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The control file does not have the data file record, that is, you did not back up the control file after data file creation. During recovery, the database detects the missing data file and reports it to RMAN, which creates a data file and continues recovery by applying the remaining logs. If the data file was created in a parent incarnation, then it is created during the restore or recovery phase as appropriate. If you perform media recovery on an encrypted tablespace, then the Oracle keystore must be open when performing media recovery of this tablespace.
Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance Recovery Appliance substantially reduces the window of potential data loss that exists between successive archived redo log backups. You to recover target databases to within a few subseconds of a database failure. When real-time redo transport is configured for a target database, redo data from the current redo log groups is written asynchronously to Recovery Appliance as it is generated.
As the redo stream is received, it is stored as a complete RMAN archived redo log. If the target database crashes, the redo data received from the current redo log group, until the time of the crash, is used during restore and recovery operations. You must perform certain configuration steps to enable real-time redo transport for the target database. You must plan your database restore and recovery strategy based on your recovery goal and which database files have been lost.
Identifying the Database Files to Restore or Recover. Previewing Backups Used in Restore Operations. Validating Backups Before Restoring Them. The techniques for determining which files require restore or recovery depend upon the type of file that is lost.
Identifying a Lost Control File. The database shuts down immediately when any of the multiplexed control files become inaccessible. Loss of some but not all copies of your control file does not require you to restore a control file from backup. If at least one control file remains intact, then you can either copy an intact copy of the control file over the damaged or missing control file, or update the initialization parameter file so that it does not refer to the damaged or missing control file.
The decision about when and how to recover depends on the state of the database and the location of its data files. This example validates the database and tries to read all specified data files sample output included. To determine whether data files require media recovery:.
If the status is OPEN , then the database is open. Nevertheless, some data files may require media recovery. Each row returned represents a data file that either requires media recovery or has an error requiring a restore. Check for a temporary hardware or operating system problem causing the error.
If there is no such problem, then you must restore the file or switch to a copy. For example, this view cannot tell whether a data file contains corrupt data blocks. In situations requiring the recovery of your server parameter file or control file from autobackup, you must know the DBID. Be sure to record the DBID along with other basic information about your database. If you do not have a record of the DBID of your database, then you can find it in the following places without opening your database:.
The DBID is used in forming the file name for the control file autobackup. Typical output follows:. Previewing backups helps you to ensure that all backups required for a restore and recovery operation are available. This command accesses the RMAN repository to query the backup metadata, but does not actually read the backup files to ensure that they can be restored.
If you are satisfied with the output, then stop here. If the output indicates that RMAN will request a backup from a tape that you know is temporarily unavailable, then continue with this procedure. If the output indicates that a backup is stored off-site, then skip to " Recalling Off-site Backups ". An offsite backup is stored in a remote location, such as a secure storage facility, and cannot be restored unless the media manager retrieves the media.
Some media managers provide status information to RMAN about which backups are off-site. If RMAN attempts to restore an off-site backup, then the restore job fails. The following example initiates recall for the off-site archived log backups shown in the previous step sample output included :. Although the output of a restore preview operation indicates which backups will be restored, the usability of the backups is not actually verified.
The contents of the backups are actually read and checked for corruption. RMAN chooses which backups to use. Validating Database Files and Backups. You can also restore archived redo logs manually to save the time needed to restore these files later during the RECOVER command, or if you want to store the restored archived redo log files in some new location.
RMAN also gives you the flexibility of restoring all archive redo log files, the current ones, or archive redo log files from a specified previous incarnation of the database. You can use this option only when performing recovery for a whole database. Using this option for a data file, tablespace, or pluggable database is not supported. To perform point-in-time recovery for a pluggable database, you must provide the SCN number as the point of recovery.
These parameters are combined in a platform-specific fashion to form the name of the restored archived log. During recovery, RMAN knows where to find the newly restored archived logs; it does not require them to be in the location specified in the initialization parameter file. Either explicitly restore the archived redo logs or execute commands that automatically restore the logs. The following sample RUN command explicitly restores all backup archived logs to a new location:.
To manage disk space that is used to contain the restored logs, you can specify restore destinations for archived logs multiple times in one RUN block, to distribute restored logs among several destinations. Note that you cannot specify multiple destinations simultaneously to produce multiple copies of the same log during the restore operation. For backups encrypted using certain techniques, you must provide the password that will be used to decrypt these backups.
Backups that were encrypted using transparent encryption with an auto-login keystore require no intervention to restore, if the keystore is available. RMAN decrypts these backups while restoring their contents. For backups that were encrypted using transparent encryption with a password-protected software keystore, the keystore must be available and the keystore password must be provided before the restore operation is performed. The following command sets the keystore password for a password-based software keystore where password is a placeholder for the actual password that you enter :.
Backups created using password-mode encryption require the correct password to be entered before they can be restored. RMAN automatically uses the correct password with each backup set. The following command sets the password used to decrypt backups where password is a placeholder for the actual password that you enter :.
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for additional information about performing restore operations using encrypted backups. During complete recovery RMAN restores one or more data files and then applies all the redo generated after the restored backup. This section describes the basic outline of complete database recovery, which is intended to encompass a wide range of different scenarios.
About Complete Database Recovery. Performing Complete Recovery of the Whole Database. Performing Complete Recovery of a Tablespace. During the recovery, RMAN automatically restores backups of any needed archived redo logs. If RMAN restores archived redo logs to the fast recovery area during a recovery, then it automatically deletes the restored logs after applying them to the data files. For example, you can enter the following command:.
If you cannot restore data files to their default locations, then you must update the control file to reflect the new locations of the data files. This scenario assumes that database trgt has lost most or all of its data files. It also assumes that the database uses a fast recovery area. Only temporary tablespaces that are missing are re-created.
Otherwise, they are re-created at their previous locations. RMAN displays the database status when it connects: not started , not mounted , not open when the database is mounted but not open , or none when the database is open. If the necessary devices and channels are configured, then no action is necessary. For example, enter the following commands if automatic channels are configured sample output included :.
The following example restores the database, specifying new names for three of the data files, and then recovers the database:. Scope of This Chapter for some of the assumptions used in the recovery procedures. In the basic scenario, the database is open, and some but not all of the data files are damaged. You want to restore and recover the damaged tablespace while leaving the database open so that the rest of the database remains available.
For example, enter the following command if automatic channels are configured sample output included :. The following example restores the data files in tablespace users to a new location, and then performs recovery. You can recover a database by switching to image copies of inaccessible data files. This technique takes less time than traditional restore and recovery because no backups need to be restored. TO COPY command is also supported for cases when all data files in a tablespace are lost and copies of all data files exist.
When one or more data files are damaged, you can perform recovery by switching to existing image copies of the damaged data files. During the course of the day, a data file goes missing due to storage failure. You must repair this file, but cannot afford the time to do a restore and recovery from a backup.
You decide to use a recent image copy backup as the new file, thus eliminating restore time. This scenario assumes that database trgt has lost data file 4. To switch to a data file copy and perform recovery:. RMAN automatically restores archived redo logs and incremental backups. Because the database uses a fast recovery area, RMAN automatically deletes them after they have been applied. You can perform complete database recovery by switching to image copies of the damaged data files instead of restoring these data files.
In this scenario, the database is shut down, and all of the data files are damaged. You have image copies of all the damaged data files and decide to use the existing image copies as the new data files, thus eliminating restore time.
To switch to a database copy and perform recovery:. You can back up and recover a whole multitenant container database CDB , root only, or one or more pluggable databases PDB s. Performing Complete Recovery of the Root. Complete the preparation steps that are required for your scenario, as described in " Preparing for Complete Database Recovery ". If the database is not mounted, then mount but do not open the database. This mode uses only password protection. You must provide a password when creating and restoring encrypted backups.
Keystore-based encryption is more secure than password-based encryption because no passwords are involved. Use password-based encryption only when it is absolutely necessary because your backups must be transportable. Transparent Encryption of Backups. Password Encryption of Backups. Dual Mode Encryption of Backups. Transparent encryption can create and restore encrypted backups with no DBA intervention, if the required Oracle key management infrastructure is available.
Transparent encryption is best suited for day-to-day backup operations, where backups are restored to the same database from which they were created. Transparent encryption is the default for RMAN encryption. When you use transparent encryption, you must first configure an Oracle software keystore for each database. Transparent backup encryption supports both the auto-login software keystore and password-based software keystore.
When you use the auto-login software keystore, encrypted backup operations can be performed at any time, because the auto-login keystore is always open. When you use the password-based software keystore, the keystore must be opened before you can perform backup encryption.
If you use an auto-login keystore, do not back it up along with your encrypted backup data, because users can read the encrypted backups if they obtain both the backups and the autologin keystore. It is safe to back up the Oracle keystore because that form of the keystore cannot be used without the keystore password.
After the Oracle keystore is configured, encrypted backups can be created and restored with no further DBA intervention. If some columns in the database are encrypted with Transparent Data Encryption TDE column encryption, and if those columns are backed up using backup encryption, then those columns are encrypted a second time during the backup.
When the backup sets are decrypted during a restore operation, the encrypted columns are returned to their original encrypted form. Because the Oracle key management infrastructure archives all previous master keys in the Oracle keystore, changing or resetting the current database master key does not affect your ability to restore encrypted backups performed with an older master key.
You can reset the database master key at any time. RMAN can restore all encrypted backups that were ever created by this database. If you lose your Oracle keystore, then you are unable to restore any transparently encrypted backups. Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for information about configuring an Oracle software keystore. Password encryption requires that the DBA provide a password when creating and restoring encrypted backups.
Restoring a password-encrypted backup requires the same password that was used to create the backup. Password encryption is useful for backups that are restored at remote locations, but which must remain secure in transit. Password encryption cannot be persistently configured.
You do not need to configure an Oracle keystore if password encryption is used exclusively. If you forget or lose the password that you used to encrypt a password-encrypted backup, then you are unable to restore the backup. Dual-mode encrypted backups are useful when you create backups that are normally restored on-site using the Oracle keystore, but which occasionally must be restored offsite, where the Oracle keystore is not available.
When restoring a dual-mode encrypted backup, you can use either the Oracle keystore or a password for decryption. If you forget or lose the password that you used to encrypt a dual-mode encrypted backup and you also lose your Oracle keystore, then you are unable to restore the backup.
Set a password for backup encryption, persisting until the RMAN client exits. Using or not using persistent configuration settings controls whether archived redo log backups are encrypted. Backup sets containing archived redo log files are encrypted if any of the following are true:. This behavior ensures that the redo associated with any encrypted backup of a data file is also encrypted. To configure the environment so that all RMAN backups are encrypted:. At this stage, all RMAN backup sets created by this database use transparent encryption by default.
You can explicitly override the persistent encryption configuration for an RMAN session with the following command:. The default algorithm is AES bit. To configure the default backup encryption algorithm:. The command is as follows, where datafileSpec identifies some data file by its original name or data file number, and filename is the new path for the specified file:. For example, you might configure a new auxiliary name for data file 2 as follows:. CLEAR , as shown in the following example:.
When RMAN needs a read-consistent version of the control file, it creates a temporary snapshot control file. RMAN needs a snapshot control file when resynchronizing with the recovery catalog or when making a backup of the current control file. The default location for the snapshot control file is platform-specific and depends on the Oracle home of each target database.
If a fast recovery area is configured for a target database, then the default location for the snapshot control file is not the fast recovery area. Setting the Location of the Snapshot Control File. You can see the current snapshot location by running the SHOW command. Subsequent snapshot control files that RMAN creates use the specified name and path. You can also set the snapshot control file name to a raw device.
Resynchronizing the Recovery Catalog. RMAN cannot connect to a target database through a shared server dispatcher. RMAN requires a dedicated server process. If your target database is configured for a shared server, then you must modify your Oracle Net configuration to provide dedicated server processes for RMAN connections.
Oracle Net configuration varies greatly from system to system. The following procedure illustrates only one method. This scenario assumes that the following service name in tnsnames. It can be desupported in a future release. To use RMAN with a shared server:. Your platform-specific Oracle documentation and the Oracle Database Net Services Reference for a complete description of Oracle Net connect string syntax.
The default setting is NONE. When set to FULL , the instance also records reads for read-only tablespaces. Lost write detection is most effective when used with Data Guard. When a standby database applies redo during managed recovery, it reads the corresponding blocks and compares the SCNs with the SCNs in the redo log. If the block SCN on the primary database is lower than on the standby database, then it detects a lost write on the primary database and throws an external error ORA In either case, the standby database writes the reason for the failure in the alert log and trace file.
To repair a lost write on a primary database, you must initiate failover to the standby database. To repair a lost write on a standby database, you must re-create the entire standby database or restore a backup of only the affected files. Enabling lost write detection is also useful when you are not using Data Guard. In this case, you can encounter a lost write in two ways: during normal database operation or during media recovery. In the first case, there is no direct way to detect the error.
Indirect symptoms such as inconsistent tables cannot be unambiguously traced to the lost write. If you retained a backup made before the suspected lost write, however, then you can restore this backup to an alternative location and recover it. To diagnose the problem, recover the database or tablespace to the SCN of the stale block read, which then generates the lost write error ORA If you recover a backup made after database creation, you have no guarantee that other stale blocks have not corrupted the database.
This possibility exists because the restored backup may have been made after an earlier lost write. To guarantee that no lost writes have corrupted the database, you must perform media recovery from database creation, which is not a practical strategy for most database environments. Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration to learn how to use a standby database for lost write detection and repair.
Shadow lost write protection provides fast detection and immediate response to a data block lost rewrite thereby minimizing data loss and database repair time. A standby database is not mandatory for using shadow lost write protection. Subsequent block reads will return the stale version of the data block, which may be used to update other data blocks, thus corrupting data.
Shadow lost write protection uses shadow tablespaces to store only SCNs for the tracked data files. When a tracked data block is read from disk, shadow lost write protection detects lost writes by comparing the SCN for the block in the shadow tablespace with the SCN of the most recent write in the block being read. Shadow lost write protection can be enabled at the database level, PDB level, tablespace level, or data file level.
Vendor-specific instructions Use the PARMS channel parameter to specify vendor-specific information for a media management software. This technique is necessary in the following situations: When running an Oracle Real Application Clusters Oracle RAC database in which individual nodes do not have access to the full set of backups.
Example Configuring Channel Parallelism for Tape Devices This example configures channels to create parallel database backups. Configuring Advanced Backup Options Backup options enable you to control aspects such as backup size, backup compression, and backup encryption. Configuring the Maximum Size of Backup Pieces Backup piece size is an issue when it exceeds the maximum file size permitted by the file system or media management software.
Note: A control file autobackup is never duplexed. Configuring Tablespaces for Exclusion from Whole Database Backups Sometimes you may want to omit a specified tablespace from part of the regular backup schedule. Here are some possible scenarios to consider: A tablespace is easy to rebuild, so it is more cost-effective to rebuild it than back it up every day.
A tablespace contains temporary or test data that you do not need to back up. About RMAN Precompression Block Processing Better backup compression ratios are achieved by consolidating the free space in each data block, and setting that free space to binary zeroes.
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|Snapshot too old error in oracle 8i torrent||Vendor-specific instructions Use the PARMS channel parameter to specify vendor-specific information for a media management software. This precompression processing stage has the most benefit for data blocks that have been the subject of many deletes and inserts operations. If RMAN restores archived redo logs to link fast recovery area during a recovery, then it automatically deletes the restored logs after applying them to the data files. Subsequent block reads will return the stale version of the data block, which may be used to update other data blocks, thus corrupting data. Transparent encryption is best suited for day-to-day backup operations, where backups are restored to the same database from which they were created.|
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