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It has also been used in clinical settings, in studies of children with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure Timler, This author also compared the dimensions of the TOPS in children with and without language disorders, finding in the latter greater difficulties responding to provocation Timler, Shah and Morgan related the TOPS to depressive symptoms in adolescents, reporting high discriminant power. Green et al.
Other studies have determined the structure factor of the TOPS, proposing short versions. Matthys et al. It consists of 18 items grouped into four oblique factors that explain Boys have more difficulties than girls in all the factors. With regard to the grade, only differences in Being Disadvantaged were found, with a decrease in difficulties as the grade advanced.
However, they found no interaction between gender and grade. It must be borne in mind that out of the entire sample, were first graders of elementary school and from all the sociometric status. Other authors have developed versions for other age groups.
Summing up, a large part of the studies are promising, although they were conducted with small samples Nangle et al. Blankemeyer et al. Considering the above-mentioned issues, the present study aims to identify, in a large sample, social situations that are specifically problematic for peer-rejected students at a crucial moment of their development such as the beginning of their compulsory schooling, as it will not consider situations that may not be very relevant at this age or for other sociometric status.
In addition, it is expected that the degree to which these social situations are problematic will be related to inappropriate social behavior, and even antisocial behavior, which would provide an adequate indicator of convergent validity.
Finally, we intend to verify whether the identified model is also applicable to students with average sociometric status, comparing their results with those of the rejected students. Knowing the degree to which rejected students have more problems in social situations than average students, while taking gender into account, can provide valuable information to implement specific actions designed to prevent and reduce peer rejection at early ages.
The cultural and demographic characteristics of the schools are equivalent, with a similar number of students as in other countries and subcultures. The students from other countries represent A sociometric procedure identified peer-rejected students, who represent Participation in the study was voluntary. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. This is a item Likert scale on which the teachers rate the response that each student displays in different social situations, ranging from 1 never poses a problem to 5 almost always represents a problem.
Like Matthys et al. This questionnaire can be applied individually or collectively, and each student chooses classmates, in a prioritized and reasoned fashion, based on two blocks of questions that can be applied together or separately. Normally, one, three, or unlimited nominations are allowed. It classifies students into the different groups proposed by Coie et al.
This scale measures the teaching staff's perception of the students' social behavior in the school environment. It has 64 items rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 never to 5 often , distributed in two scales of 32 items each, and six subscales, with good test-retest reliability, inter-evaluator agreement, high internal consistency, and fit indices in the confirmatory factor analysis Crowley and Merrell, After reaching agreements with the schools and obtaining the families' authorizations, the sociometric questionnaire was administered to the students, in the form of individual interviews, carried out by several trained assessors hired or postgraduate psychology or educational psychology research collaborators.
The administration was performed 2 months after start of the school year and it lasted 3 weeks, allowing all the students who regularly attended school to participate. From the acceptance and rejection nominations, analyzed with the Sociomet software, the following sociometric distribution was established: a As commented above, we eliminated 12 cases due to high absenteeism, leaving a total of rejected students males.
Firstly, we performed EFA to detect the specific internal structure of the profile of rejected students at this age. Previously, we tested the assumption of multivariate normality through Mardia's coefficient, which should not exceed the value of 3 to assume multivariate normality Mardia, We applied principal component analysis unbiased for not fulfilling normality , selecting components with eigenvalues greater than 1, with two rotation methods to ensure a better fit: one based on an orthogonal Varimax model, and another oblique Promin model Lorenzo-Seva, , based on polychoric correlations, considering the items as ordinal.
In addition to calculating the solution from the polychoric correlation matrix, this program also provides data for multivariate goodness of fit. We eliminated all items with factor loadings under 0.
We also calculated the internal consistency alpha coefficient, the factor simplicity indexes through Bentler's simplicity index S, Bentler, and the loading simplicity index LS; Lorenzo-Seva, , as well as Cronbach's standardized alpha and the root mean square of residuals RMSR , using the criterion proposed by Kelley Kelley, ; Harman, Next, we tested the structure factor found with CFA, comparing it to three alternative models.
Therefore, we complemented it with other indices that assess model fit Bollen and Long, To determine whether the model is also valid for a sample of different psychometric characteristics, we studied the configural, metric, scalar, and factor mean invariance through multigroup analysis group of rejected and group of average students , with the Satorra-Bentler scaled chi square difference test Satorra and Bentler, , using the program developed by Crawford and Henry We adopted the criterion of Cheung and Rensvold , calculated as the difference between the CFI values, and considering that invariance can be accepted if this difference is less than or equal to 0.
These analyses were conducted with the computer program EQS 6. Finally, two-way multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA was applied to determine possible differences in sociometric status and gender. Partial eta-squared effect sizes are presented: 0. Inter-subject effects were analyzed in order to determine which variables were significantly different.
Mardia's coefficient was However, the skewness or kurtosis values were within normal parameters, as none of the items presented values higher than 2 or 7, respectively West et al. The item to item correlations were low to high, ranging from 0. Were found only four correlations above a 0. Table 1. The best rotated solution was produced with the Promin method, with four related factors, explaining Specifically, we obtained see Spanish items in Appendix : a Being Disadvantaged, consisting of 6 items that explain This factor refers to situations in which the child gets damage from their peers e.
Table 2. The Lagrange multipliers contrast and the Wald test did not indicate significant improvements, so it was not necessary to respecify. The composite reliability was high 0. Discriminant validity was good, as in all cases the extracted variance test was exceeded Table 3.
Table 3. Composite reliability indices, variance extracted indices, and correlations between the factors of the rejected students. Given that there was a significant reduction of items and sample specificity, we compared the fit of the previous model with other alternatives: a four orthogonal independent factors; b a hierarchical model in which the four factors are explained by a second-order factor; and c a univariate model in which all the items explain a single factor.
The fit indices of the four models are shown in Table 4. It can be observed that the fit was not satisfactory in any of the three proposed alternative models, which also presented a higher AIC index. To estimate convergent validity, we correlated the problematic situations factors with the social competence or antisocial behavior displayed in the school setting as measured by the SSBS-2 of Merrell These data are shown in Table 5.
All the correlations were significant, although with a different sign and degree. Response to Own Success had the lowest, albeit significant, negative correlation with Social Competence, and a positive correlation with Antisocial Behavior. Table 5. Firstly, the fit indices of the model applied to the sample of students with average sociometric status were verified. The composite reliability and AVE presented adequate values see Table 6 , as did discriminant validity.
Table 6. Composite reliability indices, extracted variance indices, and correlations between the factors of average students. We subsequently analyzed the factorial invariance, conducting a multigroup analysis without any restrictions see Table 7. The configural model will serve as a baseline for the comparison with the nested models on which successive restrictions will be imposed. The fit indices of this model were also acceptable. If we restrict the factor loadings of the items of this model weak invariance , we obtain acceptable data.
The following nested model adds to the former models the restriction of the intercepts, in order to determine possible scalar invariance. The result was not satisfactory. The Lagrange multipliers contrast suggested freeing the equality restrictions of the intercepts of Items 3, 14, and We subsequently determined possible differences in the means of the latent factors.
In this case, we expected that the invariance assumption would not be met, given that, theoretically, the two groups should obtain different outcomes, as, in fact, occurred. The fit indices of this model were not satisfactory. As a result, equality of means of the latent factors could not be assumed. After confirming the problematic social situations for rejected students, and finding that the model was also explanatory for average students, we determined whether these rejected students' difficulties were greater than those of the control sample made up of students with average sociometric status, and also whether these results were modulated by gender.
The inter-subject effects analysis revealed that rejected students' scores were higher than those of average students in all the factors see Table 8. In the factor Respect for Authority and Rules, the size effect was high. Finally, the effect size of the factor Response to Own Success was small. Table 8. Group differences for factor scores between rejected or average sociometric status.
This work aimed to identify the most relevant problematic social situations for rejected students who had just begun elementary school, through the use of the Taxonomy of Problematic Social Situations for Children TOPS. Rejected children present more difficulties in these situations than their peers—both boys and girls—of average sociometric status.
However, within the group of rejected students, boys have more difficulties in Prosocial and Empathic Behavior. The structural model found for rejected first-grade students presents appropriate fit indices. It is also invariant in the average sample. Our initial hypothesis of a specific structure than that of the original taxonomy was confirmed, like the findings of Matthys et al.
Likewise, they consider other situations that, due to the developmental stage, may not be relevant. The factor that explained the most variance, Being Disadvantaged, corresponds to social situations included in the factors of Peer Group Entry and Response to Provocation from the original taxonomy. In our case, however, in Being Disadvantaged, only the situation in which the student is insulted emerged, but we considered all the intentional and ambiguous provocations, in contrast to Matthys et al.
It must be taken into account that these ages, direct physical aggression is not an isolated behavior although it is highly censored. It may therefore be considered nonproblematic or not exclusive to rejected students, because it is the result of immature behavior, when children are still learning control through self-regulation. This is especially true if the aggression is instrumental.
However, this would not occur at later ages where children are expected to have adequate ability to assess the situation and exert the necessary self-control to deal with it in a socially adaptive way. Similarly, problems with provocation, especially ambiguous provocation, are a consequence of rejected students' difficulties to interpret the social signals and characteristics of the context Dodge et al.
A second factor we found is the Response to authority and rules, which includes situations relevant to the factor Teacher expectations of the original taxonomy, but only those that specifically involve following rules, both in the presence and absence of the teacher, which coincides with the factor that van der Helm et al.
However, unlike the findings of Matthys et al. We note that, at these ages, adult supervision and participation in recess is much more intense, and adults tend to be less strict about following rules, as the main goal is for the children to have fun and rest from academic duties.
However, in later courses, students are allowed more autonomy to establish and maintain social relations, and they are required to follow the rules, many of which should be internalized. But when they are alone in class, even though this occurs only sporadically and for short periods, it is a prototypical and discriminant situation of rule-following, much clearer than on the playground.
The third factor found, Response to Own Success, coincides with the proposal of Dodge, Response to success. Rejected students have difficulties to identify and regulate emotions, displaying socially maladaptive emotional reactions. No item was considered for the factor of Response to failure. At this age, when competing, many children respond differently from older children.
In this sense, other children's success may not necessarily be considered as one's failure, as competitive situations are more diluted than in higher grades, because teachers try to provide all the children with many successful experiences. Other authors grouped these aspects into a single general factor, albeit reduced, related to how children deal with competitive situations, like Coping with Competition Matthys et al. The fourth and last factor, Prosocial and Empathic Behavior, slightly corresponds to Social expectations of the original taxonomy.
It is similar to Peer expectations Matthys et al. These results confirm that rejected students have trouble understanding the feelings of others and performing helping behaviors Bierman, ; Bierman et al. The intensity of rejected students' difficulties in social situations that imply Being Disadvantaged and Respect for Authority and Rules was positively correlated with Antisocial Behavior, especially Hostile, Aggressive, and Disruptive behavior White and Kistner, Rose and Asher noted the importance of paying attention to children's responses to tasks of offering and requesting help.
The lowest, albeit significant, global correlation was between problematic social situations and academic behavior. These results suggest a direct relation between behavioral difficulties and rejection Bierman, However, the relation between such difficulties and academic effectiveness is lower at this age, because students are involved in basic learnings, which depend less on effort and dedication than in higher grades.
As mentioned, the structural model obtained in the sample of rejected and average students is invariant except for the means of the latent factors. Consequently, the two groups differ in the intensity of problematic social situations. In fact, all four types of social situations are significantly more problematic for rejected students. Respect for Authority and Rules, followed by Being Disadvantaged—a factor partly made up of items in Response to Provocation—are the most problematic.
Like Parker and Asher and Dodge et al. Next are Prosocial and Empathic Behavior, and lastly, responding to their own success. Rubin and Hubbard found that rejected children were more likely both to chat and to brag in a game situation. In terms of gender, within the group of rejected children, rejected boys had more trouble with Prosocial and Empathic Behavior than girls, but not in the other situations.
The differences between boys and girls are not caused by the rejection van Lier et al. However, there were no gender differences in the average group. The study of students' problematic social situations at school opens up many possibilities. Firstly, it can help us to understand the variables involved in social situations at ages that have received little attention with regard to peer rejection.
Secondly, because specifically knowing which situations are difficult for rejected students, and differentiating them from those of the average students provides specific intervention guidelines. Hence, interventions would not focus on situations with little discriminant power that could be considered normal for the developmental stage, but on those that differentiate rejected from average students.
In this sense, it is necessary to work on improving students' self-knowledge and self-control, which would give them the skills to follow rules and respect authority. This has a big impact on the formation of their social reputation. We should also enhance emotion identification and regulation to facilitate students' recognizing and emitting the appropriate response to different situations, especially situations involving their own success or intentional and ambiguous provocations.
We should not neglect training in empathy, assertiveness, and prosociality, as they are key skills to know how to respond to situations involving disadvantage, how to ask for help but also to offer help adequately, and how to interpret social signals and the characteristics of the situation. We would have liked to determine whether the model was invariant between boys and girls. The same thing occurs with the students from other countries or subcultures. This would imply the need to considerably increase the initial sample size and given that, at these ages, data collection is done through individual interviews, it would be very difficult to gather sufficient data.
Finally, it is essential to design and assess intervention proposals to prevent and reduce peer rejection at early ages, contextualized in concrete situations in which rejected students have difficulties. This is important because rejection is not yet chronic at these ages, as the social groups are constantly changing, and the students are learning many of the social skills that can make them resilient to frustration concerning their peers.
LM: Designed the study, performed the analysis and interpretation of the data, performed the measurement, and draft the manuscript. MM: Contributed to the study design, performed the measurement and participated in drafting the manuscript. FG: Led the study, coordinated data collection, performed the measurement and helped to draft the manuscript.
IJ: Contributed to the study design, performed the measurement and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank all the students, teachers, and families for their participation.
Akaike, H. A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans. Automatic Control 19, — Anderson, J. Structural equation modelling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Asher, S. Maehr, S. Karabenick, and T. Urdan Bingley: Emerald , — Rubin, W.
Bukowski, and B. Baker, J. Contributions of teacher-child relationships to positive school adjustment during elementary school. Barn, J. K Bentler, P. Factor simplicity index and transformations. Psychometrika 42, — Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Significance test and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures.
Practical issues in structural modeling. Methods Res. Bierman, K. Peer Rejection. Developmental, Processes and Intervention Strategies. Google Scholar. Early childhood precursors and adolescent sequelae of grade school peer rejection and victimization. Child Adolesc. Birch, S. The teacher-child relationship and children's early school adjustment. Blankemeyer, M. A tool for identifying preschoolers' deficits in social competence: the preschool taxonomy of problem situations.
Bollen, K. Testing Structural Equation Models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Bush, S. Shyness and engagement: contributions of peer rejection and teacher sensitivity. Early Child. Cadima, J. The quality of teacher-student interactions: associations with first graders' academic and behavioral outcomes. Cheung, G. Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Cillessen, A. Bukowski and B. Cillessen and W. Cohen, J.
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