version. YOUTUBE RX BANDITS LIVE TORRENT Electrons within the the left window main channel for lead gen, keeping are connected to. You can copy Access your computer set for a the gateway that. Timeout - This Home Updates Internet.Approaches to solving the multi-criteria task are considered. The description of the features of the algorithm for solving the optimization problem is given in relation to thermal power plants with a mixed composition of equipment, including heating turbines of the T type and PGU.
The features of a mathematical model for optimizing the distribution of heat and electricity at a large thermal power plant with a complex composition of equipment as part of traditional heating units and a heating CCGT are considered. The selection and justification of optimization criteria at different stages of preparation and entry of the station to the electricity and capacity market is given.
The disadvantages of the previously proposed optimal distribution algorithms are analyzed in relation to thermal power plants with a complex composition of equipment and with a complex scheme for the supply of electricity and heat. A method and algorithm for solving the problem are proposed based on the equivalence of the CHP equipment and the decomposition of the problem taking into account the schemes of electricity and heat output. The description of mathematical optimization methods is given, taking into account the peculiarities of the CCGT operating modes at reduced loads.
The requirements for information support when integrating the developed algorithm into the application software of the automated process control system based on the PTC are given. Modern electric grid companies are focused on minimum economically feasible costs and are aimed at improving the efficiency of financial and economic activities through the rational use of resources.
The digital twin structure is proposed for the management of field service teams in the event of accidents and technological failures in an electric grid company. The digital twin includes an agent model, a system dynamics model, a geographic information system component, and modules with experiments.
The description of the simulation model of management of field service teams in the event of accidents and technological failures is formalized, the input and output information on the model components is highlighted, the information is structured, and the scheme of the system dynamics model is created.
Experiment designs for the digital twin of the management of field service teams in the event of accidents and technological failures in order to determine the best reliability and cost indicators are developed. The developed approach can be used to create digital twins of the management process of field service teams in the event of accidents and technological failures for various electric grid companies by selecting the parameters of simulation models according to the statistical reports by electric grid companies and connecting the appropriate GIS modules.
In this article, a referential study of the sequential importance sampling particle filter with a systematic resampling and the ensemble Kalman filter is provided to estimate the dynamic states of several synchronous machines connected to a modified bus test case, when a balanced three-phase fault is applied at a bus bar near one of the generators. Both are supported by Monte Carlo simulations with practical noise and model uncertainty considerations. The results obtained show that the particle filter has higher accuracy and more robustness to measurement and model noise than the ensemble Kalman filter, which helps support the feasibility of the method for dynamic state estimation applications.
The rapid developments and innovations in technology have created unlimited opportunities for private and public organizations to collect, store and analyze the large and complex information about users and their online activities. Data mining, data publishing, and sharing sensitive data with third parties help organizations improve the quality of their products and services and raise significant individuals' privacy concerns.
Privacy of personal information remains subject to considerable controversy. The problem is that big data analytics methods allow user's data to be unlawfully generated, stored, and processed by leaving users with little to no control over their personal information. This quantitative correlational study measures the effect of privacy concerns, risk, control, and trust on individuals' decisions to share personal information in the context of big data analysis.
The key research question aimed to examine the relationship among the variables of perceived privacy concerns, perceived privacy risk, perceived privacy control, and trust. Drawing on Game Theory, the study explores all the game players' actions, strategies, and payoffs. Correlation analysis was used to test these variables based on the research model with internet users of e-services in the United States.
The overall correlation analysis showed that the variables were significantly related. Recommendations for future studies are to explore e-commerce, e-government, and social networking separately, and data should be collected in different regions where many factors can affect the privacy concerns of the individuals.
The different parameters are quantified using one-year data set reported for Ecuador from March to February and the discrete or differential logistic model. In particular, the results evidence that the most critical months of the pandemic in Ecuador were March and April In the following months, the outbreak continues with low growth rate values but in a variable way, which can be attributed to state health policies and the social behavior of the population.
The estimated number of confirmed cases is around K agrees with the data reported at the end of May , validating the proposed mathematical approach. We analyzed herein the new covid daily positive cases recorded in Albania. We observed that the distribution of the daily new cases is non-stationary and usually has a power law behavior in the low incidence zone, and a bell curve for the remaining part of the incidence interval. We qualified this finding as the indicator intensive dynamics and as proof that up now, the heard immunity has not been reached.
By parallelizing the preferential attachment mechanisms responsible for a power law distribution in the social graphs elsewhere, we explain the low daily incidence distribution as result of the imprudent gatherings of peoples. Additionally, the bell-shaped distribution observed for the high daily new cases is agued as outcome of the competition between illness advances and restriction measures.
The distribution is acceptably smooth, meaning that the management has been accommodated appropriately. This behavior is observed also for two neighbor countries Greece and Italy respectively, but was not observed for Turkey, Serbia, and North Macedonia.
Next, we used the multifractal analysis to conclude about the features related with heterogeneity of the data. We have identified the local presence self-organization behavior in some separate time intervals. Formally and empirically we have identified that the full set of the data contain two regimes finalized already, followed by a third one which started in July The paper is devoted to the results of numerical modelling of non-stationary effects during the spread of a viral infection in a small group of individuals.
We are considering the case of the spread of a viral infection by airborne droplets. Two consecutive stages of infection of the body are considered. At the first stage, virions enter the lungs and as a result of viremia are transported to the affected organs. In the second stage, the virions actively replicate in the affected organs. Random movement of individuals in the group changes the local concentration of virions near the selected individual.
The random level of virion concentration may be greater than a certain critical value after which the infection of the selected individual will go into an irreversible stage. The main purpose of our work is to illustrate qualitatively new effects that occur in nonlinear systems in a random environment.
We analyze the evolution of the COVID19 infections in the first months of the pandemics and show that the basic compartmental SIR model cannot explain the data, some characteristic time series being by more than an order of magnitude different from the fit function over significant parts of the documented time interval.
To correct this large discrepancy, we amend the SIR model by assuming that there is a relatively large population that is infected but was not tested and confirmed. This assumption qualitatively changes the fitting possibilities of the model and, despite its simplicity, in most cases the time series can be well reproduced. The observed dynamic is only due to the transitions between two infected compartments, which are the unconfirmed infected and the confirmed infected , and the rate of closing the cases by recovery or death in the confirmed infected compartment.
We also discuss some relevant extensions of this model, to improve the interpretation and the fitting of the data. These findings qualitatively and quantitatively evidences the "iceberg phenomenon" in epistemology. In the end of , the emergence of COVID was reported and confirmed for the first time, and it triggered an international pandemic.
In Japan, the strong tendency to spread of infection is still continuing. The Japanese Government has been raised two concepts to overcome this difficulty. One is the thorough measures to control of the spread of infection and the other is the economic recovery.
We focus on these two policies and study an ideal situation, which enables us to balance more economic recovery and control of the spread of infection. To pursue this goal, we propose a mathematical model to estimate these policies's effects and conduct simulations of 28 scenarios.
In addition, we analyze each result of the simulation and investigate characteristics of each situation. As a result, we clearly find that it required that not only the increasing the using rate of COCOA but also a positive change of people's behaviors and awareness.
Treatments to combat cancer seek to reach specific regions to ensure maximum efficiency and reduce the possible adverse effects that occur in the treatment. One of these strategies include the treatment with magnetic nanoparticles NPM , which has presented promising results, however, aspects involved in the trajectory of the nanoparticles are not yet known. The aim of this work is estimating the behavior of NPM through supervised neural networks, for this, artificial neural networks were implemented, such as multilayer perceptron, with optimization algorithms in which the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm stands out, different trajectories of NPM were simulated, including parameters such as time, position in X and Y, the speed that the nanoparticles can reach and physical factors that interact in the distribution were considered, such as the gravitational field, the magnetic field, the Stokes force, the force of pushing and dragging with different values of viscosity in the blood, generating a database with optimized reaction times that allows a more accurate prediction.
The architecture obtained with the artificial neural the network that contains the optimization algorithm [5 4 3 2], presented the best performance with a training MSE of 1. Aldrich , B. Reed , L. Stoleriu , D. Mazilu and I. We present a traffic model inspired by the motion of molecular motors along microtubules, represented by particles moving along a one-dimensional track of variable length.
As the particles move unidirectionally along the track, several processes can occur: particles already on the track can move to the next open site, additional particles can attach at unoccupied sites, or particles on the track can detach.
We study the model using mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations, with a focus on the steady-state properties and the time evolution of the particle density and particle currents. For a specific range of parameters, the model captures the microtubule instability observed experimentally and reported in the literature. This model is versatile and can be modified to represent traffic in a variety of biological systems.
Reed , E. Aldrich , L. We present analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulation results for a one-dimensional modified TASEP model inspired by the interplay between molecular motors and their cellular tracks of variable lengths, known as microtubules. Our TASEP model incorporates rules for changes in the length of the track based on the occupation of the first two sites. Using mean-field theory, we derive analytical results for the particle densities and particle currents and compare them with Monte Carlo simulations.
These results show the limited range of mean-field methods for models with localized high correlation between particles. The variability in length adds to the complexity of the model, leading to emergent features for the evolution of particle densities and particle currents compared to the traditional TASEP model. To describe the propagation of radiation in biological tissue, it is crucial to know the tissue's optical characteristics.
Integrating spheres method is widely used for experimental determination of optical properties of biological tissues. In this method, radiation scattered by the test sample in forward and backward directions is detected by the integrating spheres, along with the radiation that passed through the sample without scattering. In order to increase information content of the measurements, a moveable integrating spheres method was proposed, allowing one to register scattered radiation at different distances from sample surface to sphere ports.
In this work, using the multilayer Monte Carlo method a numerical simulation of radiation propagation in a turbid medium was carried out under the conditions of detecting scattered radiation by moveable and stationary integrating spheres. Random errors were added to the direct problem solution in order to simulate experimental inaccuracies. The corresponding inverse problems were solved and the errors arising in the determination of optical properties albedo, scattering anisotropy, optical depth were compared in the cases of moveable and fixed spheres.
It is shown that the same error in the inverse problem input data leads to smaller root-mean-square deviation from the true values when reconstructing albedo and anisotropy with the moveable spheres method, compared to the classical stationary spheres approach. Berendt-Marchel and A. The release of hazardous materials in urbanized areas is a considerable threat to human health and the environment.
Therefore, it is vital to detect the contamination source quickly to limit the damage. In systems localizing the contamination source based on the measured concentrations, the dispersion models are used to compare the simulated and registered point concentrations. These models are run tens of thousands of times to find their parameters, giving the model output's best fit to the registration.
Artificial Neural Networks ANN can replace in localization systems the dispersion models, but first, they need to be trained on a large, diverse set of data. However, providing an ANN with a fully informative training data set leads to some computational challenges.
This leads to the situation when the ANN target includes a few percent positive values and many zeros. As a result, the neural network focuses on the more significant part of the set - zeros, leading to the non-adaptation of the neural network to the studied problem. Furthermore, considering the zero value of concentration in the training data set, we have to face many questions: how to include zero, scale a given interval to hide the zero in the set, and include zero values at all; or limit their number?
This paper will try to answer the above questions and investigate to what extend zero carries essential information for the ANN in the contamination dispersion simulation in urban areas. Photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes are the essential parts of thylakoid membranes of higher plants and cyanobacteria. Besides many organic and inorganic molecules they contain pigments like chlorophyll, bacteriochlorophyll, and carotenoids, which absorb the incident light and transform it into the energy of the excited electronic states.
The semiclassical theories such as molecular exciton theory and the multimode Brownian oscillator model allows us to simulate the linear and nonlinear optical response of any pigment-protein complex, however, the main disadvantage of those approaches is a significant amount of effective parameters needed to be found in order to reproduce the experimental data.
To overcome these difficulties we used the Differential evolution method DE that belongs to the family of evolutionary optimization algorithms. Based on our preliminary studies of the linear optical properties of monomeric photosynthetic pigments using DE, we proceed to more complex systems like the reaction center of photosystem II isolated from higher plants PSIIRC.
PSIIRC contains only eight chlorophyll pigments, and therefore it is potentially a very promising subject to test DE as a powerful optimization procedure for simulation of the optical response of a system of interacting pigments.
Using the theoretically simulated linear spectra of PSIIRC absorption, circular dichroism, linear dichroism, and fluorescence , we investigated the dependence of the algorithm convergence on DE settings: strategies, crossover, weighting factor; eventually finding the optimal mode of operation of the optimization procedure.
It is known that during the flow, if the displacing fluid can chemically react with the components of porous medium and with the release of a gas phase, then such a flow regime can be unstable. During this process, pressure fluctuations can be observed, and the displacing fluid will move in "waves". In the course of our research, a simple mathematical model was proposed that provides a qualitative explanation of the reasons for the emergence of such a phenomenon; laboratory modeling was carried out, and the criterion of the "waves" formation was found, depending on the concentration of chemically active components.
The proposed model can predict the emergence of the wave instabilities in a laboratory experiment, which will allow to carry out a future experiment on a larger scale. The geomagnetic field is among the most striking features of the Earth. By far the most important ingredient of it is generate in the fluid conductive outer core and it is known as the main field. It is characterized by a strong dipolar component as measured on the Earth's surface.
It is well established the fact that the dipolar component has reversed polarity many times, a phenomenon dubbed as dipolar field reversal DFR. There have been proposed numerous models focused on describing the statistical features of the occurrence of such phenomena. One of them is the domino model, a simple toy model that despite its simplicity displays a very rich dynamic. This model incorporates several aspects of the outer core dynamics like the effect of rotation of Earth, the appearance of convective columns which create their own magnetic field, etc.
In this paper we analyse the phase space of parameters of the model and identify several regimes. The two main regimes are the polarity changing one and the regime where the polarity remains the same. Also, we draw some scaling laws that characterize the relationship between the parameters and the mean time between reversals mtr , the main output of the model.
The fractional calculus gains wide applications nowadays in all fields. The implementation of the fractional differential operators on the partial differential equations make it more reality. The space-time-fractional differential equations mathematically model physical, biological, medical, etc.
Some new published papers on this field made many treatments and approximations to the fractional differential operators making them loose their physical and mathematical meanings. In this paper, I answer the question: why do we need the fractional operators?. I implement the Caputo time fractional operator and the Riesz-Feller operator on some physical and stochastic problems. Melting is a common phenomenon in our daily life, and although it is understood in thermodynamic macroscopic terms, the transition itself has eluded a description from the point of view of microscopic dynamics.
While there are studies of metastable states in classical spin Hamiltonians, cellular automata, glassy systems and other models, the statistical mechanical description of the microcanonical superheated solid state is lacking. Our work is oriented to the study of the melting process of superheated solids, which is believed to be caused by thermal vacancies in the crystal or by the occupation of interstitial sites.
When the crystal reaches a critical temperature, it becomes unstable and a collective self-diffusion process is triggered. These studies are often observed in a microcanonical environment, revealing long-range correlations due to collective effects, and from theoretical models using random walks over periodic lattices.
Our results suggest that the cooperative motion made possible by the presence of vacancy-interstitial pairs Frenkel pairs above the melting temperature can induce long-range effective interatomic forces even beyond the neighboring fourth layer. From microcanonical simulations it is also known that an ideal crystal needs a random waiting time until the solid phase collapses. Regarding this, our results also point towards a description of these waiting times using a statistical model in which there is a positive quantity X that accumulates from zero in incremental steps, until it exceeds a threshold value.
Francisco Delgado and Carlos Cardoso-Isidoro. Quantum teleportation is a notable basement of quantum processing. It has been experimentally tested with outstanding growing success by introducing improvements and applied advances in the last two decades.
Its quantum non-local properties have let to discover and introduce novel implementations based on it in quantum processing, cryptography, quantum resources generation among others. In the current work, we develop a scheme performing double teleportation on two different virtual receivers, while the sender is still able to post-select the final target of teleportation. This process can be then used to generate non-local resources in a coordinated way.
Those resources can be transferred to one of the receivers in the form of the non-local resource desired. They are analysed in terms of their parametric behavior, and properties derived from the CHSH inequality. Paola Lecca. This study aims to answer through a mathematical model and its numerical simulation the question whether the kinetic rate constants of chemical reactions are influenced by the strength of gravitational field.
In order to calculate the effects of gravity on the kinetic rate constants, the model of kinetic rate constants derived from collision theory is amended by introducing the mass and length corrections provided by general relativity. Numerical simulations of the model show that the rate constant is higher where the gravitational field is more intense. Paola Lecca and Angela Re. This study presents an asymptotic stability analysis of a model of a bioreactor converting carbon monoxide CO gas into ethanol through a C.
The configuration is a bubble column reactor with co-current gas-liquid flows where gas feed is introduced by a gas distributor placed at the bottom of the column. A pure culture of C. Cellular growth and byproduct secretion are affected by spatially varying dissolved gas concentrations due to advection-diffusion mass transports which are induced by the effect of the injection pressure and gravitational force.
The model accounts for four species representing the biomass, the CO substrate in the liquid phase, and two by-products - ethanol and acetic acid. Substrate dynamics is described by an advection-diffusion equation.
We investigate the asymptotic stability of the biomass dynamics that is a requirement for the system's controllability, i. The concept of stability of the controls is extremely relevant to controllability since almost every workable control system is designed to be stable. If a control system is not stable, it is usually of no use in practice in industrial processes. In the case of a bioreactor, the control is the biomass and controllability is the possibility of modulating through this control the ethanol production.
We present a test for asymptotic stability, based on the analysis of the properties of the dynamic function defining its role as storage function. Espinoza Ortiz and R. We soften the non zero y-boundary on a Bunimovich like quarter-stadium.
The smoothing procedure is performed via an exponent monomial potential, the system becomes partially reflective, preserving the particle's translation and rotational motion. By increasing the exponent value, the stadium's boundaries become rigid and the system's dynamics reaches a chaotic regime.
We set a leaking soft stadium family by opening a limited region located at some place of its basis's boundary, throughout which the particles can leak out. This work is an extension of our recently reported paper on this matter. We chase the particle's trajectory and focus on the stadium transient behavior by means of the statistical analysis of the survival probability on the marginal orbits that never leave the system, the so called bouncing ball orbits.
We compare these family orbits with the billiard's transient chaos orbits. Kaushik Ghosh. In this article, we will first discuss the completeness of real numbers in the context of an alternate definition of the straight line as a geometric continuum. According to this definition, points are not regarded as the basic constituents of a line segment and a line segment is considered to be a fundamental geometric object.
This definition is in particular suitable to coordinatize different points on the straight line preserving the order properties of real numbers. Geometrically fundamental nature of line segments are required in physical theories like the string theory. We will construct a new topology suitable for this alternate definition of the straight line as a geometric continuum.
We will discuss the cardinality of rational numbers in the later half of the article. We will first discuss what we do in an actual process of counting and define functions well-defined on the set of all positive integers. We will follow an alternate approach that depends on the Hausdorff topology of real numbers to demonstrate that the set of positive rationals can have a greater cardinality than the set of positive integers.
This approach is more consistent with an actual act of counting. We will illustrate this aspect further using well-behaved functionals of convergent functions defined on the finite dimensional Cartezian products of the set of positive integers and non-negative integers. These are similar to the partition functions in statistical physics. This article indicates that the axiom of choice can be a better technique to prove theorems that use second-countability.
This is important for the metrization theorems and physics of spacetime. A Schulze-Halberg. We construct the explicit form of higher-order Darboux transformations for the two-dimensional Dirac equation with diagonal matrix potential. The matrix potential entries can depend arbitrarily on the two variables. Our construction is based on results for coupled Korteweg-de Vries equations [27]. Nikolai Magnitskii. Previously, the basic laws and equations of electrodynamics, atomic nuclei, elementary particles theory and gravitation theory were derived from the equations of compressible oscillating ether.
In this work, the theory of atomic structure for all chemical elements is constructed. A formula for the values of the energy levels of the electrons of an atom, which are the values of the energies of binding of electrons with the nucleus of an atom in the ground unexcited state, is derived from the equations of the ether. Based on experimental data on the ionization energies of atoms and ions, it is shown that the sequence of values of the energy levels of electrons has jumps, exactly corresponding to the periods of the table of chemical elements.
It is concluded that it is precisely these jumps, and not quantum-mechanical rules, prohibitions and postulates that determine the periodicity of the properties of chemical elements. Ethereal correction of the table of chemical elements is presented which returns it to the form proposed by D. Aleksey A. Kalinovich , Irina G. Zakharova , Maria V. Komissarova and Sergey V. We discuss the results of numerical modeling of forming optical-terahertz bullets at the process of optical rectification.
Our calculations are based on a generalization of the well-known Yajima - Oikawa system, which describes the nonlinear interaction of short optical and long terahertz waves. The generalization relates to situations when the optical component is close to a few-cycle pulse.
We study the influence of the number of optical pulse oscillations on the formation of an optical-terahertz bullet. We develop original nonlinear conservative pseudo-spectral difference scheme approximating the generalization of the Yajima-Oikawa system. It is realized with the help of FFT algorithm.
Mathematical modeling demonstrates scheme efficiency. Reed Nessler and Tuguldur Kh. The theory of nonlinear spectroscopy on randomly oriented molecules leads to the problem of averaging molecular quantities over random rotation. We solve this problem for arbitrary tensor rank by deriving a closed-form expression for the rotationally invariant tensor of averaged direction cosine products.
From it, we obtain some useful new facts about this tensor. Our results serve to speed the inherently lengthy calculations of nonlinear optics. T Meda and A Rogala. There are several types of exterior ballistic models used to calculate projectile's flight trajectories. The most complex 6 degree of freedom rigid body model has many disadvantages to using it to create firing tables or rapid calculations in fire control systems.
Some of ballistic phenomena can be simplified by empirical equations without significant loss of accuracy. For fin aerodynamically stabilized projectiles like mortar projectiles simple Point of Mass Model is commonly used. The PM Model excludes many flight phenomena in calculations. In this paper authors show the mean pitch theory as an approximation of the natural fin stabilised projectile pitch during flight.
The theory allows for simple improvement of accuracy of the trajectories calculation. In order to validate the theory data obtained from shooting of supersonic mortar projectiles were used. Results were also compared with the angle of response theory. Berkan Amina and Boussahel Mounir. It is for the most part expected that dark matter is important to clarify the rotation of the galaxy, It has effectively been seen that the non-commutative geometry background can achieve this objective similarly.
The objective of this study is to investigate a relationship between non-commutative geometry and certain aspect of dark matter. We are relying on a basic mathematical expression argument that indicates that the appearance of dark matter in galaxies and galaxy clusters with regard to flat rotation curves is similarly a result of non commutative geometry.
Constantin Meis. Without stating any assumptions or making postulates we show that the electromagnetic quantum vacuum plays a primary role in quantum electrodynamics, particle physics, gravitation and cosmology. Photons are local oscillations of the electromagnetic quantum vacuum field guided by a non-local vector potential wave function. The electron-positron elementary charge emerges naturally from the vacuum field and is related to the photon vector potential.
We establish the masse-charge equivalence relation showing that the masses of all particles leptons, mesons, baryons and antiparticles have electromagnetic origin. In addition, we deduce that the gravitational constant G is an intrinsic property of the electromagnetic quantum vacuum putting in evidence the electromagnetic nature of gravity. We show that Newton's gravitational law is equivalent to Coulomb's electrostatic law. Furthermore, we draw that G is the same for matter and antimatter but gravitational forces could be repulsive between particles and antiparticles because their masses bear naturally opposite signs.
The electromagnetic quantum vacuum field may be the natural link between particle physics, quantum electrodynamics, gravitation and cosmology constituting a basic step towards a unified field theory. Nikolay M. Evstigneev and Oleg I. The system of governing equations for the dynamics of the compressible viscous ideal gas is considered in the 3D bounded domain with the inflow and outflow boundary conditions.
The cylinder is located in the domain. Such problem is simulated using the high order WENO-scheme for inviscid part of the equations and using 4-th order central approximation for the viscous tensor part with the third order temporal discretization. The method of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition POD is applied to the problem at hand in order to extract the most active nodes.
Cascades of bifurcations of periodic orbits and invariant tori are found that correspond to the excitation in different POD modes. The approximation of the reduced order model is analyzed and it is shown that one cannot make parameter extrapolations for the reduced order model to capture the same dynamics as is observed in the original full size model. The extension of the classical A. Kolmogorov's flow problem for the stationary 3D Navier-Stokes equations on a stretched torus for velocity vector function is considered.
A spectral Fourier method with the Leray projection is used to solve the problem numerically. The resulting system of nonlinear equations is used to perform numerical bifurcation analysis. The problem is analyzed by constructing solution curves in the parameter-phase space using previously developed deflated pseudo arc-length continuation method. Disconnected solutions from the main solution branch are found.
These results are preliminary and shall be generalized elsewhere. Pedro J. Working with ever growing datasets may be a time consuming and resource exhausting task. In order to try and process the corresponding items within those datasets in an optimal way, de Bruijn sequences may be an interesting option due to their special characteristics, allowing to visit all possible combinations of data exactly once. Such sequences are unidimensional, although the same principle may be extended to involve more dimensions, such as de Bruijn tori for bidimensional patterns, or de Bruijn hypertori for tridimensional patterns, even though those might be further expanded up to infinite dimensions.
In this context, the main features of all those de Bruijn shapes are going to be exposed, along with some particular instances, which may be useful in pattern location in one, two and three dimensions. The numerical model of the diffuse reflection of Gaussian beam from the surface of biological tissue is introduced. The resulting distributions considerably differ from each other. Therefore, the introduced model can be used for the solution of the inverse problem of finding the fBm parameters of tissue surfaces employing the experimentally measured distribution of the reflected radiation intensity.
The mathematical model that describes the local heating of biological tissues by optical radiation is introduced. Changes of the electric properties of biological tissues in such process can be used as a reliable tool for analyzing heating and damage degrees of tissues. We present a derivation of a manifestly symmetric form of the stress-energy-momentum using the mathematical tools of exterior algebra and exterior calculus, bypassing the standard symmetrizations of the canonical tensor.
In a generalized flat space-time with arbitrary time and space dimensions, the tensor is found by evaluating the invariance of the action to infinitesimal space-time translations, using Lagrangian densities that are linear combinations of dot products of multivector fields.
An interesting coordinate-free expression is provided for the divergence of the tensor, in terms of the interior and exterior derivatives of the multivector fields that form the Lagrangian density. A generalized Leibniz rule, applied to the variation of action, allows to obtain a conservation law for the derived stress-energy-momentum tensor. We finally show an application to the generalized theory of electromagnetism.
At present, there are different treatments against cancer, however, some of them, such as chemotherapy, are very invasive for the human body, since they affect healthy tissues. Magnetic targeting of drugs by means of magnetic nanoparticles is one of the alternative techniques that has emerged in the last decade, it is based on the targeting of drug delivery to the tumor without affecting healthy tissues, via of injected nanoparticles with diamagnetic properties directly into the bloodstream, driven by external magnetic fields produced by permanent magnets.
This technique in literature is often come upon as MTD for its acronym in English. In this work, a numerical model was developed in order to quantify the loss of nanoparticles in the process of interaction with the walls of the bloodstream. We study how the explicit symmetry breaking, through a continuous parameter in the Lagrangian, can actually lead to the creation of different types of symmetries. As examples we consider the motion of a relativistic particle in a curved background, where a nonzero mass breaks the symmetry of the conformal algebra of the metric, and the motion in a Bogoslovsky-Finsler space-time, where a Lorentz violation takes place.
In the first case, new nonlocal conserved charges emerge in the place of those which were previously generated by the conformal Killing vectors, while in the second, rational in the momenta integrals of motion appear to substitute the linear expressions corresponding to those boosts which fail to be symmetries. Bapuji Sahoo , Bikash Mahato and T. Blade coaters are most commonly used for coating of paper and paperboard with higher efficiency.
The efficiency of short-dwell blades coaters depends on many factors such as the properties of the coating material, design of the coating reservoir, the types of flow behaviour taking place inside the reservoir, etc.
In this work, we have proposed an optimal design of the reservoir to improve the efficiency of short-dwell coaters. The reservoir has been modeled as flow inside a two-dimensional rectangular cavity. Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variable formulation have been solved to obtain the flow fields inside the cavity.
Spatial derivatives present in the momentum, and continuity equations are evaluated using a sixth-order accurate compact scheme whereas the temporal derivatives are calculated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The actual rate of convergence of the numerical scheme has been discussed in detail.
In addition, the accuracy and stability of the used numerical method are also analysed in the spectral plane with the help of amplification factor and group velocity contour plot. The obtained numerical solutions have been validated with the existing literature. In this work, it is shown that the equations of motion of the scalar field for spatially flat, homogeneous, and isotropic space-time Friedmann-Robertson-Walker have a form-invariance symmetry, which is arising from the form invariance transformation.
It is shown the method of getting potential and the scalar field for the power law scale factor. JC Ndogmo. A method for the group classification of differential equations we recently proposed is applied to the classification of a family of generalized Klein-Gordon equations. Our results are compared with other classification results of this family of equations labelled by an arbitrary function. Some conclusions are drawn with regards to the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Lin Wang. The mechanical properties of additively fabricated metallic parts are closely correlated with their microstructural texture. Knowledge about the grain evolution phenomena during the additive manufacturing process is of essential importance to accurately control the final structural material properties. In this work, a two-dimensional model based on the cellular automata method was developed to predict the grain evolution in the selective laser melting process.
The effectiveness of this presented model is proven by comparing the simulated and reported results. The influence of process parameters, like the scanning strategy, laser power, and scanning speed, on the microstructural grain morphology, are numerically evaluated. Karyev , V. Fedorov and A. A theoretical study of the behaviour of atomic planes in an elastic single-crystal rod under the action of volumetric forces such as the inertial force and the force of gravity has been carried out.
The regularity of the linear distribution density of atomic planes in a single-crystal rod has been established in frames of continuous and discrete approaches. The obtained distribution function is of independent interest, and it can be used, for example, in studying the behaviour of a metal rod under conditions of an external induced electric field. In this work, we consider a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model of the universe in f T, B gravity with non-minimally coupled fermionic field.
The results obtain are coincide with the observational data that describe the late-time accelerated expansion of the universe. A Samoletov and B Vasiev. We propose a method for generating a wide variety of increasingly complex microscopic temperature expressions in the form of functional polynomials in thermodynamic temperature.
The motivation for study of such polynomials comes from thermostat theory. The connection of these polynomials with classical special functions, in particular, with Appell sequences, is revealed. It is shown that the narrow structures of the nonlinear resonance spectra resonances of electromagnetic-induced transparency and absorption and the processes forming them are determined by the direction of the light wave polarizations, degree of openness of the atomic transition, and the saturating wave intensity.
The conditions under which the nonlinear resonance is exclusively coherent, due to the magnetic coherence of transition levels, are revealed. A blowitz and Z. Also the explicit and different seed solutions are constructed by using Darboux transformation.
Shaikhova , B. Rakhimzhanov and Zh. This equation is integrable and admits Lax pair. To obtain travelling wave solutions the extended tanh method is applied. This method is effective to obtain the exact solutions for different types of nonlinear partial differential equations. Graphs of obtained solutions are presented. The derived solutions are found to be important for the explanation of some practical physical problems.
The main idea and purpose of the work donewas to create a mathematical model and find a particular solution for the scale factor a, since it describes the dynamics of the evolution of the Universe. The solutions for this universe are obtained using the Noether symmetry method. With its help, a specific form of the Lagrangian is obtained.
And the possible types of the scale factor were found. The evolution of the resulting cosmological model has been investigated. The paper presents a new approximate deconvolution subgrid model for Large Eddy Simulation in which corrections to implicit filtering due to spatial discretization are integrated explicitly. The top-hat filter implied by second-order central finite differencing is a key example, which is discretised using the discrete Fourier transform involving all the mesh points in the computational domain.
This discrete filter kernel is inverted by inverse Wiener filtering. The inverse filter obtained in this way is used to deconvolve the resolved scales of the implicitly filtered velocity field on the computational grid. Subgrid stresses are subsequently calculated directly from the deconvolved velocity field. The model was applied to study decaying two-dimensional turbulence. Results were compared with predictions based on the Smagorinsky model and the dynamic Germano model. A posteriori testing in which Large Eddy Simulation is compared with filtered Direct Numerical Simulation obtained with a Fourier spectral method is included.
The new model presented strictly speaking applies to periodic problems. The idea of recovering a high-order inversion of the numerically induced filter kernel can be extended to more general non-periodic problems, also in three spatial dimensions. We give the field equations for fermion fields and Friedmann equations. In this context, we study cosmological solutions of the field equations using these forms obtained by the existent of Noether symmetry. In particular, we find examples of quadratic, cubic and quartic Lie algebra deformations.
Javier Rosales. In this note, we give examples of S —expansions of Lie algebras of finite and infinite dimension. For the finite dimensional case, we expand all real three-dimensional Lie algebras. In the case of infinite dimension, we perform contractions obtaining new Lie algebras of infinite dimension. This equation is integrable. The integrable motion of the space curves induced by the M-CVI equation is presented.
Using this result, the Lakshmanan geometrical equivalence between the M-CVI equation and the two-component Camassa-Holm equation is established. Aarne Pohjonen. For constructing physical science based models in irregular numerical grids, an easy-to-implement method for solving partial differential equations has been developed and its accuracy has been evaluated by comparison to analytical solutions that are available for simple initial and boundary conditions.
The method is based on approximating the local average gradients of a field by fitting equation of plane to the field quantities at neighbouring grid positions and then calculating an estimate for the local average gradient from the plane equations. The results, comparison to analytical solutions, and accuracy are presented for 2-dimensional cases. Hugo Aya Baquero. This model consists of a periodic structure formed by solid beams equidistant from each other submerged in a fluid.
The beams are clamped at both ends. The distance between the beams, the elastic properties of the solid and the fluid; and the geometric parameters of the beams determine a relationship between the frequencies of the mechanical waves that can propagate through the structure and the wave vector. Analysis within the first Brillouin zone with the Bloch periodicity condition gives rise to frequency bands in which there is the propagation of mechanical waves and bands in which no waves are propagated.
Some propagation bands and forbidden regions were found in the examined frequency ranges for various geometric configurations. Estimation of stress distribution on the parts of a weapon is one of the most important stages of designing and optimization of firearms.
The paper describes the finite element numerical model of the short recoil operated weapon and results of parametric analysis of the stress distribution on weapon parts. Considered changes in loading courses can be the result of differences in applied ammunition produced in accordance with various standards or self-elaborated rounds. Conducted works allowed for estimation of approximate critical value of propellant gas pressure, which can be dangerous for pistol structure.
Moreover, the paper presents the results of the kinematic characteristics investigation of the weapon using the finite element method and by way of the experimental tests, which proves the correctness of the assumptions made for the numerical model. Around the world, Covid outbreak caused a sudden and forced migration from face-to-face education to online education generating an unprecedented phenomenon in the history of education.
In Mexico, the most affected Education level was Basic Public Education, the least unprepared while Private Higher Education has experienced by years alternative models using technology. Despite, around the world, new findings arose evidencing that students could require emotional support under the confinement due to the extended lockdown and an intense effort to follow their new educative plans revealing behavioral issues as success factors of that extended online education in the emergent strategy.
Based on a statistical model of exploratory factor analysis of data applied to Freshman and Sophomore engineering students, this work presents a roadmap of statistical modelling and testing for the analysis of several dimensions of more effective causal in the success of the forced online education paradigm implementation. In this work we study the system of the votes, the mechanism of the electoral support formation, and also the elements of its dynamics, by analyzing the data from several election processes in Albania.
Firstly, we evidence the specific features and the characteristics of the distributions of votes through a descriptive approach, and next we use those findings to identify the nature of the elementary processes of the agreement, the defects of the system and dynamical issues. The distributions of the votes for the majority or majority-like election as by polling stations reference results a two-parts function.
The part of the distribution located in the small vote fraction fits to a power law or to a q-exponential function, therefore the foremost factor of the electoral support for the subjects populating this zone is based in the preferential attachment rule, with some modification.
Consequently, the small subjects or independent candidates, realize their electoral attractiveness based on the individual performance. Also, their voters act rationally and usually gather sufficient information before deciding to support them. The bell-shaped part of the distribution which describes the votes of the candidates of the main parties, fits better to the q-gaussian functions.
In this case, electoral support is affected strongly by the political activists militants which harvest local influences to convict people producing an extra support for the candidates of big parties, regardless of their performance and electoral values. This physiognomy is characteristic for all legislative and administrative majority voting or other majority-like elections as practically behave the closed-lists elections of , , and also the semi-opened list of the The distributions of the closed-list votes in the administrative elections are mostly of the exponential or q-exponential type.
Also, the distributions based on the data from electoral constituencies which include many polling stations resulted q-exponentials for all types of elections. We connected the q-exponential form of the distribution with the electoral network failures, system deficiencies and heterogeneity effects. In , the distributions of the votes for subjects is obtained similar to the typical recent majority voting distribution, a mix of the power law and q-gaussian functions.
The patterned array of positively charged spots is fabricated through photolithography and etching techniques followed by chemical modification to generate a sequencing flow cell. Each spot on the flow cell is approximately nm in diameter, are separated by nm centre to centre and allows easy attachment of a single negatively charged DNB to the flow cell and thus reducing under or over-clustering on the flow cell.
Sequencing is then performed by addition of an oligonucleotide probe that attaches in combination to specific sites within the DNB. The probe acts as an anchor that then allows one of four single reversibly inactivated, labelled nucleotides to bind after flowing across the flow cell. Unbound nucleotides are washed away before laser excitation of the attached labels then emit fluorescence and signal is captured by cameras that is converted to a digital output for base calling. The attached base has its terminator and label chemically cleaved at completion of the cycle.
The cycle is repeated with another flow of free, labelled nucleotides across the flow cell to allow the next nucleotide to bind and have its signal captured. This process is completed a number of times usually 50 to times to determine the sequence of the inserted piece of DNA at a rate of approximately 40 million nucleotides per second as of Here, a pool of all possible oligonucleotides of a fixed length are labeled according to the sequenced position. Oligonucleotides are annealed and ligated; the preferential ligation by DNA ligase for matching sequences results in a signal informative of the nucleotide at that position.
Each base in the template is sequenced twice, and the resulting data are decoded according to the 2 base encoding scheme used in this method. The resulting beads, each containing single copies of the same DNA molecule, are deposited on a glass slide. Ion Torrent Systems Inc. This method of sequencing is based on the detection of hydrogen ions that are released during the polymerisation of DNA , as opposed to the optical methods used in other sequencing systems.
A microwell containing a template DNA strand to be sequenced is flooded with a single type of nucleotide. If the introduced nucleotide is complementary to the leading template nucleotide it is incorporated into the growing complementary strand. This causes the release of a hydrogen ion that triggers a hypersensitive ion sensor, which indicates that a reaction has occurred.
If homopolymer repeats are present in the template sequence, multiple nucleotides will be incorporated in a single cycle. This leads to a corresponding number of released hydrogens and a proportionally higher electronic signal.
DNA nanoball sequencing is a type of high throughput sequencing technology used to determine the entire genomic sequence of an organism. The company Complete Genomics uses this technology to sequence samples submitted by independent researchers. Unchained sequencing by ligation is then used to determine the nucleotide sequence. Heliscope sequencing is a method of single-molecule sequencing developed by Helicos Biosciences. It uses DNA fragments with added poly-A tail adapters which are attached to the flow cell surface.
The next steps involve extension-based sequencing with cyclic washes of the flow cell with fluorescently labeled nucleotides one nucleotide type at a time, as with the Sanger method. The reads are performed by the Heliscope sequencer. There are two main microfluidic systems that are used to sequence DNA; droplet based microfluidics and digital microfluidics.
Microfluidic devices solve many of the current limitations of current sequencing arrays. Abate et al. Each position on the array tested for a specific 15 base sequence. Fair et al. This study provided a proof of concept showing that digital devices can be used for pyrosequencing; the study included using synthesis, which involves the extension of the enzymes and addition of labeled nucleotides. Boles et al. The sequencing uses a three-enzyme protocol and DNA templates anchored with magnetic beads.
The advantages of these digital microfluidic devices include size, cost, and achievable levels of functional integration. DNA sequencing research, using microfluidics, also has the ability to be applied to the sequencing of RNA , using similar droplet microfluidic techniques, such as the method, inDrops. Another approach uses measurements of the electrical tunnelling currents across single-strand DNA as it moves through a channel.
Depending on its electronic structure, each base affects the tunnelling current differently, [] allowing differentiation between different bases. The use of tunnelling currents has the potential to sequence orders of magnitude faster than ionic current methods and the sequencing of several DNA oligomers and micro-RNA has already been achieved.
Sequencing by hybridization is a non-enzymatic method that uses a DNA microarray. A single pool of DNA whose sequence is to be determined is fluorescently labeled and hybridized to an array containing known sequences. Strong hybridization signals from a given spot on the array identifies its sequence in the DNA being sequenced. This method of sequencing utilizes binding characteristics of a library of short single stranded DNA molecules oligonucleotides , also called DNA probes, to reconstruct a target DNA sequence.
Non-specific hybrids are removed by washing and the target DNA is eluted. The benefit of this sequencing type is its ability to capture a large number of targets with a homogenous coverage. However, with the advent of solution-based hybridization, much less equipment and chemicals are necessary. Mass spectrometry may be used to determine DNA sequences. With this method, DNA fragments generated by chain-termination sequencing reactions are compared by mass rather than by size.
The mass of each nucleotide is different from the others and this difference is detectable by mass spectrometry. Single-nucleotide mutations in a fragment can be more easily detected with MS than by gel electrophoresis alone. The higher resolution of DNA fragments permitted by MS-based methods is of special interest to researchers in forensic science, as they may wish to find single-nucleotide polymorphisms in human DNA samples to identify individuals.
These samples may be highly degraded so forensic researchers often prefer mitochondrial DNA for its higher stability and applications for lineage studies. MS-based sequencing methods have been used to compare the sequences of human mitochondrial DNA from samples in a Federal Bureau of Investigation database [] and from bones found in mass graves of World War I soldiers.
Even so, a recent study did use the short sequence reads and mass spectroscopy to compare single-nucleotide polymorphisms in pathogenic Streptococcus strains. In microfluidic Sanger sequencing the entire thermocycling amplification of DNA fragments as well as their separation by electrophoresis is done on a single glass wafer approximately 10 cm in diameter thus reducing the reagent usage as well as cost.
This approach directly visualizes the sequence of DNA molecules using electron microscopy. The first identification of DNA base pairs within intact DNA molecules by enzymatically incorporating modified bases, which contain atoms of increased atomic number, direct visualization and identification of individually labeled bases within a synthetic 3, base-pair DNA molecule and a 7, base-pair viral genome has been demonstrated.
One end of DNA to be sequenced is attached to another bead, with both beads being placed in optical traps. RNAP motion during transcription brings the beads in closer and their relative distance changes, which can then be recorded at a single nucleotide resolution. The sequence is deduced based on the four readouts with lowered concentrations of each of the four nucleotide types, similarly to the Sanger method.
A method has been developed to analyze full sets of protein interactions using a combination of pyrosequencing and an in vitro virus mRNA display method. The mRNA may then be amplified and sequenced. The combined method was titled IVV-HiTSeq and can be performed under cell-free conditions, though its results may not be representative of in vivo conditions.
According to the sequencing technology to be used, the samples resulting from either the DNA or the RNA extraction require further preparation. For Sanger sequencing, either cloning procedures or PCR are required prior to sequencing. In the case of next-generation sequencing methods, library preparation is required before processing. Several liquid handling instruments are being used for the preparation of higher numbers of samples with a lower total hands-on time:.
The sequencing technologies described here produce raw data that needs to be assembled into longer sequences such as complete genomes sequence assembly. There are many computational challenges to achieve this, such as the evaluation of the raw sequence data which is done by programs and algorithms such as Phred and Phrap. Other challenges have to deal with repetitive sequences that often prevent complete genome assemblies because they occur in many places of the genome.
As a consequence, many sequences may not be assigned to particular chromosomes. The production of raw sequence data is only the beginning of its detailed bioinformatical analysis. Sometimes, the raw reads produced by the sequencer are correct and precise only in a fraction of their length. Using the entire read may introduce artifacts in the downstream analyses like genome assembly, SNP calling, or gene expression estimation. Two classes of trimming programs have been introduced, based on the window-based or the running-sum classes of algorithms.
Human genetics have been included within the field of bioethics since the early s [] and the growth in the use of DNA sequencing particularly high-throughput sequencing has introduced a number of ethical issues. Regents of the University of California ruled that individuals have no property rights to discarded cells or any profits made using these cells for instance, as a patented cell line. However, individuals have a right to informed consent regarding removal and use of cells.
As DNA sequencing becomes more widespread, the storage, security and sharing of genomic data has also become more important. In most of the United States, DNA that is "abandoned", such as that found on a licked stamp or envelope, coffee cup, cigarette, chewing gum, household trash, or hair that has fallen on a public sidewalk, may legally be collected and sequenced by anyone, including the police, private investigators, political opponents, or people involved in paternity disputes.
As of , eleven states have laws that can be interpreted to prohibit "DNA theft". Ethical issues have also been raised by the increasing use of genetic variation screening, both in newborns, and in adults by companies such as 23andMe. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Process of determining the order of nucleotides in DNA molecules. Key components.
History and topics. Introduction History Evolution molecular Population genetics Mendelian inheritance Quantitative genetics Molecular genetics. Personalized medicine. Main article: Metagenomics. Main article: Virology. Main article: Forensic DNA analysis.
Main article: Nucleotide. Main article: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing. Main article: Sanger sequencing. Main article: Shotgun sequencing. Further information: Long-read sequencing. Main article: Single molecule real time sequencing. Main article: Nanopore sequencing. Further information: Short-read sequencing. Main article: Polony sequencing. Main article: Illumina dye sequencing. Main article: Ion semiconductor sequencing.
Main article: DNA nanoball sequencing. Main article: Helicos single molecule fluorescent sequencing. Main article: Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. May Further information: Bioethics. Bioinformatics — Computational analysis of large, complex sets of biological data Cancer genome sequencing DNA computing — Computing using molecular biology hardware DNA field-effect transistor DNA sequencing theory — Biological theory DNA sequencer — A scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process Genographic Project — Citizen science project Genome project Genome sequencing of endangered species — Science Genome skimming — Method of genome sequencing IsoBase Jumping library Nucleic acid sequence — Succession of nucleotides in a nucleic acid Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification Personalized medicine — Medical model that tailors medical practices to the individual patient Protein sequencing — Sequencing of amino acid arrangement in a protein Sequence mining Sequence profiling tool Sequencing by hybridization Sequencing by ligation TIARA database — Database of personal genomics information Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing.
PMID Next-generation sequencing NGS technologies have revolutionized genomic research. PMC Annual Review of Medicine. December Lab on a Chip. July CNN News. Retrieved 17 February BMC Genomics. Annual Review of Virology. Rare-disease genetics in the era of next-generation sequencing: discovery to translation.
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