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      MYC mutations that can be ascribed to an aberrant somatic hypermutation pattern were also reported [ 49 ]. In the cases investigated by Liu et al. In regard to the association with prognosis, Frontzek et al. Primary effusion lymphoma PEL is a rare and aggressive B cell lymphoma that commonly presents as malignant effusions in the body cavities without detectable tumor masses. A rare subtype of this disease, called extracavitary PEL, presents with solid tumor mass in extranodal sites.

      PEL mostly affects immunocompromised patients, prevalently with HIV infection, or elderly patients, and is generally associated with poor prognosis [ ]. PEL is thought to originate from post-GC B cells with plasmablastic differentiation, malignant cells usually lack B cell markers and immunoglobulin expression, while hold markers of plasma cell differentiation.

      Very little is known about the genomic landscape of PEL, mostly due to the rarity of the disease. PEL is characterized by complex karyotypes with many chromosomal aberrations. Gaidano et al. Unfortunately, resistance mechanisms inevitably emerged, mostly based on ERK pathway reactivation. In this section we outline the main strategies to counteract the aberrant RAS-MAPK signaling that have been evaluated in the different malignancies of the mature B cell. The subclonal nature of leukemias and lymphomas adds a degree of difficulty to the targeting of RAS-MAPK, with single-agent therapy often promoting the emergence of resistant subclones.

      Several combinatorial therapeutic strategies are currently under evaluation. Reviewed clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic approaches are summarized in Table 2. In particular, a case report on the use of vemurafenib in a MM patient with BRAF VE mutation and the absence of RAS aberrations showed durable response with no signs of progressive disease or secondary malignancies after eight months [ ].

      Follow up of the same case was lately reported showing the acquisition of NRAS mutations. In this patient, the use of vemurafenib in combination with PI bortezomib proved to be efficacious [ ]. A subsequent report on the same study revealed that two out of nine MM patients had encouraging and long-lasting responses to treatment, and one additional patient had a shorter response [ ]. Unfortunately, all patients retain residual disease and persistence of ERK phosphorylation at the end of treatment with both vemurafenib or dabrafenib, and the vast majority experience relapse [ , , ].

      In a phase II clinical trial, the combination of sorafenib and the AKT inhibitor perifosine induced a noteworthy response rate in cHL patients, though the disease regression was not durable in the majority of these patients, and induced a partial response in one out of four CLL patients included in the study [ ].

      Sorafenib was also investigated in several preclinical studies. In the context of cHL, sorafenib combined with the HDAC inhibitor Givinostat, synergistically inhibited growth, and induced necroptosis in the cHL cell line and xenograft model [ ]. Moreover, sorafenib modulated cells response to signals from the microenvironment, overcoming stroma-mediated resistance to bortezomib.

      Accordingly, the combination of sorafenib plus bortezomib synergistically reduced tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft MCL model [ ]. In another preclinical study using the FL, DLBCL and BL cell lines, sorafenib induced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation and had a synergistic cytotoxic effect in combination with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin [ ].

      Other strategies demonstrated to be effective in preclinical models. AZD, an antisense oligonucleotide which selectively targets and downregulates all KRAS isoforms, has shown good preclinical efficacy both in in vitro and in vivo models of KRAS mutated MM, both alone or in a combinatory regimen with the PI bortezomib [ ]. Currently, three MEK inhibitors, namely binimetinib, cobimetinib and trametinib, are approved in Europe and US for the treatment of cancer patients [ ].

      MEK inhibitors used as single-agents were also evaluated in MM. Moderate activity was described for the combinations of cobimetinib with the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax, and particular high activity was shown in t 11;14 MM patients [ ]. Furthermore, a synergistic effect in reducing CLL cells survival and proliferation was reported for binimetinib in combination with the AKT inhibitor MK [ ].

      Genetically engineered mouse models are precious tools for the comprehension of cancer biology, that allow to evaluate tumor interactions with the microenvironment, to understand the relevance of specific genetic aberrations, and to test the efficacy of therapeutic agents. In this section we present some examples of constitutive or conditional mouse models recapitulating genetic lesions in the RAS-MAPK pathway genes frequently observed in mature B cell malignancies.

      Reviewed mouse models are summarized in Table 3. The expression of oncogenic Kras G12D has been extensively modeled in the different hematopoietic compartments of transgenic mice. Expression restricted to BM compartment, upon BM transplantation in recipient mice, lead to aggressive T acute lymphoblastic leukemia ALL enriched with Notch1 mutations [ ]. The onset of disease was delayed and the death occurred at an older age in comparison to Kras G12D mice, in line with a weak tumorigenic potential of the AT mutant form [ ].

      In particular, Wang and colleagues investigated the effect of oncogenic Nras G12D signaling in different cellular contexts and in a gradient of expression levels [ ]. The study of Braf VE mutation in the murine hematopoietic compartment was prompted by the almost universal presence of this mutation in HCL cases, found in leukemic cells but also in the HSC and B progenitor cells of patients. The expression of Braf VE in murine HSC resulted in a lethal disorder reminiscent of HCL, characterized by increased self-renewal capacity of early B lineage cells and impairment of myeloid and erythroid differentiation; the use of a BRAF inhibitor reversed the phenotype.

      Of note, the typical morphologic phenotype of hairy cells was not seen. On the contrary, the expression of Braf VE in fetal hematopoietic cells resulted in embryonic lethality, whereas its expression in B lineage cells did not result in HCL or other malignant phenotypes, suggesting that specific alterations in the HSC compartment drive the HCL onset [ ]. Braf VE leukemia was characterized by reduced apoptosis and enhanced immune suppressive effects on the cells of the microenvironment.

      KRAS mutations and mutations in the RAS-MAPK pathway show heterogeneous incidence among mature B cell neoplasms without apparent association with specific B cell differentiation stages or with specific signaling dependencies e. HRAS is only rarely mutated, as observed in solid tumors and in line with the suggested function of a weak oncogene. RAS-MAPK mutations are mostly considered late driver events in mature B cell neoplasms, found both clonally and subclonally, and are often associated with disease progression and drug resistance.

      This observation suggests that RAS-MAPK aberrations mostly need a cooperative genetic event to exert their oncogenic role in the onset and progression of B cell malignancies. In conclusion, while considered an exclusive hallmark of MM for many years, RAS-MAPK mutations turned out to be prominent players in the genomic landscape of mature B cell malignancies, affecting a consistent fraction of patients. As extensive genomic characterization improves, particularly in rare neoplasms, this fraction could further expand.

      Careful characterization is needed to fully elucidate the meaning of these aberrations in mature B cell neoplasms, also in view of the well-established role of KRAS aberrations in promoting an immunosuppressive and tumor protective microenvironment in the context of solid tumors.

      All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Cancers Basel. Published online Jan Chiara Ambrogio, Academic Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Dec 23; Accepted Jan Abstract KRAS mutations account for the most frequent mutations in human cancers, and are generally correlated with disease aggressiveness, poor prognosis, and poor response to therapies.

      RAS-MAPK Signaling RAS proteins are ubiquitously expressed membrane-bound small GTPases that, transducing signals from cell surface receptors to intracellular effector pathways, modulate numerous cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

      Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL is an indolent mature B cell neoplasm representing the most common leukemia in the Western world. Hairy Cell Leukemia Hairy cell leukemia HCL is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by peculiar leukemic cells with abundant cytoplasm and hairy-looking projections.

      Multiple Myeloma Monoclonal expansion of plasma cells in the BM and the abnormal production of immunoglobulins, called M proteins, characterize multiple myeloma MM , also known as plasma cell myeloma. Other Plasma Cell Related Diseases Plasmablastic lymphoma PBL is an aggressive B cell lymphoma with poor prognosis, characterized by large neoplastic cells with plasmablast morphology and plasma cell phenotype.

      PEL is thought to originate from post-GC B cells with plasmablastic differentiation, malignant cells usually lack B cell markers and immunoglobulin expression, while hold markers of plasma cell differentiation Very little is known about the genomic landscape of PEL, mostly due to the rarity of the disease. RAF Inhibitors 4. Preclinical Studies Sorafenib was also investigated in several preclinical studies.

      MEK Inhibitors 4. Co-occurrence of T-ALL in minor fraction of mice. Impairment of splenic architecture with deficiency of GC, increased polyclonal antibody responses over time. KRAS The expression of oncogenic Kras G12D has been extensively modeled in the different hematopoietic compartments of transgenic mice. Conclusions KRAS mutations and mutations in the RAS-MAPK pathway show heterogeneous incidence among mature B cell neoplasms without apparent association with specific B cell differentiation stages or with specific signaling dependencies e.

      Acknowledgments Authors wish to thank Maurizio Faginali for professional illustrations. Author Contributions E. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. References 1. Uprety D. Cancer Treat. Neri A. Ras oncogene mutation in multiple myeloma. Degirmenci U. Drug resistance in targeted cancer therapies with RAF inhibitors. Cancer Drug Resist.

      Cuesta C. Tanaka S. B Cell Receptor Signaling. McLaurin J. Shaffer A. Pathogenesis of human B cell lymphomas. Basso K. Germinal centres and B cell lymphomagenesis. Nadeu F. Genomic and epigenomic insights into the origin, pathogenesis, and clinical behavior of mantle cell lymphoma subtypes. Genetic heterogeneity in primary and relapsed mantle cell lymphomas: Impact of recurrent CARD11 mutations.

      Jain P. Long-term outcomes and mutation profiling of patients with mantle cell lymphoma MCL who discontinued ibrutinib. Chapuy B. Molecular subtypes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma are associated with distinct pathogenic mechanisms and outcomes. Lohr J. Reddy A. Schmitz R. Okosun J. Integrated genomic analysis identifies recurrent mutations and evolution patterns driving the initiation and progression of follicular lymphoma.

      Louissaint A. Love C. The genetic landscape of mutations in Burkitt lymphoma. Grande B. Genome-wide discovery of somatic coding and noncoding mutations in pediatric endemic and sporadic Burkitt lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma pathogenesis and therapeutic targets from structural and functional genomics.

      Richter J. Recurrent mutation of the ID3 gene in Burkitt lymphoma identified by integrated genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing. Tiacci E. Spina V. Circulating tumor DNA reveals genetics, clonal evolution, and residual disease in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Greil R. Sequential immunotherapy in a patient with primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and novel mutations. Landau D. Mutations driving CLL and their evolution in progression and relapse. Puente X. Non-coding recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

      Herling C. Takahashi K. Clinical implications of cancer gene mutations in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with lenalidomide. Gimenez N. Vendramini E. Clinical impact of the subclonal architecture and mutational complexity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. BRAF mutations in hairy-cell leukemia. Waterfall J. Durham B. Genomic analysis of hairy cell leukemia identifies novel recurrent genetic alterations.

      Tschernitz S. Parry M. Cancer Res. Rossi D. The coding genome of splenic marginal zone lymphoma: Activation of NOTCH2 and other pathways regulating marginal zone development. Jallades L. Jaramillo Oquendo C. Pillonel V. High-throughput sequencing of nodal marginal zone lymphomas identifies recurrent BRAF mutations. Hyeon J. Cascione L. Novel insights into the genetics and epigenetics of MALT lymphoma unveiled by next generation sequencing analyses.

      Martinez D. Langabeer S. Widespread genetic heterogeneity in multiple myeloma: Implications for targeted therapy. Cancer Cell. Bolli N. Heterogeneity of genomic evolution and mutational profiles in multiple myeloma. Walker B. Liu Z. Blood Cancer Discov. Ramis-Zaldivar J. Garcia-Reyero J. Frontzek F. Molecular and functional profiling identifies therapeutically targetable vulnerabilities in plasmablastic lymphoma. Navarro A. Molecular Pathogenesis of Mantle Cell Lymphoma.

      Jares P. Molecular pathogenesis of mantle cell lymphoma. Molecular subsets of mantle cell lymphoma defined by the IGHV mutational status and SOX11 expression have distinct biologic and clinical features. Pasqualucci L. Genetics of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Alizadeh A. Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling. Rosenwald A. The use of molecular profiling to predict survival after chemotherapy for diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma.

      Davis R. Chronic active B-cell-receptor signalling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Ngo V. Oncogenically active MYD88 mutations in human lymphoma. Mandelbaum J. Pfeifer M. Morin R. Somatic mutations altering EZH2 Tyr in follicular and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of germinal-center origin. Muppidi J. Loss of signalling via Galpha13 in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma. Iqbal J. BCL2 translocation defines a unique tumor subset within the germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

      Intlekofer A. Blood Cancer J. Nedergaard T. Rahrmann E. Knief J. Oncogenic mutations and chromosomal aberrations in primary extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the thyroid--a study of 21 cases. Aggarwal N. Thyroid carcinoma-associated genetic mutations also occur in thyroid lymphomas. Milpied P. Follicular lymphoma dynamics. Carbone A. Follicular lymphoma. Pastore A. Integration of gene mutations in risk prognostication for patients receiving first-line immunochemotherapy for follicular lymphoma: A retrospective analysis of a prospective clinical trial and validation in a population-based registry.

      Lancet Oncol. Green M. Mutations in early follicular lymphoma progenitors are associated with suppressed antigen presentation. Egan C. The mutational landscape of histiocytic sarcoma associated with lymphoid malignancy. Pericart S. Subsequent development of histiocytic sarcoma and follicular lymphoma: Cytogenetics and next-generation sequencing analyses provide evidence for transdifferentiation of early common lymphoid precursor-a case report and review of literature.

      Virchows Arch. Elenitoba-Johnson K. Involvement of multiple signaling pathways in follicular lymphoma transformation: pmitogen-activated protein kinase as a target for therapy. Schmidt J. Dozzo M. Burkitt lymphoma in adolescents and young adults: Management challenges. Health Med. Molyneux E. Zhang J.

      Identification of clinical molecular targets for childhood Burkitt lymphoma. Wagener R. Mathas S. Hodgkin lymphoma: Pathology and Biology. Kuppers R. Reichel J. Flow sorting and exome sequencing reveal the oncogenome of primary Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Wienand K. Genomic analyses of flow-sorted Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells reveal complementary mechanisms of immune evasion. Blood Adv. Venanzi A. Ahmed Z. Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk.

      Mottok A. Integrative genomic analysis identifies key pathogenic mechanisms in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Fabbri G. The molecular pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Tadmor T. Guieze R. Genomic and epigenomic heterogeneity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Dal Bo M. CD49d prevails over the novel recurrent mutations as independent prognosticator of overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

      Bulian P. CD49d is the strongest flow cytometry-based predictor of overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leeksma A. Clonal diversity predicts adverse outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Sellar R. Roos-Weil D. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. Del Giudice I. Clonal dynamics towards the development of venetoclax resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

      Pandzic T. Murali I. Genomics of Hairy Cell Leukemia. Grever M. Hairy cell leukemia: Update on molecular profiling and therapeutic advances. Blood Rev. Kamiguti A. Regulation of hairy-cell survival through constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Pettirossi V. BRAF inhibitors reverse the unique molecular signature and phenotype of hairy cell leukemia and exert potent antileukemic activity.

      Weston-Bell N. This wound, which still reddens my breast with bloody droplets, I shall place before his eyes; and in such a way I shall make him firmly believe that inevitably shall come ruin and deaths which will make these roofs drip with other blood before long, and will turn every joy into weeping.

      Celinda, A Tragedy 83 May the queen of the Persians, by my death afflicted, while yet living conspire with her dead daughter, and may Hell conspire to the detriment of the wicked one, so that he may die, and with him may fall to ruin and perish, together with his beloved, this kingdom. Those rays which shone later in her charming eyes, imitated masterfully by an industrious paintbrush on the animated canvas, were chains and arrows 15 which made knots in my soul and wounds in my breast so that I left my father, my high estate, and my kingdom, and came here, where Love directed me.

      In the dress of a slave girl 20 I made my body her servant, for over my heart she held dominion. And I was worthy to be her lover and husband. Thus Love triumphs over loving hearts; thus are his edicts oblique and twisted. He pointed out to me that treasure which, once seen, in a flash disappeared. E fui qual donna caramente accolto, 45 Dove in processo poi di giorni e mesi Frutti gustai de le mie ardenti fiamme, Che non invidio il gran tonante Giove Ne gli amorosi suoi furtivi amplessi.

      Celinda, A Tragedy 87 You transport lovers from the port of joys into the sea of tears. You revealed to my eyes that vivid ray from heaven, the flame of hearts, the food of souls, 40 for which, following glorious Hercules, I did not refuse to cinch a skirt to my flank, to wind a spindle, to curl my locks, to make up stories among the chaste maidservants.

      Who rebukes me and calls me from my sweet amorous sojourns, and from the field of Love to that of Mars? Ah me! The spirit of the baleful Eusina my death predicts in wretched dreams with nocturnal specters. Rise now, effeminate Autilio, for that day I have so much desired is revealed as today, 70 when to an end the war will come, together with your life, and with the life also of that woman whom you love so much.

      It was not in my power to lodge another woman where Celinda resided. Restrain, restrain, O soul noble and beautiful if my prayers avail , that fiery desire 90 which so presses you in your greed for vengeance, for I promise to raise your shrine upright in my kingdom; and every day, I swear, full of pure and holy zeal, I shall honor the tomb of your chaste remains 95 with Arabian perfumes and sacred incenses. And if for my blood you thirst so much, and you long for my soul to be in the shadowy abysses together with you among fierce torments, at least toward her who has not offended you, show yourself benign; and I, content with this great hope, to the Stygian realms36 will come to pay due tribute to your spirit for my suffering so eager.

      Already it is time to set down my skirt and mantle, my feminine name, my golden locks, and in their stead with steel to dress my limbs, and against my father to fly out. Even more so because this womanly dress cannot excuse me in the eyes of the woman to whom Heaven made me subject. Ma che? Che non mi scopro al padre? Celinda, A Tragedy 93 she saw me, her beloved knight and lover, remain effeminate and soft among the comforts of peace?

      But wait! Shall I, an iniquitous son, therefore stain with paternal blood my very own hands? Shall I turn weapons against him who for me wages war indomitably? Shall I deprive of their souls those faithful peoples over whom the world and Heaven have declared me king? In what a sea of thoughts do I miserably waver? Tender compassion for my dear father, and the innocent blood of my vassals that will be shed, and that which I owe to this king of Lydia, along with the common good which must be followed by those destined for rule by Heaven , to do this urge me; but jealous fear of making known my amorous error not only to the king of the Persians but also to the king of Lydia and to the whole world as well is a tight rein that holds me back by force.

      And more than any other thing, it is forbidden me by Love, Love who does not consent that I do anything by which I might for a moment of my beloved darling ever be deprived. I shall not make war on my father, but in the case of greatest need I shall make my breast the shelter and shield of the sire of my beautiful lover.

      O new Aurora, O new horror I meant to say, I discern and perceive you unusually haughty. I shall return where a more beautiful Aurora I hope to see, if with dew her soft, white breast she has not sprinkled, because it is necessary for her to leave a new Tithonus. Or that his warlike inimical people 5 might damage the city or the kingdom?

      I shall forestall his plans. I shall ensure that the Persian king will not be able to damage my city and kingdom, though powerful in gold and in arms 10 he comes against us. And well you know what forces prepared I have to oppose against fury so great, and how the esteem for my daring and my glory rises high among warlike rulers. Celinda, A Tragedy 97 well can one reason whether, girded up for this war, my daring, strength, and valor are likely to fail me.

      I do not however approve that, in prey to anger like a common man, my lord abandons himself completely. Rather, let him act as a prudent king who at all times with the eye of justice discerns 35 which are the ruses, which the deceptions used nowadays in the courts by the impious disdainers of peace, those who under a veil of service, of feigned love, do whatever they can to disperse and dissolve it.

      Without scorn wrathful, and without wrath scornful, welcome the fierce invitation, and let your response be equal to the proposal 50 of this war, which an impious hand plotted. Every thought in my mind it is permitted you to spy out, along with the deep recondite secrets of my heart, 75 which from you were never concealed. And how agreeable to his requests I have proven myself, and how courteous, you know also, when he oh great boldness!

      And very nearly within the rooms 90 they were introduced of my daughter, to be better able fully of my sincere faith to be reassured. Thereupon he boldly with a powerful army arrived at the port, such that it is certainly necessary that today I demonstrate my undefeated power with this right hand. Counselor Not that I dare, lord, in the least to deflect from your proposed will your royal mind; but with a few words now I would like to tell Your Highness what in such a case my loyalty suggests, and my years, because an aged mind sometimes gazes where the fervor of the blood does not allow warlike intellects to reach.

      Cubo My venerable faithful one, in circumstances prosperous or adverse always I deemed your wisdom hoary in conformity with your hair, nor now must I refuse your mature counsel at the greatest need. Gli tengo a forza il figlio? Cubo Gli dei certo non fur. Predir il falso Non suol celeste nume. Therefore by this impelled, I will advise you to mellow your wrath somewhat against the great king of the Persians, because perhaps he has just cause to be enraged.

      Cubo What just cause to be enraged? Do I hold by force his son? Is he perhaps my prisoner? Where does he dwell? Counselor You do not have his son as a prisoner. He thinks so because he does not hold as baseless the pronouncements of the gods. Cubo It was certainly not the gods.

      A celestial deity is not accustomed to make false pronouncements. Counselor The oracle of Apollo to him predicted46 that his son was subject to Lydia and subjugated by the royal crown, and in the furor of arms today he is to find him. Counselor It was true that plotters in great numbers from your court, rebellious against your kingdom, to him offered themselves. Although a presage of future things unknown to him, he suspected those tidings. But he had recourse to the gods; while he immolated, kneeling at the altar of the holy deity, a fat bull whiter than snow, with veiled auguries and obscure indications he received a response just such as the fortuneteller gave him: that in Lydia was his son, and that war and not peace would give him to him in the end.

      Delighted at such a response he rose up humbly, and started over with an even worthier sacrifice in honor of great Mars. Subsequently he also, with that majesty which to a king is appropriate, proudly has arrived to direct the siege around these city walls. Now whether a just cause to this urges him, or whether wrongfully the war he undertakes, I do not dare to determine, because truly whatever might come from Heaven I do not clearly discern.

      For the human mind is foolish, just like the eye of the lowly bat which by the light of the sun is dazzled, when audaciously it tries to spy out the irrevocable laws and the great decrees of Fate and of the eternal deities.

      You might welcome him within your superb kingdom, for perhaps satisfied with the principle being granted, he will find repugnant so false a suspicion; and meanwhile benign Heaven perhaps will return him his son among so many ranks of men armed, bellicose, and strong.

      Consigliero Tanto appunto, signor, quanto conviensi Al tuo saper, a le tue forze invitte. But first I want to go worship humbly the sacrosanct and venerable deities with sacrifices and vows, and by the auspices of Heaven and of the gods reassured, I will place myself on the field for the perilous battle.

      Counselor Just so much, lord, as is appropriate to your wisdom, to your indomitable strength. I thank lofty Jove for having been set to serve a king so just, for if rightly I discern, from Heaven his every good the wise man expects. Mad is he who for pride against Heaven contends, and who for great kingdoms and for immense riches disdains the Mover of the world. To these, to these will be an eternal example the horrendous monsters who, in battling against Heaven, left in the Phlegraean Fields their thunderstruck remains.

      Why so hurried? Why among doubts and fears 15 does your infirm mind whirl? Tell me, if of such grace by now I seem to you worthy, my dear daughter, the cause so cruel that moves you at dawn to sigh. You know well my loyalty and my way of dealing with matters. Celinda I cannot deny, Nurse, nor must I, that for overflowing grief an ailing mind 30 I bear, and an afflicted heart.

      Therefore in my visage sometimes a flicker of internal anguish reveals itself to others, even though in vain I attempt to close it up so that it does not show outside. Ma lassa! Celinda Dear Nurse, it is indeed true, for not well can a wretched heart keep concealed the grief that it encloses.

      In what manner 55 shall I loosen this tongue to start listing my many troubles? And how shall I of my shames be the accuser? O Heaven, first blast me with lightning and thunder! Nurse Therefore so little faith in my faithfulness you have, O daughter? Therefore my blood, 65 which as a baby you sucked, in you is unable to entreat for me today so slight a grace? Ah, unhappy wretch! A poorly appreciated servant of so beloved a daughter.

      Nutrice Ahi, lassa, Ahi, me dolente, Ahi, sfortunata vecchia, Ahi, povera nutrice! Seek no further, if for your daughter you do not want to procure 75 a thousand deaths in one single death. Nurse Alas! Aiee, what suffering! Aiee, unlucky old woman! Aiee, poor nurse! Is this therefore the joy that I hoped for? Is this the knot 80 with which Hymen binds you to a glorious king? Thus it is given to me to see your august offspring?

      Celinda Restrain, O Nurse, your weeping, for your excessive anguish, 90 just like fuel for a blazing fire, adds pain to my heart. Be quiet and console yourself, and live in the certainty that your living on after my death will make my soul pass on content and in peace.

      And what error have you committed so grave that it might induce you to die? Celinda It must not be called an error where the blame is held by Love. It was precisely Love who constrained me to be my own shame and humiliation.

      Celinda He pretends to be blind, the little child god, so as to bring to lovers under a mendacious light now joy, now sorrows. Nurse If he blindfolded my eyes at the greatest need, alas! Celinda, A Tragedy Celinda With flattery and promises of giving a nobler mantle to these limbs, he undressed me of that one; whereas naked and deceived the false liar in the end has left me.

      Nurse Dry your tears, daughter, for your visage of alabaster, tinted suddenly with the vermilion of roses, and your tremulous voice make known to me great things. Tell me, by all means if not with a delighted, at least with a sad brow , from the beginning, of this love the whole story, for to the same extent I feel my grief lighten, just as much as my hope grows to be able to give you aid.

      Celinda In my circumstances one cannot hope for aid. And certainly in vain you attempt to root out from this heart the bitter cares. Nurse Do you plan to conceal this case of love, or to make it plain? If it can be concealed, do not doubt that I will help, but if so far it has gone on that concealed it cannot be from the great king your father and my lord, let every remedy be attempted before death, the extremest of every harm.

      Let follow what may, provided that you remain alive. Perhaps it was the page Urino, that good-looking boy who many times spoke with you, as I saw with these eyes, and I kept mum? He so gracefully, now loosing, now taking up the bit, once he had circled the great square, moved quickly in the course, nimbly at the jump, always with his eyes upon your visage intent. For this reason, it is difficult for me to imagine that you so far beyond have sped in love with him, or with another, that he might have stolen away your beautiful virginal flower.

      Celinda Ah, Nurse, Nurse. Therefore you dare with baseness to taint Celinda, the princess of Lydia? Or therefore I might not refuse with the women of Sparta to go as a peer, a violated girl and not a proud queen? Con nodo maritale Seco Imeneo mi stringe, Egli a me vive, io vivo a lui consorte. Parvi materia questa, Da lasciarne la vita? For me he lives, and I live for him, as consorts. Does this seem to you a reason to abandon life? Tell me, for I am consumed with desire and joy, no longer with grief and trouble.

      Celinda Do you know that noble damsel, Lucinia, my dear and welcome servant, faithful secretary of my thoughts? Eh figlia! Nutrice Che mi dite? Nutrice E come si scoperse? Celinda, A Tragedy at that door which to your rooms is opposite, in the garden. Celinda Not the procuress, but the means most apt, she was of my failure. Nurse What do you tell me?

      What do I hear? Then he has deceived you with lying garb, the very knight on whose behalf war and death his haughty father against your kingdom declares? Celinda Both he and I have ended up wretched and deceived by that boy who all the world ensnares.

      Nurse And how did he reveal himself? You well know that the king my father brought him to me in the first place, as a slave girl from Ireland, whom a foreign merchant to him conducted, like other captives both Persian and Moorish whom he had brought here. When in the end the king my father gave her to me now I shall call him her, for a woman still I believed her , for a long time with me she dwelled before showing she burned for me; but she made herself to me so, so agreeable that of light deprived I seemed without her, and half alive.

      At last her amorous blaze had progressed so far that by now it barely was contained within her incapacious breast, so that her beautiful visage actually faded, as when in the excessive heat of the burning sun a rose is seen to languish, shaken from its honors charming and vermilion; and with ardent sighs which were messengers of her heart to me she made known her burning ardor. Celinda, A Tragedy I want you to be to me, and let my joys with you be held in common.

      She, trembling, pulled the white linens tightly to her chest, and she looked at me silently. I yet further pursued; the more she hid herself, the more I still kept trying to uncover her. Celinda Love, who had plotted my harm, wanted me to administer also my shames. And so, there I went, where the feigned Lucinia on soft cushions remained infirm and languishing.

      He drew from it a work rich and precious wherein sculpted was my image, and in a long story he recounted his amorous fire: how little he cared about the love of Eusina, the daughter of his stepmother, whom the king his father wanted to give him as wife, together with her despising the great empire of Thrace.

      This was because he had turned toward me, his dear beloved who had become the idol of his heart, the thoughts and wishes for which, in secretly leaving his paternal kingdom, he was then the cause that unhappy Eusina, to herself cruel, by a desperate desire, by her unrequited love burned and impelled, opened her breast with her own naked blade. After that, he became in his demeanor humble and charming; kneeling, he prayed that of his so-great daring I would make the correction, by taking away his life, which to him was valuable only in order to serve me.

      At the sudden and never-foreseen shams discovered, at the unsuspected frauds, at the unprecedented incident, think, my Nurse, what state I was in. Celinda, A Tragedy of being held infamous and a murderess, since he wanted then with a naked knife to pierce his chest. Here, Nurse, begins the story, miserable and sorrowful, of my lost virginity.

      He won in the end, thanks to cruel Love; therefore, joining to this hand of mine his no less strong than amorous hand, of his faithfulness a firm pledge to be my bridegroom he gave. Ah, night more beautiful than every other, but more than every other faithless and wretched! In thinking of it I feel my heart melt like cold snow in the sun on a bright hill. Nurse Ah, Night!

      There never was nor will be one than you more malicious and wicked. There is yet worse, for the king my father by now of nothing else thinks than with my nuptials, ah me! Nurse Momentous indeed is the cause, and grave, which induces you to suffer. But console in part your grief, for with a happy fate Heaven will steal away your many cares. Nutrice Con le lagrime vostre Giungete duolo a duolo.

      Nurse Temper, daughter, your amorous blaze. Nurse With your tears you add grief to grief. What course of action must be taken to bring to an end the horrible war which for her has already arisen? Celinda, A Tragedy for as the prey of a lover who wears enemy insignia, only at adverse fortune would I rejoice. Nurse And if alas! Celinda I fear not, my Nurse, with Autilio in the field for such is the name of my Lucinia , that the squadrons of the enemy might cause my father humiliation and outrage.

      Nurse What do you mean, Autilio in the field? If indeed in a short skirt, with long tresses, unarmed, with you he stays, and slothful? Bellicose in demeanor, to wage war against both my heart and also Heaven, he intends to go into the field to the perilous battle.

      He hopes, with the continued life of the king my father, to find certain victory. Nurse May Heaven permit it. But because I seem to hear people around here, let us go into the palace, for more honorably you will be able to espy of the battlefield and of the war every secret from the highest balcony. Chorus of Ladies61 O dear, O sacred Peace,62 O daughter of great Jove, O eternal preserver of the lovely eternal circuits of the wandering planets, from the realms where there is no winter, where it does not thunder or rain, turn toward us with pity your holy eyes, and with celestial help give peace to souls, and to hearts, life.

      You who yoked first to the curved plow the oxen, and a rustic hand you allowed to gather from the fertile bosom of the ancient mother as many fruits as are distributed to nature, by nature, and art, defend those who pray to you. Thus the peaceful state we will enjoy of sweet, beloved repose.

      But why are you so sorrowful and so pensive? Come, clear away every fear, every fright, 15 every figment of horror from your soft breast. Although now with a thousand armed ranks the enemy king has encircled our kingdom, less reason it provides for you to take fright.

      Lucinia Mother, and my lady for so I must out of reverence and love call you , if within the royal apartments to seek me a wearisome care 40 drew you, in vain you roamed. Listen, I will tell you the reason. Therefore I, full of horror, here where my foot drew me more than my heart, find myself in the end, 50 without knowing where to wander or to turn.

      Armilla Out of the terror of portents, happy and lucky auguries compassionate Heaven often promises us, and their secrets the gods cover under a mantle of horror. From a servant it will make you a lady and a queen. Lucinia, now more precious garments 70 will be seen to adorn your graceful limbs, and your beautiful golden hair, now artless, artfully perhaps unkempt, will be seen decorated with gems and gold; to it will yield in charm both gems and gold.

      Did his daughter consent to obey him? Armilla I will see you yourself on a lofty throne seated, shining in purple and in gold, and from the servile yoke your neck released, and a royal crown encircle your hair. Lucinia Voi, signora, stringete in picciol fascio Gran cose, alte promesse Che in sol pensarle impallidisco e tremo. As a humble servant to my king I want to live.

      For limbs yet worthier let the scepter and mantle 95 be reserved, and let the royal crown encircle other locks, worthier because royal-blooded. With a simple veil my unkempt tresses let me instead encircle, and dress my flank with a lowly skirt appropriate to my humble fortune. Armilla Lowly attire does not cover your noble light, nor how much it is proud and fine, for a regal majesty shines through you, as well our king knows.

      He is already so taken with your many divine endowments that his heart cannot contain the blaze and the fire which for you burn him, consume and undo him. Therefore to ask you to wife he is resolved. Just now he has urged me on with such a request, and with tokens of faith as well he sends me, which you see here.

      In the private room he awaits us, where he as a witness will call Jove, with Hymen, with the other gods. And as a sign of faith he promises to adorn your right hand with a golden gem, and to make you in the end the consort of his life and of his kingdom.

      Lucinia You, lady, clasp in a small bundle great matters, momentous promises, such that in merely thinking of them I grow pale and tremble. That he desires me as his consort, and requests it— as an unmerited and undesired grace I recognize it, and it grieves me that I do not have a way to thank His Highness. Deh, scaccia ogni spavento, ogni temenza!

      Non creder, figlia, a i sogni, Che di rado o non mai Fede suol prestar loro alma prudente. Armilla Daughter, two are the gates, ivory the one, of horn the other, from which issue dreams; from the former the false ones, the true ones emerge from the latter. Certainly this one of yours was to the truth I adhere a lying, horrid phantasm which came to you through the ivory door, not at all a truthful dream.

      Do not believe, daughter, in dreams, for rarely or never is a prudent soul accustomed to put faith in them. Ma che sogno? Fu vision verace. The immortal soul, into the divinity of itself withdrawn at that time, becomes such that it penetrates and discerns them as in a lucid mirror, or in a transparent and limpid crystal.

      It was a truthful vision. Then, roaring, a fierce lion appeared which with claws and with bites wounded and killed now this one, now that one. With his talons he tore them apart into shreds and more shreds, sating with these his greedy hungers. He was horribly brawling with another lion which had shortly before come out from the great gate of the royal palace, near the passageway, and strong, armed ranks of bold soldiers followed him, ready to share with the lion an equal fortune.

      Upon a ferocious courser seated, I appeared to wield the lance and sword and to make with my blood the weapons vermilion in the service of that lion which I too followed. In the end I saw him defeated and bound and captured, led to the depths of eternal oblivion. Celinda, A Tragedy not only the battlefield thunder around us, but all of Lydia and the innermost valleys. From the great roar she was fleeing, no less than I; and upon seeing me a fugitive in my actions, from my flight she learned even greater flight.

      Then chagrined and sorrowful and indeed of death desirous, toward the point of my naked blade, which my right hand held gripped, the wretch turned her breast and transfixed herself. Now if my fear is vain, you yourself tell me, and whether today I have reason to rejoice. Resta tu lieta, figlia, E dando pace al core Rasserena il bel guardo. Come, let the delirium draw to a close.

      Let us go inside the palace; already the hour has passed that the king to me prescribed. Lucinia As usual, to the rooms of Celinda I will go, to come later at the command of my lord. There I will be waiting. Armilla So be it. You be happy, daughter. And as merit above every other woman it gave you, no less will it grant you supreme felicity. But what sobs, ah me, what sad presages 10 of tears are these, and of sighs?

      Clear up, my sun, your vivid rays,70 15 and chase away the clouds by which they are mantled with a moist veil, revealing in the fair theater of your comely visage your usual happy beauty with its emblems; from these will have no shelter or protection 20 the ranks of the enemy, by you so greatly feared.

      O beautiful right hand, O dear beloved pledge71 of friendship and of peace, how can I, under auspices so grand, 25 fear bonds or chains or a hard encounter? Rather, why must I not hope happily for a fine victory and a fortunate outcome? Why do you despair of delight and joy? Celinda With Lucinia every light 30 alas! No other grief strikes at my heart, 35 for no other cause did I ever learn how grief teaches people to distill tears outwardly, than for this one.

      Now that for departure I see you ready, my heart fears. Nor does reasoning have the force 40 to decrease my grief even a little bit, for just as a fire by the wind is reinforced, so too by contrary reasonings my grief advances more. So much yours I am; yours forever and ever 55 I want to be; and I shall want it until of my mortal, fragile burden the bitter Fate severs the thread and gives me to the lap of Death.

      Trust in this, O dear, O beautiful soul of my soul, for whom I breathe. And more, I swear to you as well, by that torch which in your beautiful eyes 70 Love placed, not to change my mind if first I do not cross Lethe or Acheron. Let Mars wake me all the way from sleep to weapons.

      Let the trumpets invite me, along with the neighing of the proud coursers, to the wearisome 75 risk of battle. Let helm and breastplate of my tresses and skirt take the place. Let it not be, however, that I, a warrior lover, from the insignia of Love stray or depart. I want to pursue the martial contest 80 only as far as Love allows. A suoi fedeli Amor gli onori e le vittorie acquista. Celinda, A Tragedy I want to lay down my skirt, my girdle, and my tresses— weapons precious and dear 85 with which I, his audacious champion, until now have soldiered.

      And here onto my flank I want the beautiful hand which grips my heart to gird my golden sword; and to your glory I want to dress in other arms, to go fearlessly to the field 90 where your father-in-law has assembled a host great and powerful to the ruin of your beloved kingdom, and then to go forth ingloriously I do not fear.

      For his faithful followers, honors and victories Love acquires. Victorious will be my return. I will conduct to you as a prisoner the king my father. Come, look at your faithful bridegroom. Turn upon me tranquilly the dear light of your vivid eyes, so that from them vigor ever greater by their rays may be inspired in my breast; do not let it be disturbed by weeping.

      Celinda Oh, wretched, unhappy, unfortunate Celinda, princess of grief, rich in sorrows, poor in delights, queen only in name, and maidservant in effect! Between two fierce, contrary, harsh desires my uncertain heart is suspended, nor does it know where to turn. The one wants me to follow you; the other wants me to flee you. Io mai fuggirvi? Ah, dunque io seguirovvi Vostra fedel consorte, Vostra leal amante, Tra le fortune avverse e le feconde!

      I ever flee you? Sooner trees will be made green again by Winter; from their bed sooner the rivers will flee; and sooner from my body the soul will flee than I from you will flee. Ah, therefore I will follow you as your faithful consort, your loyal lover, among fortunes both adverse and propitious.

      But what pain ever in the fair kingdom of Love to another was offered that might compare to this my unhappy desire? But if I think about parting, for excessive pain I feel myself waste away. Not so speedily does tender grass, cut off by a fierce scythe, dry up, as I with such a thought am drained of blood. Lucinia A fierce and cruel lord, an unjust judge Love must be called when one he inflames and the other he freezes, and with contrasting desires at two hearts he aims.

      But we in discord or with impious desires kindled are not, no! Nor is our situation such that we might justly chide his laws, for if Fortune to us just as rebellious shows herself, as on the other hand Love is propitious, if with a single arrow in our hearts he made the blow sweet and the wound equivalent, a just and dear lord, not cruel, let us call Love. Ahi, lassa!

      O labbra o rose, spento Veggio il vostro vermiglio, e ancor io vivo? Che deggio far? Perhaps to come forth you attempt, although untimely? Do not make it plain, my dear and beloved son, conceived in joy and now nourished in tears. Ah me, who steals me away?

      Hold me up, ah me! I am falling, alas. Lucinia O Juno, great goddess, O of those to be born the author, O kindly goddess of childbirth, my bride, my darling, my soul, I recommend her completely to you, ah me! Ah me, what sorrow stabs your heart? O lips, O roses, extinguished I see your vermilion, and yet I live? What must I do?

      Lucinia Che pensate, mia vita, Far eterna partita? Celinda, A Tragedy a remedy to so much sorrow. But it seems she is coming to. Ah me, I breathe again. Celinda Aiee, Death, friendly Death, oh do not depart, do not leave! Ah me, to their pitiless, hateful duties my afflicted spirits return. Lucinia What! Are you thinking, my life, of departing forever? Celinda Deprived of me, my lord, you shall not be for long. Neither with me shall die this my heart, because, so that it would live, in you Love has enclosed it.

      Lucinia A single spirit will give life to two bodies, so perhaps we both shall live happier than is now promised us by wicked Fortune. Today as a messenger of the king, a messenger of Love, to me came Armilla. Momentous embassies from your sire she brought me, and said that he wants me for his lover and his bride, the consort of his bed and his kingdom, and this evening in the soft bed I should lie with him and his desire fulfill.

      Celinda, A Tragedy Celinda Here is the very one you speak of. Lucinia Ah me! Do not be disturbed. Celinda Yes, if only, wretched me! I might be able to do so much. Celinda Exalted lord and father, it is certainly right, if you must toil in war, 10 and upon your regal limbs the heavy burden impose of weapons at that age precisely which asks for quiet and repose, that also your daughter at so much motion revives, and fears.

      Cubo Not of tender affection, but of a spirit lowly and completely base 30 both weeping and fear are evidence. Chase away, chase away from yourself such wicked enemies, if you want to be a dear and beloved daughter to me. If you evince a spirit entirely regal, it demonstrates effects in conformity with your royal blood.

      I marvel and am amazed that at a more tender age a stronger heart you demonstrated, at the time when enemies more serious and more powerful 40 waged war on my kingdom. Go by all means into the palace, and together with you the Nurse, and let the great ladies of the court prepare the celebrations for victory, along with the worthiest women of my kingdom.

      Celinda, A Tragedy your soul, and your limbs with a superb mantle with royal purple intertwined, and with gold. Chorus of Ladies Of so worthy a lord, of a spirit so indomitable, 55 these are indeed worthy words.

      Let us all be consoled. And you O lady who in the guise of a beautiful sun shine all around, such that from you the kingdom has light , live cheerfully and with a magnificent show. For since usually to me Heaven is friendly, always propitious to my desired endeavors, it will grant me that, now an old father, I shall see myself rejuvenate cheerfully 75 like a new Aeson,81 not by way of enchantments, but through the valor of your fertile offspring, in whom in spite of time and death I shall live for a thousand lustrums,82 and a thousand ages.

      Clear up therefore, now clear up your brow, 80 nor allow it anymore to turn sad and disturbed, but upon my breast lay down your cares. Cubo Cosi permetteran, figlia, li dei. Ma vedi ecco venire la tua nutrice, La tua fida custode. Resti meco Lucinia, ordeni e leggi Abbia da noi segrete, e poi ti segua.

      Cubo Such will the gods permit, daughter. But see, here comes your Nurse, your faithful guardian. Now you with her go off toward the private rooms. Let Lucinia stay with me. Secret orders and directives let her have from us, and then let her follow you. Lucinia Your will is my law. Cubo And you, wise Nurse, into whose safekeeping, into whose tending I have given my delights and my dearest and most beloved treasure, guard my daughter, and from her heart chase away with your speech these fears.

      A me, nella cui mano Sta il disporne a mia voglia? Celinda Father and lord, since you command it, I depart. Cubo Go, daughter. May Heaven give you as much delight and joy as it gave you beauty. A king who has the knowledge together with the forces to subjugate provinces and kingdoms? And shall I tolerate it, that a woman base and illborn, 5 whom I honor with my love, refuses to return my love? In whose hand it lies to dispose of her according to my whim? I made known to you my love; it was told you by Armilla, 10 the faithful secretary of my wishes.

      You heard from her how through my heart a blaze is snaking, even more fiercely and more voraciously since I know that for you with your foolishness a pyre it shall form, 15 where the lethal flame of my anger will ignite and burn you and scatter you. Spregiar il mio? Ma vaglia in tua difesa Che pregia pudicizia alma ben nata. Ma dove tu ricusi? Ove non vaglia. Lucinia Quai potenti nemici han congiurato 45 Contra lo stato mio, lassa e dolente?

      But one can say in your defense that a wellborn soul prizes chastity. But when do you refuse? When it is not applicable. Honor is secure, with the knot of Hymen to join you to your lord as a dear consort; to your lord, who wants to make you a queen, 30 to give you a scepter in hand, a crown on your locks. Blame or punishment one does not have, who does not deserve it. And perhaps I should believe what about you the crowd whispers: that you like to go freely wandering.

      Lucinia What powerful enemies have conspired 45 against my condition, poor sad me? I contemptuous of you? Or of your commands? I am not so crazy as not to know that I, thanks to Heaven which gave me as much light and knowledge as miseries and pains, 50 am a servant, and a humble servant of a king as powerful as he is great and just. Che ne direbbe il regno?

      Ah, pria di me si faccia Spettacolo funesto al regno intorno! And if as the queen and the lady 65 of my dear lord I dared to raise up to highest matrimony my infirm wishes— in that case, what woman was ever notorious for boldness like mine? What would the kingdom say? What would your exalted daughter say? If from a humble maidservant, or rather one bought for money as a slave girl, she saw me become her stepmother? Ah, may Heaven take away the veil of blindness from your eyes.

      Ah, sooner let of me be made a mournful spectacle for the whole realm. Only let me perish before others come to desire my death, 85 before Earth and Heaven hold me in their wrath. Lucinia Reggon ben i pensier, non la ragione.

      Cubo Invincibil sei tu, qual Idra fiera. Cubo If entreaties cannot, force can. Cubo It is right when frenzied Love spurs him on. Lucinia Love does not force, where reason is opposed. Cubo Reason is not there, where the senses rule. Lucinia He cannot command who was born a servant and a slave. Lucinia Certainly they rule thoughts, not reason.

      Cubo And yet by the senses reason is defeated? Lucinia He is never defeated who is born invincible. Cubo You are invincible, like a fierce Hydra. Lucinia Niun felice in questa vita vive. Cubo Vivrei felice nel morirti in braccio. Cubo Defeat your cruelty, in loving me.

      Lucinia He cannot win who does not abhor caprices. Cubo In this he endures toil, whoever is mortal. Lucinia With toil man ends up glorious. Lucinia No one in this life lives happily. Cubo I would live happily when dying in your arms. Lucinia As by the sun a small cloud is defeated, just so death cuts short our pleasures. Cubo Therefore you are disposed sooner to die than to delight me? Vil femmina del volgo Voi che con tuo disnor, con la tua morte Faccia le voglie mie paghe e contente?

      Vattene a le tue stanze, e quivi aspetta Di veder di te stessa un fiero scempio. Non creder o pensar che nel vederti Morirti di desio Io mi prenda diletto; Troppo, troppo aspra e fiera Sarei, troppo inumana, Che sol da la tua vita Pende questa mia vita. Celinda, A Tragedy Refusing in me both a lover and a consort? You, a base woman of the mob, who with your dishonor, with your death might satisfy and content my wishes?

      I shall do it to your disrepute, and that body which I wished to see adorned, with a royal mantle enwrapped, I will enjoy exposing nude to the furor of the soldiers, and then chased away. From here you will go as an unchaste servant, a base woman, a bold wench, and infamous monster. Go to your rooms and there wait to see your own fierce ruination. You will no longer experience love, you will encounter hate. Like an angered lion which its bonds disdains, I will break the chains, I will shatter those links with which Love gripped me, I will tremble with furor, and I will tear you to shreds, O my desired prey.

      Lucinia I will go, Sire, I will obey. But I entreat your goodness that, because reluctant you see me in that which my heart fears, you do not ascribe the blame to an obstinate disposition. Do not believe or think that in seeing you dying from desire, in it I take delight.

      And in time of war exert himself in the gymnasium of Love, as if fleeing the martial assaults? They are powerful opposites, nor will it ever be that a man might undividedly follow both love and martial emblems.

      Recall, my lord, that life and fame Augustus took from Antony, and his ruin was the idleness of love, for it would have been better for him never Egypt to see, and Cleopatra, not even her name. Oh fortunati amplessi Che mi faranno a pien lieta e beata! Now let my charge therefore be only to beseech you with livelier affection to turn your thoughts to the warlike enterprise, to liberate this afflicted city, to console the grieving populace, your sorrowful daughter, and the other unwarlike women.

      And if to me so much by you is granted, after the victory shall either Lydia or the world see a more fortunate woman? Dear to me then it will be when by those arms my neck and my flank are encircled. O fortunate embraces, that will make me fully happy and blessed! Cubo You, in weaving a false veil of deceptions, ask that I allow you to go forth, an unwarlike female, to the perilous battlefield, with the certain expectation of ending up among a thousand swords dispatched, rather than as the beloved prey of me, your dear and eviscerated lover.

      I know these artifices, and I do not approve them. For the war of Love and not of Mars Nature generated you. To you Heaven did not give so much. For your enterprises Love has destined other weapons and another field. Lucinia Sometimes Love encloses in delicate breasts no less valor than in robust hearts.

      I have wielded the lance and handled the shield, and I have reined in and spurred on more than one courser in great perils; by this Heaven, by this sun I swear it to you. Let it be granted you to dress in a hauberk and weapons. But first let a knight of my court come against you in a trial. Lucinia O di giusto signor giusta sentenza!

      Chorus of Ladies What more ferocious and more frenzied claw, what more piercing and vigorous dart, what more fleet and well-fletched arrow will it be that in our hearts causes greater pain? Let it not be base or frail, if we are to feel respect for the excesses of pain from the dear son of the beautiful Cyprian. The tenderest affection, at first coaxing with a serene look, subjects to itself souls—and breasts and hearts it leaves as trophies of his painful ardors.

      This one in the pretty hills of the Elysian fields, where there is eternal serenity, among a thousand flowers and dear soft little grasses, was born, while at table with their ambrosia the eternal deities were seated.

      And having sprung forth as charming as he was handsome, he was believed to be compassionate; but he dominated haughtily as soon as he was born, as soon as he opened his eyes, not only among us, but in the heavens, in the sea, in the rivers. And not esteeming filial affections, he made his mother the servant of unchaste delights. Wretched man, who while already old acts childish, and does not realize his grave error, for among white hairs it is not well for Love to encamp.

      Ma, lasso, ove mi spinge 40 Troppo soverchio amore, Troppo fiero dolore? Celinda, A Tragedy which of your lady made you worthy? The fates have conspired to my ruin; the stars hold in contempt my daring; for an error I did not commit I bear the penalty. Today the king has chosen me so that I alone must 10 cast a shadow over all my Spartan offspring, and submerge in Lethe my every deed that has brought fame and luster to my name. He sets me to the trial of a one-on-one contest, not indeed with a woman accustomed either in an enclosed field 15 or in an open one to exert her right hand in the fierce customs of Mars, such as was Zenobia,91 or she who boldly ran to Babylonian ruin.

      It is necessary for me to go forth in single combat with a woman accustomed to the distaff, to the spindle, who a hauberk and a destrier receives as a gift from the effeminate king, for so I want 25 to call Cubo today. But alas, where am I driven 40 by too immoderate love? Too fierce sorrow? Ma non deggio ubbedir al mio signore? Che riporti? But must I not obey my lord?

      I will deride the vain thought of the damsel desirous of fame and poor in merits; and as the victor, of my defeated opponent a gift 50 I will make to the king, who for her has shown desire. I know well how much he burns with a hidden flame— a new Etna who on his back has snows and ice, while an eternal blaze burns his heart. But here comes now a boyish herald, 55 charming in aspect and with a noble semblance, in barbarous clothing with gold intertwined. At his side hangs a curved sword; with an assegai he arms his bold right hand, no less with boldness than with beauties armed.

      What do you report? And who sends you? Herald Attamante of Sparta, illustrious and renowned, whose valor to all the world is known, 65 to you the noble woman warrior sends me. With noble arms adorned, to the field she has gone forth, for she is already impatient at the delay.

      For you alone do the assembled people wait; you alone the knights are awaiting. And our king, happier than usual, smiles at the fine thought of the damsel 75 who greatly for your tardiness reproaches you. Why are you delaying, solitary and unarmed? Araldo Io vo, ma ancor tu tosto mi segui. And her valor you do not esteem? Here I was tarrying in order not to come before completely enclosed she was in the armor, for in that case she might wound me first with her shining eyes. Herald I go; but yet, quickly follow me.

      Attamante Go, for I follow your steps and no longer do I delay. Even over Heaven he extolls Fortune constantly. In fleeing the good, to ill he inclines. Ma dove fuggirai misero? Ma come il guarderai, se ti sei dato Tu da te stesso al fiero lupo in preda? How strange to hear with what portent the vengeful wrath of great Jove thunders over the king 15 of this afflicted kingdom and, lest he escape, it denies him the foresight of so much misery.

      Hence he, in his own error ever more blind, like an unhappy mole, flees the light. But where will you flee, wretch? Where, 20 that your own conscience will not always be a torment in your soul, a gnawing in your heart? And indeed this will happen to you when the Persian has defeated, crushed, and tamed you, 25 and taken from you, along with your honor, your life and kingdom. Then the blindness from your eyes, for your greater pain, will be lifted by Heaven— Heaven, of our actions the just judge, Heaven which to govern peoples and kingdoms 30 elected you over others.

      To your care it committed the empire, so that you might watch over it as is appropriate for a good shepherd with his sheepfold. But how will you watch over it if you have given yourself on your own to the fierce wolf as prey? The overlord and tyrant of your heart Love has made himself, Cubo, and you, crazed, permit it. Celinda, A Tragedy the faithful populace, your subjects who have honored you, who have obeyed you always.

      But above the others your own daughter, let her stay in your heart. Ah, perhaps you do not see it, that she is destined as prey to the fierce enemy? But what help can the kingdom hope for, what direction the soldiers, 55 if you their leader sit idly, an amorous spectacle to your enemy, to observe the charges of a useless joust?

      And what advantage will it bring you, if that woman wins? Ah, may Heaven will that while he sees you completely in idleness and in lowly thoughts immersed, 65 he does not assail you impetuously and fiercely, as customarily both the wrathful North and South winds swell up the marine waves, and make them the sport of their bitter angers. But what applause, oh! Such is the love, such is the faithfulness which to my lord I owe that his emotions become my own; 75 whether he is sorrowful or his expression is happy, it is fitting that similar to my lord I be.

      And that spirit which here drew my sun, that same one drew me. From her I do not believe it will be forbidden me in sign of peace 10 to set on the white ivory a sweet kiss. Dear gentle kiss, welcome tinder of the heart, flame of my flames, food of my life. Lady of my heart, brighten up the light from your eyes, because otherwise grief 25 will surround my soul with dark clouds. Celinda Idol of my heart, if I weep bitterly, weeping makes me rejoice with delight.

      Celinda, A Tragedy and in sighs and in tears, behaving like a child, lives the powerful lord of our hearts. My internal joys, 35 birthed of your honors, of your merits, send through my eyes outward not indeed of grief, but of happiness these tears. I rejoice in gazing at you. Myself I exalt, since a lord so worthy, 40 a knight so illustrious, to the sweet yoke of Hymen leads me as an esteemed bride. What proud Amazon ever on the Thermodon95 lifted up a shield, or wielded a double-bladed ax with so much force 45 that she, a new Bellona,96 might equal your powerful arm, in my eyes?

      Lucinia Your mere presence, my lady, has increased my valor, and all the power of this right hand 50 was born from your beautiful eyes. Therefore by rights the esteem of the attained honor should be yours. But today you will see how well and expertly Autilio will handle himself in the field, against himself, 55 in defense of his father-in-law and of the kingdom, and to acquire you.

      Celinda How greatly I feared when the irate scoundrel of Sparta in the third charge I saw breathe fire from his flaming nostrils 60 and, enraged, couch his lance. There did I wish this breast of mine to shield you from peril, and I invoked at least four times and six pitiful Mars and the little child god. Celinda My heart sprouted a thousand shoots of true joys and internal delights, when I saw down from his destrier the bold 70 Spartan go, the work of this hand, of weaponry no less than of love the dear minister, which would have knocked down a Hercules in war.

      Lucinia The hard laws of love force people to love unknown objects, and under false pretenses, under lying clothing, 85 they hide true flames. Today he will become aware of it, and may Heaven not will 90 that he be enraged at it and change his love into hate; and perhaps he will replace embraces with wounds. Alas, inhuman tongue! Talor il pianto suol mutarsi in riso E da principio infausto Sortisce lieto e fortunato fine.

      Lieta pure Ad udir quanto dice, eccolo a noi. Lucinia Anzi, ambo verso lui moviamo i passi. Be happy, my goddess, I pray you; and turn toward me, your lover, the beautiful serenity of your brow, nor let it be disturbed by vain fears. I will live with your father and with you my sun united, and with a happy outcome both wars and our fears will cease.

      Sometimes weeping transmutes into smiles, and from an inauspicious beginning there ensues a joyous and fortunate end. Behold the happy king who toward us comes, perhaps in search of me. A happy woman I am still, to hear what he says. Here he is, almost upon us. Celinda Must I leave, or wait for him here as well? Lucinia Rather, let us both make our way toward him.

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