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      During the late 19th century, Great Britain has become the greatest empire the world has ever known. Hidden within its success, the nation's rigid economic hierarchy dictates the value of one's life solely on status and wealth. To no surprise, the system favors the aristocracy at the top and renders it impossible for the working class to ascend the ranks. William James Moriarty, the second son of the Moriarty household, lives as a regular noble while also being a consultant for the common folk to give them a hand and solve their problems.

      However, deep inside him lies a desire to destroy the current structure that dominates British society and those who benefit from it. Alongside his brothers Albert and Louis, William will do anything it takes to change the filthy world he lives in—even if blood must be spilled. After Makoto Naegi and his fellow survivors escaped Hope's Peak Academy to the world beyond, they soon join the Future Foundation, an organization dedicated to combating despair.

      Just when all seems to be looking up, Naegi is arrested and tried for betrayal due to defending a malicious group of Remnants of Despair. Standing before all of the Future Foundation executives, he finds himself, along with Kyouko Kirigiri and Aoi Asahina, facing an unknown fate. The matter at hand only escalates when the organization's supposedly impenetrable security is hacked into by a familiar face: Monokuma. Much to Naegi's horror, the mechanical bear immediately announces the beginning of a new killing game, as moments later, the first victim appears as a signal for despair to resume its brutal conquest.

      In the conclusion to Danganronpa's gripping tale of hope and despair, Naegi, the Super High School-Level Lucky Student, must once again unravel the mystery as his colleagues and friends begin falling around him. However, there are no more class trials; among the 16 desperate participants, there is only one killer—and their death means the end of this infernal game. After one of his coworkers fails to repay a debt, apathetic bum Kaiji Itou is pressured by loan sharks to settle the large sum of cash.

      Since Kaiji has little money and no future prospects of his own, he is unable to return what his colleague borrowed. Faced with massive financial burdens, Kaiji is given an offer to board the illustrious Espoir—it is said that "one night aboard the ship, and all of your debts will be paid. With the losers of the tournament being subjected to a backbreaking life of indebted servitude, Kaiji must choose his actions—and allies—carefully.

      However, this is only the beginning of a series of gambles that will wager Kaiji's life, testing the full extent of his wits and will to survive. On the islands of Cremona, a vigilante runs amok. Celebrated by some and hunted by others, the notorious "Killer B" takes justice into his own hands, armed with a sharp blade and superhuman abilities.

      Unable to apprehend this renegade, the Royal Investigation Service RIS calls upon the expertise of Keith Flick, a seasoned, yet eccentric detective who was relegated to the Archives Department following a personal loss. As crimes in Cremona begin to escalate, from stealthy executions of wrongdoers to sophisticated strikes on public figures, it soon becomes clear that there is more than one person responsible.

      With the help of his impulsive sidekick Lily Hoshina, and unexpected aid from the elusive Killer B himself, Keith begins to unravel plots involving secret organizations, domestic terrorism, and human experiments. When the involvement of the RIS extends beyond the scope of justice, the extent of the government's corruption—as well as the trustworthiness of close allies—are thrown into question. The Mizuhanome System is a highly advanced development that allows people to enter one of the most intriguing places in existence—the human mind.

      Through the use of so-called "cognition particles" left behind at a crime scene by the perpetrator, detectives from the specialized police squad Kura can manifest a criminal's unconscious mind as a bizarre stream of thoughts in a virtual world. Their task is to explore this psychological plane, called an "id well," to reveal the identity of the culprit.

      Not just anyone can enter the id wells; the prerequisite is that you must have killed someone yourself. Such is the case for former detective Akihito Narihisago, who is known as "Sakaido" inside the id wells. Once a respected member of the police, tragedy struck, and he soon found himself on the other side of the law.

      Nevertheless, Narihisago continues to assist Kura in confinement. While his prodigious detective skills still prove useful toward investigations, Narihisago discovers that not everything is as it seems, as behind the seemingly standalone series of murder cases lurks a much more sinister truth. There, Shinji slowly comes to terms with his past, developing an entirely different life from his days as an Evangelion pilot. Meanwhile, Nerv makes preparations to continue the Instrumentality Project by means of a new Impact.

      When WILLE's main aerial battleship arrives at the village, Shinji decides to board, believing that he can help by piloting an Evangelion. Can Shinji save humanity and the rest of the world one last time? Kimihiro Watanuki can see spirits and other assorted supernatural creatures, which is quite a bothersome ability he strongly dislikes.

      On the way home one day, while plagued by some spirits, he is inexplicably compelled to enter a strange house. There, he encounters Yuuko, a mysterious woman who claims to be able to rid him of the ability to see and attract the troublesome creatures—for a price. She demands that he work at her "store" that grants wishes to people, and thus begins Watanuki's adventures through weird and wonderful events.

      Hope's Peak Academy's unconventional class B is about to have an even more eccentric addition: Chisa Yukizome, an alumna with the title of Super High School-Level Housekeeper—and their new homeroom teacher. Cheerful, passionate, and capable, Chisa immediately sets about correcting the students' problematic behavior and strengthening their relationships.

      It may not be easy dealing with diverse pupils ranging from princesses and nurses to yakuza and impossibly lucky students, but anything is possible with the power of hope. Meanwhile, Hajime Hinata, an unremarkable boy from the school's Reserve Course, longs for a talent. One day, he has an unexpected meeting with class B's Super High School-Level Gamer Chiaki Nanami, who presents to him a new, hope-filled outlook on life. However, unbeknownst to him, the school's upper echelon is about to execute a sinister project centered around Hajime that will bring Hope's Peak—and the rest of the world—to its knees.

      Zetsubou-hen chronicles the daily lives carried out at the talent-cultivating academy, and the darkness that lurks beneath. For the Takakura family, destiny is an ever-spinning wheel, pointing passionately in their direction with equal tides of joy and sorrow before ticking on to the next wishmaker.

      With their parents gone, twin brothers Kanba and Shouma live alone with their beloved little sister Himari, whose poor health cannot decline any further. On the day Himari is given permission to temporarily leave the hospital, her brothers take her out to the aquarium to celebrate, where the family's supposed fate is brought forth with her sudden collapse.

      However, when Himari is inexplicably revived by a penguin hat from the aquarium's souvenir shop, the hand of fate continues to tick faithfully forward. With her miraculous recovery, though, comes a cost: there is a new entity within her body, whose condition for keeping her fate at bay sends the boys on a wild goose chase for the mysterious "Penguin Drum. The "Medicine Seller" is a deadly and mysterious master of the occult who travels across feudal Japan in search of malevolent spirits called "mononoke" to slay.

      When he locates one of these spirits, he cannot simply kill it; he must first learn its Form, its Truth, and its Reason in order to wield the mighty Exorcism Sword and fight against it. He must begin his strange exorcisms with intense psychological analysis and careful investigative work—an extremely dangerous step, as he must first confront and learn about the mononoke before he even has the means to defeat it. The Medicine Seller's journey leads him to an old-fashioned inn where Shino, a pregnant woman, has finally found a place to rest.

      The owner has reluctantly placed her in the last vacant room; however, as she settles in, it quickly becomes clear that the room is infested by a lethal band of mononoke, the Zashiki Warashi. With his hunter's intuition, the Medicine Seller begins his investigation to discover the Form, the Truth, and the Reason before the Zashiki Warashi can kill again.

      Kino, a year-old traveler, forms a bond with Hermes, a talking motorcycle. Together, they wander the lands and venture through various countries and places, despite having no clear idea of what to expect. After all, life is a journey filled with the unknown. Throughout their journeys, they encounter different kinds of customs, from the morally gray to tragic and fascinating. They also meet many people: some who live to work, some who live to make others happy, and some who live to chase their dreams.

      Thus, in every country they visit, there is always something to learn from the way people carry out their lives. It is not up to Kino or Hermes to decide whether these asserted values are wrong or right, as they merely assume the roles of observers within this small world. They do not attempt to change or influence the places they visit, despite how absurd these values would appear.

      That's because in one way or another, they believe things are fine as they are, and that "the world is not beautiful; therefore, it is. Throughout Shibuya, a series of murders dubbed the "New Generation Madness" gained widespread attention As these crimes gained infamy, they became a hot topic of discussion among the people of the area. Nonetheless, these "New Gen" murders do not capture the interest of Takumi Nishijou, a high school otaku who frequently experiences delusions and feels that he is constantly being watched.

      Having no concern for the real world, Takumi spends his time playing online games and watching anime. However, his ordinary life is disrupted when he receives a horrifying image of a man staked to a wall from a user named Shogun.

      After calming himself at an internet cafe, Takumi sees the exact same murder scene as the image portrayed happen right before his eyes, along with a pink-haired girl covered in blood calling out his name. Conflicted with the nature of reality, Takumi finds it difficult to judge where to place his trust as he gets caught up in the "New Gen" murders, believing that the murderer is out to get him.

      Fifty years ago, horrific creatures dubbed as the "enemies of humanity" suddenly appeared around the world. To combat these threats, teenagers gifted with supernatural abilities called "Talents"—such as pyrokinesis and time travel—hone their powers at an academy on a secluded island. Nanao Nakajima, however, is quite different from the others on the island: he has no Talent. With many "Talented" teenagers around him, Nanao is often a target for bullying, but even so, he still strives to complete his training.

      Soon after, two transfer students, the mysterious Kyouya Onodera and the mind-reading Nana Hiiragi, join the class. But just as everyone starts blending as comrades-in-arms, mysterious disappearances begin to threaten the class's entire foundation.

      Satou Matsuzaka is a beautiful high schooler who has a reputation for being permissive with men. However, a chance encounter with a young girl named Shio Koube makes Satou realize that this is her first and only true feeling of love. Telling others that she lives with her aunt, Satou secretly shares an apartment with Shio.

      Despite her innocent appearance, Satou is willing to do anything to protect her beloved, resorting to desperate measures to ensure that their "happy sugar life" remains intact. Suffering from frequent asthma attacks, young Anna Sasaki is quiet, unsociable, and isolated from her peers, causing her foster parent endless worry. Upon recommendation by the doctor, Anna is sent to the countryside, in hope that the cleaner air and more relaxing lifestyle will improve her health and help clear her mind.

      Engaging in her passion for sketching, Anna spends her summer days living with her aunt and uncle in a small town near the sea. One day while wandering outside, Anna discovers an abandoned mansion known as the Marsh House. However, she soon finds that the residence isn't as vacant as it appears to be, running into a mysterious girl named Marnie. Marnie's bubbly demeanor slowly begins to draw Anna out of her shell as she returns night after night to meet with her new friend.

      But it seems there is more to the strange girl than meets the eye—as her time in the town nears its end, Anna begins to discover the truth behind the walls of the Marsh House. Omoide no Marnie tells the touching story of a young girl's journey through self-discovery and friendship, and the summer that she will remember for the rest of her life. Born from a cocoon in the village of Old Home, a young Haibane—a being with a halo and small gray wings—awakens to a world she does not understand without memories of her past.

      Named Rakka for the dream of falling she had while inside the cocoon, she soon becomes accustomed to life in the strange town. However, there are strict rules for the Haibane, such as being forbidden to leave the village or go near the walls surrounding it. These, along with mysterious disappearances of their kind on their "Day of Flight," begin to unsettle Rakka and the others since they know almost nothing about their own kind. Haibane Renmei tells not only Rakka's story but also of those around her, as they live their lives with no memories of the past while trying to break free from their former pain and ultimately find salvation.

      Rika Furude and her group of friends live in the small mountain village of Hinamizawa; in June , they welcome transfer student Keiichi Maebara into their ranks, making him the only boy in their group. After school, they have fun playing games and spending each day living their lives to the fullest.

      Despite this seemingly normal routine, Keiichi begins noticing strange behavior from his friends, who seem to be hiding the town's dark secrets from him. Elsewhere, a certain person watches these increasingly unsettling events unfold and remembers all the times that this, and other similar stories, have played out. Using that knowledge, this person decides to fix these broken worlds.

      However, when certain variables change, the individual is faced with a horrifying realization: they have no idea what to expect or how to stop the impending tragedy. Thanks to the Sibyl System, the mental states of society can now be measured on a numerical scale. Using these "crime coefficients," a culprit can be apprehended before they ever commit a crime.

      But is it a perfect system? Shindou and Ignatov are assigned to investigate the crash of a ship carrying immigrants, but they begin to suspect that it was no mere accident. Meanwhile, a mysterious group called Bifrost is observing them from the shadows, but they aren't the only ones who have taken an interest in the two new Inspectors In the year , more than a decade has passed since the catastrophic event known as Second Impact befell mankind.

      During this time of recovery, a select few learned of beings known as the Angels—colossal malevolent entities with the intention of triggering the Third Impact and wiping out the rest of humanity. Called into the city of Tokyo-3 by his father Gendou Ikari, teenager Shinji is thrust headlong into humanity's struggle.

      Separated from Gendou since the death of his mother, Shinji presumes that his father wishes to repair their shattered familial bonds; instead, he discovers that he was brought to pilot a giant machine capable of fighting the Angels, Evangelion Unit Forced to battle against wave after wave of mankind's greatest threat, the young boy finds himself caught in the middle of a plan that could affect the future of humanity forever.

      Former baseball player turned delinquent Taishi Fura accidentally witnesses the man-eating "ghoul" known as Lantern injuring his old friend and murdering another. Seeking revenge for his friends, Fura joins forces with Arima to hunt down ghouls in the 13th Ward—ultimately aiming to bring down Lantern. Tokyo Ghoul: "Jack" unveils snippets of life in the past for the CCG's fearsome "Reaper," Arima, giving insight into how he spent his high school days.

      Two men have just arrived at a location known as Quindecim and are unable to remember how they got there. They are immediately greeted by a young woman who escorts them to a small bar, where a bartender awaits them. They are told that they will have to participate in a game, randomly chosen by roulette, and will be unable to leave until its completion; if they refuse, the consequences will be dire.

      In addition to the rules of the game, the two men are told to play as if their lives are at stake. The game that has been chosen is billiards. But there's more to it than just pocketing pool balls, as the two are about to find out the outcome could mean life or death. In the dark underground city of Lux, people live in fear and despair under the rule of various criminal factions.

      Available only in Lux, this rare substance is the basis of "texhnolyze" transplants that permit humans to replace parts of their body with cybernetic prostheses. The latter have the particularity not to trigger an immune response in their hosts and the "Class" has the privilege to conduct research on them. This elusive organization, also in charge of the raffia production, delegates its executive authority to a group called Organo led by Keigo Oonishi—a self-righteous man with texhnolyzed legs who is rumored to hear the "voice of the city.

      In the midst of the chaos, new actors emerge: Ichise, an ex-boxer mutilated by Organo and recently texhnolyzed by Eriko "Doc" Kamata; and Ran, a young florist who can see the future. While Lux steadily plunges into insanity, both Ichise and Ran find themselves involved in the greatest crisis the city has ever faced. Toua Tokuchi is a prodigy when it comes to both baseball and gambling. Pitching nothing but mediocre fastballs, he has made a name for himself by attaining consecutive victories in the game of "One Outs," a one-on-one showdown between a pitcher and a batter.

      Despite his remarkable abilities, however, Tokuchi sees the sport as nothing more than a way to make some quick money. When Hiromichi Kojima, a legendary hitter for the Saikyou Saitama Lycaons, witnesses Tokuchi's skills firsthand, he realizes that the man might be exactly what the team needs to get out of their slump. Determined to recruit Tokuchi no matter what, Kojima places his own career on the line and defeats Tokuchi at his own specialty—One Outs.

      Forced to become a Lycaon, Tokuchi soon finds himself at odds with the team's owner, Tsuneo Saikawa. After Saikawa refuses to give him a reasonable salary, Tokuchi proposes a special contract: pitching an out will earn him five million yen, but giving up a run will cost him fifty million.

      With every game having the potential to either make or break him, will Tokuchi be able to outwit those who stand in his way? Covered in ice and snow, Elior Forest is the home to dangerous magical beasts and 50 elves frozen in ice. One day, the great spirit Puck helps a young girl break out of her ice prison. Her name is Emilia, a half-elf born with silver hair, long ears, and amethyst eyes—features that resemble the evil Witch who destroyed half the world long ago.

      Shunned by society because of her appearance, Emilia dwells in the forest with Puck as her sole companion and family. Burdened with a sin of destruction she does not remember committing, she spends her days trying to find a way to help her frozen kin. But when the great spirit Melakuera, the Arbitrator of the world, finds Emilia, her right to stay alive is brought into question. Will the bonds of ice she formed with Puck prove to be the warm thread that defies fate?

      Hushed exchanges among the female student populace of Shinyo Academy center around an enigmatic supernatural entity. This entity is Boogiepop, a Shinigami who is rumored to murder people at the height of their beauty before their allure wanes. Few know of his true nature: a guardian who, between periods of dormancy, manifests as the alter ego of a high school girl named Touka Miyashita to fend off "the enemies of the world.

      But somewhere in the academy, a menacing creature hides, waiting for its opportune moment to strike. Boogiepop wa Warawanai subtly explores the intrinsic associations between human beings and their perception of time, while delving into its characters' complex relationships, emotions, memories, and pasts. A bus full of eccentric individuals is headed towards the urban legend known as Nanaki Village, a place where one can supposedly start over and live a perfect life.

      While many have different ideas of why the village cannot be found on any map, or why even the police cannot pinpoint its location, they each look forward to their new lives and just what awaits them once they reach their destination.

      After a few mishaps, they successfully arrive at Nanaki Village only to find it completely abandoned. Judging from the state of disrepair, it has been vacant for at least a year. However, secrets are soon revealed as some of the group begin to go missing while exploring the village and amidst the confusion, they find bloody claw marks in a forest. As mistrust and in-fighting break out, will they ever be able to figure out the truth behind this lost village?

      Every day, Aya Asagiri thinks about killing herself. She is bullied relentlessly at school, and at home, her older brother Kaname physically abuses her to relieve the academic stress put on him by their father. One night, as she lies awake wishing for death, a mysterious website called Magical Girl Site appears on her laptop, promising to give her magical powers.

      At first, she dismisses it as a creepy prank, but when she finds a magical gun in her shoe locker the next day, she doesn't know what to believe. Deciding to take it with her, she soon runs into her bullies once again. But this time, desperate for anything to save her, she uses the gun—and her assailants are transported to a nearby railroad crossing, where they are run over. Aya's conscience is unable to handle the fact that she murdered two of her classmates with magic, and she desperately tries to understand the situation.

      However, when she finds herself in trouble again, she is saved by Tsuyuno Yatsumura, a classmate who can use magic to stop time. This duo has a lot to do: not only do they have to fight alongside and against other magical girls, but they also need to uncover the truth behind the website and the apocalyptic event known as "The Tempest" that is soon to occur. Considered as the third installment in the highly popular When They Cry series by 07th Expansion, Umineko no Naku Koro ni takes place on the island of Rokkenjima, owned by the immensely wealthy Ushiromiya family.

      As customary per year, the entire family is gathering on the island for a conference that discusses the current financial situations of each respective person. Because of the family head's poor health, this year involves the topic of the head of the family's inheritance and how it will be distributed. However, the family is unaware that the distribution of his wealth is the least of Ushiromiya Kinzou's family head concerns for this year's family conference.

      After being told that his end was approaching by his longtime friend and physician, Kinzou is desperate to meet his life's true love one last time: the Golden Witch, Beatrice. Having immersed himself in black magic for many of the later years in his life, Kinzou instigates a ceremony to revive his beloved upon his family's arrival on Rokkenjima.

      Soon after, a violent typhoon traps the family on the island and a string of mysterious murders commence, forcing the eighteen people on the island to fight for their lives in a deadly struggle between fantasy and reality. Ningen Shikkaku A high school student seeks solace in narcotics to escape the dispiritedness that has come over his life. As he goes through the different stages of his life, it culminates in the questioning of his existence in the world.

      Sakura no Mori no Mankai no Shita The adaptation of Ango Sakaguchi's literary work deals with the love story of a woman abducted by a mountain bandit. Kokoro While trying to fill the void in his life, a university student in Tokyo encounters a charismatic older man, whom he addresses as "Sensei," who offers him advice on life. However, the man is apprehensive to share his life experience, deepening the student's curiosity. Through this peculiar relationship, the student comes to ponder about the distance between him and his family and the growing desolation in his heart filled with ego and guilt.

      Hashire, Melos! The story portrays the unbreakable bond between two friends, Melos and Selinuntius, and their faith in protecting each other, all while dangling on a thread which hovers over death and misery. Kumo no Ito Kandata is a coldhearted criminal who, while being punished in Hell for his misdeeds, is noticed by the Buddha Shakyamuni. Despite maintaining a record of committing ruthless atrocities, Kandata had once shown mercy to a spider he encountered in the forest by letting it live.

      Moved by this, Shakyamuni offers him redemption by dropping a spider's thread into the searing pits of Hell, and it is up to Kandata to seize the opportunity. Jigokuhen Yoshihide is a great painter in the land ruled by Horikawa, a tyrant. Offered a commission to paint the "Buddhist Hell" by the lord, Yoshihide declines, as he cannot paint anything he has not witnessed himself. In an attempt to make Yoshihide understand the magnitude of his request, the lord tortures his subjects to provide inspiration for the artist, descending his domain into utter despair and darkness.

      A girl at his school, Saeki Nanako, is his muse and his Venus, and he admires her from a distance. One day, he forgets his copy of Les Fleurs du Mal in the classroom and runs back alone to pick it up. In the classroom, he finds not only his book, but Saeki's gym uniform.

      On a mad impulse, he steals it. Now everyone knows "some pervert" stole Saeki's uniform, and Kasuga is dying with shame and guilt. Furthermore, the weird, creepy, and friendless girl of the class, Nakamura, saw him take the uniform. Instead of revealing it was him, she recognizes his kindred deviant spirit and uses her knowledge to take control of his life.

      Will it be possible for Kasuga to get closer to Saeki, despite Nakamura's meddling and his dark secret? What exactly does Nakamura intend to do with him? Source: MangaHelpers. Shuu Tsukiyama is a "ghoul": a creature who eats human flesh, and he likes to enjoy his meals to the fullest. One night, while relishing in the premeditated murder of his dinner, Shuu's much anticipated first bite is disturbed by a sudden flash of light.

      The flash turns out to be from the camera of high schooler Chie Hori, who presents Shuu with the perfect picture capturing his true nature; the extremely clear shot of a bloody corpse and an overly excited Shuu threatens to expose his ghoul identity, thus Shuu needs to sort out this situation quickly. After Shuu discovers that Chie attends the same high school as him and is even in the same class, the reason behind his feelings of obsession changes from self-preservation to morbid curiosity.

      As he grows closer to the absent-minded and extremely odd photographer, he challenges them both to learn more about each other's conflicting worlds; Shuu promises that Chie will come out of this experience with a photograph superior to the one she already has. Years ago, a tragic incident befell a young princess when both her parents died. Devastated, it seemed nothing would calm this poor soul. However, a prince traveling through the area came to see the princess, hoping to cheer her up.

      After wiping her sorrowful tears, the prince gave her a ring carrying a rose emblem and told her as long as she holds onto the ring, they are destined to meet again. The event leaves a deep impression on the girl, Utena Tenjou, leading her to become a prince herself. Years later, Utena attends Ootori Academy, recognized by the same rose emblem as her precious ring's. There, attracted by the scent of roses, she witnesses Anthy Himemiya tending the flowers, accompanied by the Student Council President Touga Kiryuu and Vice President Kyouichi Saionji, who seem to be arguing over Anthy.

      While Utena thinks nothing of the occurrence, the Student Council gathers to discuss an important matter. Subsequently, a misunderstanding leads to Utena being dragged into the world of Duelists—those with rings similar to her own.

      The Duelists fight for the ownership of the Rose Bride, Anthy Himemiya, who is said to possess great power. Wanting to prove her capabilities as a prince, and enraged that Anthy is being wronged and objectified, Utena resolves to fight against the Duelists to save her from the cruel fate.

      Great Britain is ablaze with news of a so-called "Lord of Crime," a criminal mastermind responsible for the downfall of several unruly nobles. In truth, the Lord of Crime is not an individual, but rather a group consisting of William James Moriarty and his two brothers, Louis and Albert. Together, they wish to destroy everything rotten about their current world and create a new, fair society for all. To accomplish their goal, they must commit criminal acts, which the great detective Sherlock Holmes and his partner, John H.

      Watson, cannot abide by. A dangerous cat and mouse game begins between the Lord of Crime and Sherlock, with each trying to outwit the other. Yet Sherlock, despite his skills, has no idea that his foe is right under his nose. Involved with both parties is a woman named Irene Adler, who is as beautiful as she is cunning. No stranger to scandal, Irene has embroiled herself in one that may be too big even for her, as the classified documents she stole could shake the very foundations of the British Empire.

      Can Irene be saved, or does a deadly future await her? Though Sayaka Miki's wish was fulfilled, the unforeseen consequences that came with it overwhelm her, causing her soul gem to become tainted as she succumbs to despair and eventually loses her humanity. Homura Akemi reveals to Kyouko Sakura and Madoka Kaname the ultimate fate of magical girls: once their soul gem becomes tainted, it transforms into a Grief Seed, and they are reborn as witches—a truth Homura learned only through repeating history countless times in a bid to prevent Madoka's tragedy.

      Kyuubey only compounds their despair when he confesses his true intentions: to harness the energy created from magical girls and use it to prolong the life of the universe. As the threat of Walpurgisnacht, a powerful witch, looms overhead, Homura once again vows to protect Madoka and the world from a grim fate. Caught between honoring Homura's wish and saving the world, which one will Madoka choose in the end? When approached by a fellow death god tempted to visit the human realm, Ryuk recounts his own journey to the other side and the story of Light Yagami—a brilliant young man who impressed him there.

      One day at school, Light stumbles upon Ryuk's lost Death Note and realizes it is not an ordinary notebook. He learns that it has the ability to kill every person whose name is written inside, provided that the user can visualize the victim's face. Having long deplored the decadence of current society, Light believes this sinister weapon offers him an unexpected opportunity: to eradicate all evil and bring about a new ideal world. Following a string of fatal heart attacks, the authorities start to suspect that the alarming number of dead criminals is not coincidental.

      Determined to uncover the mysterious culprit, they join forces with L, an internationally renowned detective. As the death count escalates, Light and L clash in a breathtaking confrontation of wits and deception—a duel that will decide the future of humanity. Madoka Kaname and her best friend Sayaka Miki are ordinary middle school students in the city of Mitakihara.

      But one day, they encounter a strange cat-like creature named Kyuubey, who claims he can grant them one wish. In exchange, they would become magical girls and fight against evil perpetrated by witches. A veteran magical girl in the area, Mami Tomoe, decides to show them how to hunt witches, while the mysterious transfer student Homura Akemi warns them to not take Kyuubey's deal, though she refuses to say why. However, after witnessing the brutal reality of fighting witches, the girls decide it may be safer to decline Kyuubey's offer.

      But when another magical girl arrives in the city and Sayaka decides to make a wish to help the one she loves, things quickly escalate as they are confronted with the harsh truth behind their powers and the ultimate price of their wishes. Having been accepted into the Kaede Inn, Nana struggles to find some way to contribute, though she inadvertently brings more trouble than assistance.

      However, Nana's worries are directed more towards fellow resident Nyu, whom she had only known as Lucy, the violent Diclonius. Fearful that Nyu will unleash the same horrific savagery—violence that scars Nana to this day—upon those close to her, Nana faces a dilemma: attempt to live peacefully alongside Lucy with all the uncertainty that that entails or dispose of the source of her worries, shattering the relationships she has formed at the inn.

      As Nana struggles to come to a decision, Nyu recalls a painful memory of one of her dearest friends and one of her greatest rivals. However, when the funds for the upcoming school trip are stolen, the incident causes Shiho and Makoto—who had been tasked with collecting the money—to distance themselves from the rest of their class.

      Soon after, Yuuichi and his friends are deceived into meeting up and knocked unconscious by unknown assailants. After waking, the group find themselves confined in a white room with controversial figure Manabu-kun, who reveals that one of the five has gathered them together to clear their personal debt of twenty million yen. To pay off the amount, they must participate in a variety of psychological games that will test the true nature of their friendship and humanity.

      Distressed and isolated from the outside world, Yuuichi and his friends need to cooperate to complete the games. But as their concealed feelings and problematic pasts begin to surface, their seemingly unbreakable bond may soon shatter into irreparable pieces. The infamous series of unexplainable murders in Hinamizawa have been solved and the chains of fate have broken due to the efforts of Rika Furude and her friends.

      Rika believes she has finally obtained the normal and peaceful life she desired with her friends; however, she is proven wrong when the wheels of fate begin turning once again after an unfortunate accident. Rika suddenly finds herself in a "perfect" world, the constant cycle of brutal killings having never taken place, where all of her friends are content and satisfied.

      Not wanting to abandon the world that she fought so hard for, she learns she must destroy an essential "key" to get back. But can Rika abandon the faultless world she is given the chance to live in, after all of her battles have brought her this far? Hide Ads Login Sign Up. New About Me Designs for your profile! Try by June 27 to enter giveaway. Content Filter More Info.

      Click once to include and twice to exclude Clear All. Death Note. TV, Finished 37 eps , 23 min. Supernatural Suspense. Theme Psychological. Demographic Shounen. Add to List. Tokyo Ghoul. TV, Finished 12 eps , 24 min. Action Fantasy Horror. Themes Gore Psychological. Demographic Seinen. TV, Finished 24 eps , 24 min. Drama Sci-Fi Suspense. Source Visual novel.

      Themes Psychological Time Travel. TV, Finished 25 eps , 25 min. Drama Fantasy Suspense. Re:Zero kara Hajimeru Isekai Seikatsu. Source Light novel. Themes Isekai Psychological Time Travel. TV, Finished 26 eps , 23 min. Action Supernatural Suspense. Mirai Nikki TV. TV, Finished 12 eps , 23 min. Boku dake ga Inai Machi. Yakusoku no Neverland The Promised Neverland.

      TV, Finished 12 eps , 22 min. Mystery Sci-Fi Suspense. Yakusoku no Neverland. Themes Psychological Survival. TV, Finished 24 eps , 23 min. Action Horror Sci-Fi. Kiseijuu: Sei no Kakuritsu. Neon Genesis Evangelion. TV, Finished 26 eps , 24 min. Source Original.

      Themes Mecha Psychological. Death Parade. Drama Supernatural Suspense. TV, Finished 22 eps , 23 min. Action Sci-Fi Suspense. Themes Adult Cast Detective Psychological. TV, Finished 12 eps , 25 min. Kaguya-sama wa Kokurasetai: Tensai-tachi no Renai Zunousen. Themes Psychological Romantic Subtext School.

      Elfen Lied. TV, Finished 13 eps , 25 min. Action Drama Horror Romance Supernatural. Drama Mystery. Drama Suspense. Themes Mahou Shoujo Psychological. Kaguya-sama wa Kokurasetai? Tensai-tachi no Renai Zunousen.

      Zankyou no Terror Terror in Resonance. TV, Finished 11 eps , 22 min. Mystery Suspense. Zankyou no Terror. Tokyo Ghoul:re. TV, Finished 13 eps , 27 min. Themes Psychological School. TV, Finished 74 eps , 24 min. Drama Mystery Suspense. Themes Adult Cast Psychological. TV, Finished 13 eps , 24 min. Horror Mystery. Sci-Fi Suspense. Yakusoku no Neverland 2nd Season. Movie, Finished 1 ep , 86 min.

      Avant Garde Drama Sci-Fi. Action Sci-Fi. Horror Mystery Supernatural Suspense. Higurashi no Naku Koro ni. Tokyo Ghoul:re 2nd Season. Drama Slice of Life. Themes Anthropomorphic Psychological School. OVA, Finished 6 eps , 25 min. Themes Mecha Parody Psychological. Shinsekai yori From the New World. TV, Finished 25 eps , 22 min. Shinsekai yori. TV, Finished 12 eps , 28 min. Welcome to the N. Comedy Drama Romance. Themes Otaku Culture Psychological. Serial Experiments Lain.

      TV, Finished 13 eps , 23 min. Wonder Egg Priority. Drama Fantasy. Psycho-Pass 2. TV, Finished 11 eps , 23 min. Ergo Proxy. TV, Finished 23 eps , 25 min. Mystery Sci-Fi. Satsuriku no Tenshi Angels of Death. TV, Finished 16 eps , 23 min. Adventure Horror Suspense. Satsuriku no Tenshi. Perfect Blue. Movie, Finished 1 ep , 81 min. Avant Garde Drama Horror. Themes Adult Cast Psychological Showbiz. Inuyashiki Inuyashiki: Last Hero. Action Drama Sci-Fi. Koukaku Kidoutai Ghost in the Shell. Movie, Finished 1 ep , 82 min.

      Koukaku Kidoutai. Zetsuen no Tempest Blast of Tempest. Action Drama Fantasy Mystery. Zetsuen no Tempest. Grisaia no Kajitsu The Fruit of Grisaia. Drama Romance. Grisaia no Kajitsu. Themes Harem Psychological School. TV, Finished 22 eps , 22 min. Themes Psychological Vampire. TV, Airing 12 eps , 23 min. Comedy Suspense. Kaguya-sama wa Kokurasetai: Ultra Romantic. Evangelion: 1.

      Movie, Finished 1 ep , min. Evangelion: 2. Movie, Finished 1 ep , 90 min. Mystery Supernatural Suspense. Higurashi no Naku Koro ni Kai. Horror Mystery Slice of Life. Themes Psychological School Survival. Comedy Mystery Romance. Yojouhan Shinwa Taikei. Evangelion: 3. Movie, Finished 1 ep , 95 min. Grisaia no Rakuen The Eden of Grisaia.

      TV, Finished 10 eps , 23 min. Grisaia no Rakuen. Studio 8bit. Themes Harem Psychological. Beastars 2nd Season. Mousou Dairinin Paranoia Agent. Mousou Dairinin. Themes Detective Psychological. OVA, Finished 1 ep , 29 min. Mirai Nikki: Redial. Jigoku Shoujo Hell Girl. TV, Finished 26 eps , 25 min. Horror Mystery Supernatural. Jigoku Shoujo. TV, Finished 13 eps , 22 min. Themes Gore Psychological Survival. Platinum End. Drama Supernatural.

      Yuukoku no Moriarty Moriarty the Patriot. Yuukoku no Moriarty. Themes Historical Psychological. Action Horror Mystery. Gyakkyou Burai Kaiji: Ultimate Survivor. B: The Beginning. ONA, Finished 12 eps , 23 min. Action Mystery Supernatural Suspense. Comedy Drama Mystery Supernatural.

      Mawaru Penguindrum Penguindrum. Avant Garde Comedy Drama Mystery. Mawaru Penguindrum. Fantasy Horror Mystery Supernatural. Action Adventure Slice of Life. Kino no Tabi: The Beautiful World. Themes Iyashikei Psychological. TV, Finished 12 eps , 27 min. Mystery Sci-Fi Supernatural. Munou na Nana Talentless Nana. Munou na Nana.

      Themes Psychological Super Power. Happy Sugar Life. Drama Girls Love Horror. Omoide no Marnie. Haibane Renmei. Drama Fantasy Mystery Slice of Life. Courtesy Historiographical Institute, Tokyo University. Courtesy National Museum of Japanese History.

      From Ukai , vol. From Chikamatsu , Zashiki ayatsuri otogi gunki, vol. Courtesy Eisei Bunko, Tokyo. Fuji from the mouth of the harbor at Mingzhou. Fuji at the center. Fuji, private collection. Courtesy Kyoto University Library.

      Courtesy Tokyo National Museum. Katsushika Hokusai, Fugaku hyakkei, 3 vols. Fuji from the Orankai coast. Akizato Fuji from the Korean coast. Courtesy of the Minneapolis Institute of Art. Fuji atop the rain cloud calls up a storm to blow Rutherford Alcock and his party down off the slopes of Mt. Courtesy of the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum.

      Courtesy Chazen Museum of Art. Courtesy National Diet Library. Photo courtesy Shin Kisu. Ntozake Shange1 … So basic is the cleavage that a decisive component of the self-identity of Jews and Arabs [in Jerusalem] alike is not who they are, but rather, who they are not…. Meron Benvenisti2 … When you turn the corner and run into yourself, then you know that you have turned all the corners that are left. Is that clear? He pretends to look at himself in the Executioner. Mirror that glorifies me! Image that I can touch, I love you….

      To the Thief And without you too, my child. Ah, what a fine trio we make! My being a judge is an emanation of your being a thief. For Freud, among many psychoanalytic philosophers, such discourses of difference are primary, fighting, as it were, against discourses of similitude. At the collective level, as well, Freud returns often to a discourse of difference, stated most forcefully in Civilization and Its Discontents.

      Genet, Freud et al. The protective convoy of consociates buffers us from atomization and anomie, fixes us in the body social, and constitutes meaning in our lives. On the other hand, a community of Confucian and Buddhist heritage did little to inhibit intense and sometimes virulent discourses of distinction and mutual disdain between Japan and Korea in premodern times.

      One of my college roommates was from Brooklyn, another from Oregon; I was from a Westchester suburb so close that the Empire State Building was visible on clear days. In the chapters that follow, I attempt to unravel some strands of this interplay of similitude and difference in the popular culture of early modern Japan ca. Two multivolume series, Yoshida Nobuyuki, et al. In recent English-language scholarship, Howell ; Ooms In that era, Japanese merchants, pirates, and adventurers voyaging as far afield as the Gulf of Bengal crossed paths with the Europeans who had entered East Asian waters in the wake of Columbus, da Gama, and Magellan.

      These early overseas encounters have left no impression in the Japanese record, however. It was only when the new European Other arrived in Japan in the s that these radical alterities impinged sufficiently on the consciousness of record-keepers—diarists, chroniclers, letter-writers, artists—to be inscribed in durable form. What the encounter with radical difference meant to Europe or Africa, the Americas or China, for example, is beyond the scope of this brief study.

      In Japan, the confrontation with the radical alterities of Europe, of the Americas, and of a maritime and continental Asia beyond China undermined long-standing cosmologies, introduced a theretofore unimaginable multitude of possible Others and provoked a crisis of collective identity. Japanese, as much as Spaniards and Caribs, English and Algonquians, French and Iroquoians, Portuguese and Goans, experienced the collapse of long-established cosmologies under the weight of a suddenly expanded universe of Others.

      In the metaphor of Sangoku, however, Korea was most often subsumed within Shintan and, as we shall see below, Koreans were visually represented as indistinguishable from Chinese. In the opening chapter of Tale of Genji ca. Alcock , , de Fonblanque , , and Hall , 84; 88—89; ; , for similar encounters.

      Ishii —97 , ; Taigai : — Rather than a monograph that builds along a single line of narrative and argument to a conclusion that resolves a single informing hypothesis, it is a series of interlocked essays, deep soundings in the shifting shoals of identity and difference that emerged in early modern Japan. While each chapter both builds on and undergirds its companions, their relation to each other and to the larger project has more in common with the spokes that sustain a wheel—all radiating from a common hub, supporting a common rim—that may be steered in many directions, than they do with a road or rail line that goes only in one.

      Setting aside, for the moment, such matters as political structures and legal frameworks—which, of course, were not constant in any case—questions of what constituted Japan, in terms of both human and territorial geography, were resolved quite differently in both Japanese and foreign consciousness. For the former view, see Toby b ; for the latter, Roberts and Ravina Still, they will have to serve, subject to the caveat that they are terms of convenience and approximation.

      See, for example, Ozawa and Maruyama On early modern diaries, Plutschow ; Komiya ; Fukaya Between Engagement and Imagination 9 considerable travel expenses with gratuities from poetry circles in rural communities from one end of the country to the other. It is indeed remarkable how few the images of women appear in Japanese representation of Other peoples and Other lands.

      After a brief dalliance with a bigendered world of Other in late sixteenth and early seventeenth century visual texts, artists largely effaced women from the vision of the peoples there. Tadateru — , a mid-level bakufu functionary, compiled Shinzoku kibun while serving as magistrate of Nagasaki. See Chapter 2 for a discussion. For a provocative use of Shinzoku kibun as a source on customs of the Qing, see Bray ; see also Yamamoto ; Muramatsu Though Nakagawa intended only to produce a handbook for port officials in their dealings with Chinese merchants, when Shinzoku kibun was published, it proved quite popular well beyond official circles, an index of rising interest in foreign peoples and customs in the early nineteenth century.

      Yet voices inaudible in the written record may be recovered, heard in a chorus of nonverbal utterances. From the first, of course, I was aware that early modern artists, printmakers, and book illustrators had produced images of aliens who had visited Japan— Europeans, Koreans, Ryukyuans, Chinese, and others. But the depiction of the Koreans or Ryukyuans themselves, the manner of their representation, the representational codes instantiated in those depictions—these did not yet seem to me at the time to hold their own messages.

      It was not until the mid to late s that these images spoke to me as more than illustrations of the political, diplomatic, or ideological phenomena that had theretofore interested me most. A chance request from Michael Cooper, then editor of Monumenta Nipponica, transformed my approach to the visual archive. Sin, a successful filmmaker and entrepreneur, had edited a volume and produced a documentary film on Edo-era Korean missions to Japan that introduced what, it was becoming clear, was a vast and variegated range of representations across the entire spectrum of early modern expressive culture— not only in painting and sculpture, but in kabuki and festival performance, in fiction and verse.

      What I had expected to be a brief note on the two paintings transformed my understanding of visual representation. The brief research note grew as I encountered more and more visual representations and began to understand their significance as alternatives or counterpoints to the usual textual sources into a page article that appeared in My approach to nonverbal texts, not just pictures but also parades, dramas, and other forms of performance as well as artifacts, costumes, and fashion, owes a significant debt to earlier work in my original discipline of history and to the disciplines of anthropology and art history.

      I have been, I suppose, more eclectic and idiosyncratic in grazing those neighboring fields, an eclecticism informed more by the needs of practice than by a unitary theoretical or philosophical stance. Throughout, that is, I have proceeded from the materials that confront me and the questions that compel me to examination of theorists, methodologists, and other practitioners whose work seems to offer the promise of pathways to the goal.

      I take this to require the outside interpreter—whether from another time, another place, or another social class—to inhabit the context in which practices and representations were either produced or, particularly when reception is at issue, consumed. This is not to enjoin other modes of interpretation, as the way van Gogh and other early Impressionists interpreted, say, a print by Suzuki Harunobu, or how Picasso saw a Yoruba mask. It is only to say that a historically or ethnographically situated interpretation, one that strives to approach and represent the signification attached to a text in its moment of production or reception, demands a thoroughly different battery of commitments.

      Those commitments are both empirical and hermeneutical. How, for example, did they reckon time or space34? How did they construct gender? Conceive of power? And so on. This may be an ideal, but it is not entirely unattainable. Though it may seem tautological, at one level, the need to inhabit moments in which particular texts were produced or consumed entails immersion in myriad texts from those moments.

      Much as the acquisition of language ultimately—actually, quite early—leads to the production of entirely new, unique utterances that nonetheless signify meanings, producer and receiver are quite likely to agree on and share the vocabulary inhabited by the participants, precisely because they are informed by the rules of grammar and syntax. Words that seemed strange become familiar, significations that were obscure become apparent through repeated, ceaseless participation in the production and consumption of texts.

      Between Engagement and Imagination 15 an important turning point in the development of my own thinking about the ways that pictures and other historical objects mediate not only action but meaning, how they may be not only the products of purpose but the producers of action and ideas. Both Baker and the directors of North British who employed him were intensely conscious of the bridge as public proclamations of their respective identities that was produced for an anticipated structure of reception that they knew informed public consciousness.

      The bridge, no less than the Portrait of Kahnweiler, could mean something only in the context of its reception; to that extent, the bridge and the Portrait were co-productions not only between patron and producer but also between them and their audience. For a sampling of views, Livingston ; ; Byrne ; Bevir ; Brown That is, not necessarily did a particular producer intend or a particular consumer understand the text in this way, but could she have done so? Did the discourse in which the creative or hermeneutic act occurred support such a set of meanings as possible?

      This is, after all, the closest we can come to an identity between sign and signification. The south face of the screen allowed the emperor to gaze across the seas and back a millennium or more, to look upon the Pond of Brilliance built at the command of the Chinese emperor Wudi of the Han dynasty r.

      The current iterations date from These scenes were familiar, for Japanese emperors had gazed upon them daily for time out of mind, yet strange, for the screens were populated by creatures seen nowhere else. As the Emperor Juntoku r. It is painted in ink on silken screens. For further discussion of the screens, Ienaga , 29— No, to be more accurate, one stood—on long, spindly legs—carrying another on his shoulders, a wild-eyed, shaggy-bearded creature, gripping his burden with stubby, spindly arms that seemed useful for nothing else.

      The emperor confronted—guarded against—distorted, wild and even threatening, primitive, almost-but-not-quite-human creatures, who lacked even the most rudimentary of technologies; their only means of survival was to gather what food they could with their bare hands. Daily, since the ninth century, Japanese emperors had thus confronted the Other upon arising in the morning and before lying down at night, symbolically protecting Japan from foreign dangers. Ironically, the outer face of the screen presented to the would-be voyeur a more familiar vista, of Japanese fishermen casting their nets in the rushing waters of the Uji River just southeast of the Heian capital.

      Kara-take; Ch. My italics. My rendering differs from McKinney and Morris Kure-take; Ch. The south face of the screen allowed the emperor to gaze across the seas and back a millennium or more, to look upon the Pond of Brilliance built at the command of the Han Dynasty Chinese emperor Wudi r. His morning ablutions completed, the emperor was dressed by his attendants and partook of a light breakfast before proceeding along roofed corridors to the Purple Pavilion.

      He entered and arranged himself on the raised dais, within the half-revealing curtains of state. In his bedchambers and in his chambers of state he confronted and controlled Other, by regular, regulated juxtaposition with himself. Rather, I approach the screens along a different vector of significations that emphasizes the need for an ever-present Other in the construction of identity.

      Retired emperors, however, were freer to move about. The retired emperors Go-Toba —; r. By the late sixteenth century, long after Japanese emperors had begun to situate themselves in reference to representations of the Other, their temporal power had been reduced to nil, overwhelmed and absorbed by a series of martial monarchs—shoguns—who derived their authority first from the sword and only later from less martial sources. As they did so, they commissioned their own programs of public architecture, in which scenes and symbols of alterity were liberally deployed.

      Oda Nobunaga — , who laid the military basis for political unification in the late sixteenth century, surrounded himself with Chinese and Indian symbols of divinity in the decorative program of his castle at Azuchi. When Ieyasu died in , his heirs and publicists followed his wishes and enshrined him the following year on the slopes of Mt.

      Kano , — The program and all its elements proclaim by analogy that Ieyasu had established the Kingly Way J. Confucius and Mencius, Daoist immortals, and Buddhist deities; fabulous birds and beasts— dragons, tigers, giraffes, phoenixes, and, of course, monkeys—all testified to the cosmic potency of Ieyasu both to situate Japan against all Others and to protect Japan against the threat they pose.

      On the deification of Ieyasu, see Ooms and, more recently, Sonehara ; Also, Coaldrake , — ; Gerhart , Ch. In either case, however, the program of the Visitation Palace reminds us that for at least a millennium, Japanese authority constituted itself discursively in reference to clear, explicit representations of the Other.

      For a thousand years, Japanese emperors and shoguns had reminded themselves and their subjects that they were all Japanese, and Japan was Japan, only when engaged with and juxtaposed to its Others. Chikamatsu Monzaemon1 … The power to map or narrate, or to keep other forms of mapping at bay, is a key element in the ability to claim a territory. Whilst they were valued for their demonstration of learning, they were also valued for their ability to operate within a whole range of intellectual, political and economic situations, and to give shape and meaning to such situations.

      States and nations are the products of human artifice and conflict, not spontaneous generation. While no earlier Japan maps survive, there is a copy of a no-longer-extant Japan map dated according to the Edo-period copyist See Unno , ; Kuroda For the history of commercial maps, see Yonemoto , The modern world system abhors the vacuum of unclaimed territory, on the one hand, and the contradiction of joint sovereignty, on the other.

      With the exception of Antarctica, every parcel must—ideally—belong to one state, and only one, while the distinction between claimed territories must be along clear linear borders. See also Yonemoto Japan, too, asserts claims to islands occupied and claimed by Russia and the Republic of Korea, while Japan occupies islands just north of Taiwan J. Tokugawa bakufu and some territorial daimyo domains. And how, exactly, did one describe or experience the transition from Japanese to not-Japanese territory?

      Was the kingdom of the Ryukyus in or out—or both? Was Tsushima beyond dispute? The southern tip of Ezo was home to the daimyo house of Matsumae, whose eponymous castle town on the Oshima Peninsula was the northernmost outpost of the Tokugawa polity. It conforms not even minimally to the uniform standards of scale and representation Edo mandated for all other province maps.

      These maps were acts of possession rather than acts of registration: Once the kuni-ezu were compiled, they were stored in state archives—merely possessed—and neither displayed nor made public. It was the act of mapping, like the act of surveying the land, that asserted shogunal sovereignty and possession.

      Individual mapmakers, on the other hand, had produced maps of Japan in medieval times, and publishers began producing commercial Japan maps in the seventeenth century. Kawamura a, — provides a nearly comprehensive bibliography of research on kuni-ezu.

      The changing treatment of Ezo, the Ryukyus and Korea suggests the fluid attitude of Edo authorities toward these sites on the outer margins of Japan. Korea bleeds off screen at the upper left northwestern corner. See Nanba, Muroga, and Unno , —; fig. Ezo, still largely terra incognita for most Japanese, is mapped on the eastern Manchurian coast, rather than as an island north of Honshu.

      But other unofficial maps of Japan from the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century are quite random about their treatment of Japan at the ragged edge. Rasetsu-koku, the land of the female rasetsu Skt. Islands and island provinces such as Sado, Iki, and Tsushima straddle the inner, fully Japanese area and the liminal back of the dragon Fig.

      Provinces that are home to ports for Japanese and foreign ships, i. For reproductions, see, Kobe Museum , 32—33 , and Cortazzi , insert at — In contrast, Nakabayashi treated Matsumae as a distinct site point on the large boundary-condition land-mass off in the sea to the northeast Ezo. Rasetsu bleeds off the lower margin.

      There is no such suggestion of a link between Ryukyu and Japan. It is Japanese territory as far as here. South of there are the islands of Takasago. It is several thousand ri across the western sea from Great Ming, while the [Southern] Barbarian countries are several tens of thousands of ri distant. Its shape is long from east to west, but short from north to south, like that of a sleeping dragon. It is as if the beaches of Satsuma in the southwest were the head, while Mutsu, in northeast, was the tail.

      In all, it is 4, ri from east to west. It comprises the Capital District and the Seven Circuits. The distances in this passage are all overstated. It is this contradiction that I propose to interrogate. The Tokugawa bakufu, the most powerful state Japan had yet known, established domestic and international sovereignty through legislation, ritual, and diplomacy, as well as through the exercise of raw, material power—both military campaigns and the attainder, reduction or transfer of recalcitrant daimyos.

      They further insinuated their authority into hitherto autonomous domains through cadastral surveys that revealed the economic power base of every daimyo, revealing them to the gaze of the new Tokugawa state. Mapping the Margins: The Ragged Edges of State and Nation 49 government claims as its sovereign territory,83 the contradictions are unresolved even today.

      Ryukyu, by contrast, is clearly labeled, in a manner suggesting that Nishikawa saw it as having the same relationship to Japan as Taiwan or Luzon. Here too, however, Ryukyuans are represented as the people of a foreign land, just as Chinese, Manchus, and Mongols were. The map of Japan, in a representation reminiscent of the Dai Nihon jishin no zu of a century earlier, depicts the islands of Japan afloat in an ocean enclosed in a circle of the compass points of the Chinese zodiac.

      The equivalence is clear even in the table of contents. Not only do they float offshore to the north, but they are unnamed and lie outside the frame of the map itself. The southeast corner of the Korean peninsula, and the trading port of Pusan appear as a boundary condition, upper left. A brief note inscribed just offshore of Erabu Island, in the lower left corner, gives the distance ri, ca. Courtesy of the George H. Beans Collection, University of British Columbia leaves little doubt that he regards as them as ontologically equivalent, foreign territories.

      Terajima does not share the confusion of his contemporary, Chikamatsu , about the identity and location of Ryukyu. Ezo, for Terajima, is like Ryukyu: neither Japanese nor Chinese but sui generis and yet thoroughly foreign. On Hayashi see Keene , 39—45 et passim ; Taira ; Noguchi , — There are maps in circulation where one can see the approximate directions of those neighbors, but while one can get a general idea about them, one cannot learn accurate details of the sea lanes, distances or topography.

      For details on the case, Taira , — Nagata , 6—8. Truly, what everyone in Our Land should know, noble and base, samurai and civilian alike, is the geography of these three countries. This is so that it will be readily comprehensible to people of Our Country. See Fig. Therefore, there are defensive preparations appropriate to a maritime country that are categorically different from [those set forth in] Chinese books of military strategy and from those transmitted in Japan from ancient times to the present.

      Certainly daimyo often mapped the boundaries of their domains, a practice essential for resolving inter-domain jurisdictional disputes. Mapping the Margins: The Ragged Edges of State and Nation 65 not the case that Japanese were unable to conceive of clear-cut boundaries; indeed, there is ample evidence that a concern with clear boundaries at the local and provincial levels was well established from ancient times.

      Boundary disputes—between estate proprietors, between villages, or between peasants—were among the most frequent matters of litigation. Several things, however, are clear from this discussion. First, Tosa and Hirosaki—to take but two examples—may have articulated seemingly autonomous identities in the eighteenth century, which Edo did not contest so long as they were not flagrantly flaunted.

      But Edo asserted unrefuted claims to the entire country along many avenues, not least of which was its penetrating cartographic gaze, which on the one hand probed microscopically, in the kuni-ezu into each province, effacing even the daimyo domain itself, and quite literally collected the realm piece by piece in the Momijiyama Bunko, the shogunal archives in the precincts of Edo Castle.

      Second, though the bakufu might be—or at least pretend to be—master of all it surveyed in its various national mapping projects, it was unclear about the boundaries of the object of its gaze. The authorities, that is, evinced no interest in asserting a public consciousness of where Japanese territory gave way to something else.

      What is certain, however, is that the question of national i. What is elided in this way is precisely the social construction of the property line, the social construction of the border … which—like everything else we map—is not a line you can see…. But no sooner are maps acknowledged as social constructions than their contingent, their conditional, their arbitrary … character, is unveiled. Mapping the Margins: The Ragged Edges of State and Nation 67 indeterminacy and fluidity of the outer limits asserted and inscribed in contemporary maps is vivid testimony of the ragged edges of Japan.

      Beginning with the Benyowsky letter of , however, perceived threats of Russian aggression and actual encroachments in Ezo, occasional armed confrontations between Russian landing parties and both Ainu and Japanese, and Russian attempts to open direct trade with Japan, provoked a growing sense of foreign threat, in both government circles and among the politically aware population more generally.

      European maps of Japan from the late seventeenth to the early nineteenth centuries generally derived from published Japanese maps brought to Europe by men such as Engelbert Kaempfer and Franz Phillip von Siebold. From that base, they come to Iturup to trade. But their real purpose in the trade is hard to gauge. Might they really have their hearts set on swallowing Etorofu [Iturup]? Just inside the limits of Wajinchi he notes both the distance from Matsumae Castle, and the presence of a checkpoint sekisho , controlling passage between Wajinchi and Ezochi.

      On the Phaeton Incident, see especially Wilson The plan envisioned adding nearly six million koku about 1. In the context of competition with Russia for control of the Ainu populations in these outlying islands, one can see these mappings as adumbrating territorial claims. Soon thereafter the bakufu began to dispatch its own expeditions to Ezo and beyond, recording both geographical and ethnographic observations, and making maps.

      See also Stephan , 68—69 ; Kikuchi , 84— The challenge of EuroAmerican notions of sharp, clearly delineated claims of territorial authority and sovereignty—backed by the economic and military might of the Industrial Revolution—forced Japanese authorities gradually to recognize the need to respond with assertions of exclusive sovereign claims to territory.

      The first moves to knit up the raveled sleeve came in the north, naturally enough, where Russian inroads in northern Ezo were seen as a threat as early as the s. They explicitly proposed that neither Japanese nor Russians should build houses on any of the small islands in between, creating a buffer zone that would minimize contact and conflict.

      Mapping the Margins: The Ragged Edges of State and Nation 71 vulnerable because its military policies focused solely on land warfare, while totally ignoring naval defenses and tactics. Ironically, his primary motivation was to survey at a large enough scale to calculate the precise length of a degree of latitude; the map of Ezo was simply a by-product.

      Yet even then, the treaty left part of the boundary vague: Article II. The boundary between Russia and Japan shall pass henceforth between the Islands of Etorofu and Uruppu. The Island of Etorofu belongs entirely to Japan, while the Island of Uruppu and other islands of the Kurils north of this island belong to Russia. With regard to the Island of Karafuto Sakhalin or Saghalien , it remains as in the past a joint possession of Russia and Japan.

      While the treaty was clear about the Russo-Japanese boundary in the Kurils, however, it effectively placed Sakhalin under an ill-defined dual sovereignty, roughly analogous to the implicit status of the Ryukyus as simultaneously a tributary of both Japan and China. The previous year, when a Ryukyuan ship was shipwrecked on the southwest coast of Taiwan, the local Mou-lan tribe had killed fifty-four of the sixtysix men on board. Resolving the contradictions between the practices of the Tokugawa period and those of the Treaty of Westphalia—which posited states with clear and explicit boundaries, and exclusive sovereignty over the territories so inscribed—was a project that would take several decades to achieve.

      Japan, too, was shaken by shifting cosmologies in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when Japanese and Europeans first encountered each other, initially in the waters of Southeast Asia and later in the Japanese archipelago itself. Foucault , xxiii. On the initial JapaneseIberian encounters, see Boxer , the classic treatment. Courtesy Kobe City Museum sight in Japanese ports.

      Japanese artists quickly began both to represent these newly discovered aliens and to learn from their modes of representation, as Jesuit mentors taught young men under their tutelage the essentials of Iberian and Italianate painting see Fig. Yet more was at stake in these initial encounters in Japan than simply learning new and alien ways of painting and finding new aliens to paint. A cosmology, too, was up for grabs.

      See, e. Ainu, the indigenous people of the far northeast, were not fully realized as a distinct iconographic representation until the mid-eighteenth century. Both were subsumed in the identity of Kara. The new geographies would quickly take shape, but here we are concerned principally with the ways Japanese integrated the stupefying variety of human-like creatures suddenly impinging on their consciousness. Among the earliest imagings of the rich new assortment of aliens were two parallel but related forms, both dating from the s.

      One, a form of genre painting unified by subject matter rather than style, principally included largeformat folding screens with paintings depicting foreigners of all colors and descriptions arriving in Japanese ports and parading in the streets of Japanese towns, as well as imagining them in foreign settings such as Goa and Macao. Only in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries did Japanese venture as far as Siam, which, according to the contemporary Jesuit dictionary of Japanese, is what Japanese then understood as Tenjiku.

      Doi , ; For a typology, see Okudaira , 65— It is important to recall, too, that Japanese visual culture prior to the Xavierian encounter rarely took account of aliens in Japan. In the decades after Xavier, however, as Portuguese, Spaniards, Goans, Javanese, and other newfound aliens came more and more commonly to tread the streets of Japanese ports and towns, they were represented visually in genre paintings of urban life.

      See above, pp. Prominent among the former is Wang Chi ; the Wanjin bujiuren and Xuefu chuanbian are representative of the more popular encyclopedias. See Tanaka , 38—88; — on the representation of Japanese in these encyclopedias. For a brief introduction in English to Ming encyclopedism, see Sakai Fascinatingly, the labor of differentiation took place first in Japanese scenes of the harbor and market, as artists represented the newly plural Other on the piers of Nagasaki and Sakai and on the streets of Osaka and Kyoto.

      The encounter between Japan and Europe in the sixteenth century, that is, brought about a fundamental transformation in the relationship between Japan and its Others, allowing—one might say, compelling—Others to be visible for almost the first time. This re-imaging was catalyzed not only by the Iberian irruption of the sixteenth century but was further prompted by a massive confrontation with Korean difference when Japanese armies invaded Korea in the s.

      Hundreds of thousands of Japanese troops fought a Korean-Chinese alliance in Korea, and thousands of Koreans—sometimes whole villages—were brought to Japan, more as war booty than as prisoners of war. Despite this, however, the first attempts to represent Koreans as distinct from Chinese were faltering, even comic at times, as Japanese artists assembled bits and pieces from other newfound representations of Other, much like a child dressing a paper doll with an incongruous assortment of cutout clothing: Portuguese mombaxas trousers and a Korean topknot might adorn a single figure.

      Rather, they absorbed Other indiscriminately into the Rabelaisian disorder of the street, the market, and the carnival. The first steps toward the subordination of impressions to a disciplined taxonomic schema came as artists joined with cartographers—producers of disciplined knowledge par excellence—to produce ordered knowledge of both the world and its peoples: the hand-painted mappa mundi efflorescence of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.

      After Nanban Bunkakan, Osaka. Of particular interest is the representation of Japanese in this example, for it makes clear that the vision informing these representations is European, even if the hand of the painter was Japanese. The painter uses Italianate techniques of shading to produce the illusion of rounded threedimensionality in his figures; the woman in the Japanese couple is portrayed in robes worthy of nineteenth-century Japonoiserie and long, wavy tresses hanging well below the shoulder—though curly hair was a mark of great ugliness in Japanese culture.

      For a European example that places visual representations of foreign peoples in tabular array at the margins of the map, see, e. For a brief discussion, Unno , fig. Interestingly, neither Hirado, the Dutch trading post in Japan, nor Nagasaki, the Portuguese port, is depicted. On the Ricci map, see Baddeley and Ayusawa Kobe City Museum.

      Several unsigned editions were published over the next few decades though the visual information deteriorated as cheaper versions appeared see Fig. On the significance of published world maps in the context of , see Kawamura b. Just as its countries differ, the peoples are likewise different. In appearance, some are tall and some short; they appear in paired opposites: black and white; male and female.

      If we represent their body types as specimens, this is what they are generally like. One can distinguish at a glance their systems of clothing and headgear; the manufacture of their bows, swords, and weapons. Thus we have prepared this [chart] solely that it may serve as an aid to the investigation of things and accomplishment of knowledge [kakubutsu shichi].

      This organizational scheme relies on iconographic cues as well as location in the tabular arrangement of information. At least four versions of this chart were published between and , though it is not certain they were all produced by the same publisher. Japanese were the last pictured among these cultured, non-savage peoples.

      In the Bankoku jinbutsu-zu, by contrast, the Japanese appear as the first among peoples upper right , the normative human type jinrui against whom all else is Other. They eat human flesh; but they [only] eat men, and do not eat women. They use birds and the seven beasts? Pair of six-panel folding screens, color on paper, early 17th c. It is likely that the Japanese painters who executed these screens saw a copy of the Voyages, probably brought to Japan by a Jesuit missionary, or in a European mappa mundi.

      The Shanhaijing appears in the Nihon-koku genzaisho mokuroku ca. Takeda Here, from a printing. Publishers in Nagasaki and Kyoto produced and reproduced these tabular representations of Bankoku jinbutsu-zu frequently for the next quarter-century, as we have seen, with but minor variations.

      Yet the maps remain blind to Ryukyu and Ezo. One or two examples will suffice to clarify some of these differences of gaze. European peoples were positioned first; in the Imperial Household Collection mappa mundi, the Japanese couple appears only in the seventh row—making them twenty-first of the forty-two peoples represented—after fifteen unmistakably European couples, several of whom are apparently Turkish or Persian, as well as Chinese and Tatar couples.

      Europeans are now represented as peripheral, only midway through the forty peoples depicted. He is likewise outside the parameters of Japanese portraiture. There is one adult triad one man; two women among the peoples coded, by un dress and skin color, as barbarous. The general treatment of the body and its drapery, as well as the coloristic techniques of the painter—especially the use of shading in faces and exposed parts of the body and in drapery—are of a generic southern-Renaissance style, reflecting either an underlying European model or a European eye.

      The Japanese man is represented as a seated warrior in full battle regalia, grasping a halberd in his left hand. He sports a beard and moustache and reminds the viewer of the memorial portrait of Honda Tadakatsu, a general of fierce repute in the armies of Tokugawa Ieyasu at the turn of the seventeenth century. In the hand-colored Kyoto University example , the sartorial signs of her status are replicated by the chalk-white skin of her face and hand—a left hand that dutifully holds a long sword tachi , as if her husband is about to go off into battle.

      Only in the version is her hair free of its Italianate curlers, and it flows straight and smooth down her shoulders. Only the range of peoples catalogued there continued to depend on the ethnographic information gleaned from European explorers of continents and islands Japanese had never visited, though the addition of cartouches of Korean and Orankai eastern Manchurian couples—but not Ainu or Ryukyuan—began the move toward assimilating preexisting Japanese cultural categories to the new taxonomies of anthropos.

      As a cartographer, Inagaki recognized Ezo as a foreign country, while excluding the people of Ezo from his gaze. Polar projections had been known for about a century in Japan. See Toby First, his forty-two countries were all foreign; that is, they excluded Japan. This was exclusively an anthropology of Other, designed to catalog and order the foreign as categorically distinct from— rather than inclusive of—a Japanese self.

      And where Bankoku representations sought only to depict, but not to describe, its objects of knowledge, and did not attribute to them the least social and cultural subjecthood, Nishikawa, in adding prose descriptions, gave each people a history, if only momentary, and an identity, however fanciful. For a brief introduction to these encyclopedias, see Tanaka In this, he returns to the Chinese encyclopedic pattern set by the Sancai tuhui, Xuefu chuanbian, and so forth, in which domestic society is fully ramified by gender and occupation while alien peoples are represented only by individual types, nearly all of them male.

      Nakamura Here, we call the Central country Han or Tang. Central Asians call it Shintan or Shina. There is a modern facsimile edition Terajima The two modern print editions, Terajima —, , reproduce all illustrations, but their text transcriptions are not always reliable, and should be used with caution. All are Japanese, from the emperor to thieves nusuhito , from prostitutes keisei and wet nurses menoto to beggars kotsujiki and boylovers nanshoku.

      Even angels tennin were Japanese. But as if they were distant biographically, as much as geographically or culturally, he interposes two volumes on the human body keiraku between jinrin and foreign peoples. Each has a history—of sorts—a language, and customs—including, for example, the Tatar Manchu queue, which is discussed in great ethnographic detail.

      There are over onehundred-sixty of them, beginning with Champa, including Cambodia, Siam, Spain, and Portugal in the guise of Luzon and Macao and ending—not including the appendix—with Holland. This was not the case in later, more complex single-country ethnographic works,50 which attempted a more thorough representation of the diversity of cultural experience, extending to both sexes, the family, and stages of the life course as well as a range of economic activity—such as farming practices, bathing, or rites of passage.

      And it is fundamentally informed by a highly visual, almost tactile, concern with rendering its objects of knowledge as directly accessible to the sense of sight as is possible, a compulsion to rely on visual representation as the primary vehicle of communication.

      Before there was the world, in the earliest Nanban world maps, there was the picture, sometimes without so much as a caption to name it. The picture still dominated printed representation of the peoples of the world throughout the seventeenth century, though words increasingly crept in as labels for the growing literate audience.

      Accompanying maps might locate the peoples pictured appropriately on the surface of the globe, but little verbal information was offered to help the reader decode the image or to inform the image with substantial ethnographic content. Certainly the explosion from sangoku to bankoku brought new knowledge of Other and Self, imagined, imaged, and inscribed in these texts.

      It is a knowledge that could not conform to imagination. The proliferation of peoples and continents, especially the irruption of Other into Japanese spaces, required the invention of new practices, new forms of constituting both Self and Other, that marked an irreparable discursive break with the nature of that knowledge and its modes of representation.

      Indeed, from the s to the s, Japanese rarely voyaged more than a few hundred miles from home. It is important to note, too, that Japanese culture became quite radically more visual in the aftermath of—though by no means because of—the age of encounter.

      The imaged Other became part of the everyday cognitive world. The images of imagined jinrui, conjoined as they were from their inception with a geographic and cartographic imaginary that transformed the habitat of jinrui from sangoku to bankoku and the shape of the world from a single massive continent floating in a cosmic sea to a set of continents on the face of a globe, circulated and regenerated over time. How many goodly creatures are there here! How beauteous mankind is! Shakespeare, The Tempest, V.

      Have we devils here? Do you put tricks upon me with salvages and men of Inde? Shakespeare, The Tempest, II. My thanks to Gonoi Takashi for this reference. Chinese and Koreans, especially, had migrated permanently to Japan, either in communities or as individual Buddhist missionaries. And the Mongols had twice attempted and failed at invasions of Japan. These old Others inhabited—indeed constituted—a world of Japanese iconography and representation, of performance, and of rich oral and written literatures.

      Save for visual representations of the Mongol invasions ; , there are precious few representations of Other in Japan in art drama, or literature of the Japan that greeted Xavier on his arrival in See especially Pollack , who examines the literary trope of China over a millennium; Harootunian and Nakai examine the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries. See Wakabayashi for an insightful analysis of the representation of the invading Mongol forces in a series of fourteenth- and fifteenth-century illustrated shrine and temple histories jisha engi.

      By , Christianity was a capital offense, and the representation of Iberians taboo. They were like a pair of telescopes, but the irises were yellow. Its head was small; it had long claws on its hands and feet. Its speech was incomprehensible to the ear; its voice resembled the screech of an owl. Everyone ran to see it, mobbing the roads with abandon.

      They thought this phantasm more terrible than the more ferocious monster. I have elided here the presence of a variety of mythic maritime Others, who were not recognized as fully human in any case, the cannibal peoples of islands to the south, the horse-headed people of islands to the northeast, etc. See, especially, Murai It was like a wartless conch-shell, stuck onto [his face] by suction. Detail from a folding screen, early 17th century.

      Photo courtesy of Michael Cooper figure 35 An officer in the retinue of a Korean diplomatic mission, portrayed as exceptionally hirsute. Little wonder, then, if Japanese had trouble mapping this brave new world. This schematized typology of Others was developed in conversations with Kuroda Hideo.

      R , My thanks to Professor Gonoi Takashi for his guidance with these passages in the Jesuit letters. For the people of Hawaii, Cook had been a myth before he was an event, since the myth was the frame by which the event was interpreted. The definitive study on Sainin is Tanaka The discussion is preliminary, speculative, and suggestive and makes no claim of exhaustiveness or definitiveness. It should be no surprise that Japanese iconographies had developed a highly articulated code of markers for Otherness, a set of code s formed over centuries of contact with the other peoples of continental and archipelagic northeast Asia.

      Chikamatsu , Further, however, because Japan is an archipelago distant 75 km at nearest landfall in Korea; km from the Chinese coast from the continent, and because of the relative disinterest of Chinese and Koreans in journeying to Japan, there were long periods when foreign traffic was rare indeed.

      Even at times of relatively intense foreign contact, prior to the s, more contact came from Japanese going abroad, than Others coming to Japan. Consequently, perhaps, iconographies of Other seem less contested than they might otherwise have been. When the Portuguese stepped off their ships onto Japanese soil, they were dressed for the role: their skin was dark, sunburned from months at sea; they had curly hair and heavy beards and were generally more hirsute than any people previously encountered in Japan.

      Observable bodily characteristics of the Nanban, that is, were already heavily signed in Japan as markers of alienness and barbarianness. But what interests us most in this encounter is the transformation in the iconographic venue of Other that, apparently, was wrought by the European irruption and the century ca.

      The major exceptions to this iconological generalization seem to be portrayals of kinds of Other-in-Japan as invaders, objects of border subjugation, or tributaries, on the one hand, and portraits of Chinese Buddhist monks who came to Japan as missionaries, on the other. After , Other becomes omnipresent, a permanent and pervasive feature of Japanese iconography. For nearly a century, Japanese artists and sculptors remained less-than-fully determined, so too, did these Others occasionally cross boundaries in the iconography.

      Indeed, in the rising tide of Christian persecution and xenophobia, it becomes increasingly difficult to find either visual or textual evidence of the Nanban in Japanese iconography. The representation of Other was essential to the perpetuation of community, to the inscription of boundaries, and to the reconstitution of categories of Self and Other, in the aftermath of the Nanban interlude. As the Nanban were driven from Japan ultimately in , and Christianity virtually extirpated, or driven underground thereafter, the Other had to find new clothes.

      The assimilation of a new, inadequately known form of Other, Iberians, to a prior category of indirectly experienced Other is one thing. Cyril Wild Kobe, , —, quoted in Cooper , — The devastation of Korea was accompanied by an enrichment of Japan.

      It reappears in writings of other westerners in Japan in the nineteenth century, as well; for example, de Fonblanque , 15 , Fortune , There is little doubt that both de Fonblanque and Fortune had read Kaempfer. Later legend had it that he was eaten by a tiger. Terajima , Other than Shinnyo, I know of no Japanese claims to have visited Tenjiku before the seventeenth century.

      These tens of thousands of Koreans constitute the largest documented immigration to Japan before the twentieth century. Some of the communities they established remained ethnically distinct into modern times. In the decade after the war, when Korea and Japan had resolved their overt differences, Korea sent an embassy of nearly men to the Tokugawa capital of Edo, the first of seven such missions in the seventeenth century.

      Each embassy was a major popular cultural event, a once-in-a-lifetime tourist attraction for people along the route. See Haraguchi and Sakai , — [original]; 88—89 [translation]. They entered Kyoto by foot, horseback, or palanquin and traveled to Edo by road, passing through four of the five largest cities in the land Osaka, Kyoto, Nagoya, and Edo. For a discussion of the tourist appeal of these events, see Toby A half-century of Nanban fashion had generated new forms of Other in festival performance, as we have seen in the festivals at the seventh anniversaries of the deaths of Hideyoshi and Ieyasu.

      The reappearance in Japan of its other Others, ambassadorial entourages from Korea and the Ryukyuan kingdom beginning in the first decade of the seventeenth century, was quickly translated into visual representations of Other-in-Japan. These screens can be dated to — on the basis of internal evidence, and are likely products of the same atelier.

      For details, see Toby a. In the absence of pictorial codes specifying that the men depicted here as Koreans—as distinct from Chinese, Okinawan, or Portuguese—the artists have mobilized a combination of signs for Other, Chinese and Nanban, in particular. By the time the last Iberians were expelled from the country , Koreans and Okinawans, bearded, in plumed hats, frilled or ruffled costumes, boots or shoes in some cases and trousers, were being incorporated into particular cityscapes and landscapes in Japan.

      Most of the verbal and pictorial text recounts the pre-life and life of Ieyasu; the final chapters expand on the great reverence he has received since his deification. The scene is richly evocative of the scenes of a Nanban-peopled Kyoto a few decades before, and entirely at variance with the nearly totally Other-less Japanese landscape that preceded the Iberian arrival a century earlier.

      Iberian fashion, especially for ruffled collars, at the moment of encounter had been a fortuitous conformity with the iconographic text of Other that anticipated their arrival; the absence of Other on the Japanese domestic scene—or at least in representations of it— enabled them to enter an open role already costumed.

      By the time the Iberians left, the role of Other was established in the text of the Japanese landscape; in the absence of Iberians, Koreans, Okinawans, and other Others were asked to stand in their stead. Kuroda , chapter 1 has shown that this screen was painted sometime in late or early to celebrate the early years of the reign of the third shogun, Iemitsu r.

      The Korean procession shown, therefore, depicts the mission of , the first of three Iemitsu received.

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