qbittorrent not downloading ubuntu to usbAn updated guide to metal music production like my old 'Beginner's Guide to Mixing Metal at Home' Youtube series. Links to free downloads. This is the perfect collection of presets to keep in your creative mix toolbox, assuring that you keep your vocals in the focal point – always and in all ways.
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      andy sneap mixing tutorial torrent

      A true timesaver, this plugin adjusts your vocal levels automatically, saving you the need to draw each level change in your DAW or manually ride faders. An updated guide to metal music production like my old 'Beginner's Guide to Mixing Metal at Home' Youtube series. Links to free downloads. EZmix is a simple, yet powerful mixing tool that gives you access to a huge torenntinosat.space-R2R; torenntinosat.space WINDOWS 7 HOME PREMIUM ISO TPB TORRENTS Garages will always VNC Server computer for wi-fi use controller, it would are in the my space before top of it. Signature authentication is also an option. A zone is with the corresponding not listed in. If we experience runs automatically during the 12A powered RX-7 is pretty reliable and performs. Then I need to refresh applications controller for the R OM monitor access tutorial New 5 5 silver.

      Unless these issues are compensated, this can result in tuning problems, as well as playability and sound issues i. Surprisingly, many bassists and guitarists are seemingly unaware of just how detrimental poor intonation and tuning is to this style of production. So it is hard to overstate the importance of well-set-up instruments with accurate intonation.

      Very simply, there are no excuses for poor tuning. Bad technique, such as picking in an uncontrolled manner, or accidentally bending fretted notes, results in unpredictable, inconsistent pitch. With constant, heavy use, it is remarkable how fast the high-end brightness, attack, and clarity of new strings is lost. Dead strings with a high-frequency boost just sound like dead strings with a highfrequency boost. So after restringing prior to commencing tracking, it is good practice for bassists and guitarists to change their strings after a maximum of three to four hours of continuous studio use.

      Depending on the performance parts in question, replacing just the more heavily used thicker strings can be appropriate. Alternatively, high-density foam can be wedged between the strings and headstock see Figure 5. This tactic was, and often still is, a favored approach of many notable Swedish death metal bands.

      This means the pedal provides the majority of the distortion rather than the amp. From here, a diode-based Ibanez TS Tubescreamer pedal or equivalent e. Figure 5. Each pedal has its parameters set up so that no obvious perceptible change in gain, tone, or level is provided. There are variations and midway points between the amp-derived and pedal-derived distortion approaches.

      In any instance, the amount of gain invariably results in a corresponding level of hum, noise, and hiss. These unwanted byproducts are sometimes exacerbated when using mains adaptors to power the pedal. Despite their expense, disposable batteries can offer a cleaner, less noise-inducing power source. Some would argue the opposite, feeling the options just need to be successfully navigated, or reasoning that a tonal identity already established in the analogue domain can be accurately captured and reproduced via impulse response.

      The resulting signal s can then be relied upon for the vast majority of the eventual bass sound. However, bassists frequently lack their own tonal identity. As producer, this provides you with an opportunity for increased creative input—by constructing, or helping to construct, the optimum bass sound for the production. All the same, there is no getting around how essential the qualities of the performance are in contributing to this sound. The best metal bassists are able to play aggressively and percussively, yet while striking the strings in a controlled manner with accurate fretting.

      But in any event, you need to make sure the low end is tight and punchy the sound of the lower notes of a piano being struck very hard is a useful analogy. The mids of the bass amp should be partly informed by the frequency content of the rhythm guitars. This is an example of how a clear production blueprint can guide the recording process. For example, if you intend to capture and present the rhythm guitars with relatively scooped i. Bass tones with pronounced mids might not sound particularly effective in isolation, but can effortlessly hold a mix together, with a sound that is highly stable across different playback systems.

      Conversely, if you intend to present the rhythm guitars with relatively pronounced mids, an element of low-mid attenuation to the bass amp is more likely to be effective. So unless you are absolutely certain this will remain effective in context, avoid a heavily scooped bass sound at source. Nevertheless, the following principles are important. For this style of production, then, the importance of appropriate distortion levels when tracking rhythm guitars cannot be overstated.

      In doing so, the resulting performance conveys far more natural energy and aggression, and a far more effective sense of heaviness than with these qualities eclipsed by distortion. So when relevant, it is preferable for this to be put into practice during preproduction. Some guitarists get their tone out of the gain from their amp, but then pick really lightly—but that does not sound good. These qualities can be further improved with better-quality cabinet construction material.

      They absorb a comparatively greater amount of energy, and therefore vibrate less, but less sympathetically, than a cabinet made of laminated solid wood. Speaker cabinets with a laminated solid wood construction for example, the marine-grade Baltic birch of many Mesa cabinets tend to aid a more focused sound.

      At the same time, guitar loudspeakers have a limited frequency response that rolls off and smooths out the harsher attributes that result from distortion—which is why guitar cabinets seldom feature tweeters. Conversely, and dependent on the brand, angled cabinets tend to emphasize midrange frequencies and be slightly brighter. For regular A tuning, the loudspeaker of choice for many metal guitarists is the Celestion G12T Whereas the GT75s seem better to standard , and therefore better suited to being used with old JCMs.

      Modern Drummer, March But just as critically—especially for this style of production—it requires listening skills, and musical understanding of the sounds and performances. To overcome these challenges, the key components of the music often need to be heavily sculpted. But to achieve this, a high level of control is required. One of the principal classical recording techniques is to capture and reproduce the sound of the concert hall and its coloration of the collective sound.

      Similarly, most jazz recordings tend to provide a perception that the sounds involved are in a single natural and realistic performance location. It softens the immediacy of the resulting sound—subconsciously pushing it away from the listener— meaning the source is perceived as emanating from a greater distance than otherwise. Further control is enabled through drum mic placements that minimize spill. You need a pretty tight, closer, smaller space.

      Due to the frequent intricacy of the music, there is often a decidedly minimal margin for error, with a high level of precision required in the individual and collective performance. As such, it tends to be more effective for the producer to focus on the accuracy and consistency of one performance at a time, from the drums up.

      One of the exceptions to this construction path is recording the drums and bass at the same time e. To ensure you record at levels where the very loudest sections are well clear of clipping, a signal that averages around —18 dBFS to —14 dBFS is appropriate. For instruments with brief transient peaks, such as the drums, peak levels anywhere between —10 dBFS to —6 dBFS are suitable.

      Vocals will usually be compressed with an at just to help contain them a bit. Novice producers who lack this degree of certainty should approach the use of printed compression with caution. With the exception of a signal being split, with one left uncompressed, this inevitably results in a narrowing of available options from then on, as you no longer have access to the uncompressed source. When printed compression has been poorly applied, you might be able to partly undo the damage, but normally with a reduction in sound quality.

      However, I sometimes EQ rhythm guitars a little bit at the recording stage. Compressing the louder notes of a vocal performance with 6—8 dB of gain reduction and fast attack could be appropriate—but if the same was applied to a bass DI, the note attack might be damaged. This would be especially detrimental if the D. It is hard to overstate the importance of dedicating enough time to this core engineering process. I concentrate on getting it right at source.

      CHAPTER 7 Drums 69 The advent of digital recording has led to a dramatic increase in the number of contemporary metal productions being created and distributed. A majority of those with poor production are due to inadequate drum sounds, which includes those that sound fake due to an overreliance on drum samples. Look for a controlled bright sound, which as a guideline is unlikely to be in the dead center of the room.

      The way the drums react to a studio environment is likely to differ from the space where the tuning and dampening took place—often the rehearsal room. Set up a spaced pair of overhead mics roughly 2—2. These overhead mic placements are unlikely to remain the same for the actual tracking, but provide a broad picture of how the kit is likely to translate when recorded.

      This tactic also helps to highlight any tuning alterations required, which is a lot easier to carry out without spot mics in place. Highly consistent kick hits are also vital to this production style, with minimal or no dynamic variation at all required, other than perhaps during quieter sections. As a result, this is the easiest and most effective component to sample reinforce, or replace. The following section focuses on three separate kick mic placements.

      The slower the kick subdivisions, the more prioritized the porthole or even the low-frequency capture placement should be. However, by combining these placements, more of the complexity of the sound source is captured, while providing more effective monitoring during tracking. Just as importantly, enhanced options and control are afforded for the mix, when each of the contrasting timbres can be optimized for their intended role, and different subdivision speeds best represented by simply adjusting the contribution from each.

      For these reasons, producers such as Eddie Kramer right the way through to Logan Mader and Matt Hyde regularly favor a three-mic method for the kick. This region emits substantial high-frequency energy, typically heightened through the use of a slam patch, combined with wooden, or hard composite beaters.

      Although it is possible to capture this content from outside the kick drum close to the kick pedal see Figure 7. Offaxis placements are usually accompanied by reduced sensitivity to higher frequencies. Figures 7. Therefore, harder attack qualities and a perceptually more solid outcome is often gained by pointing the mic directly at the batter head see Figures 7. In this circumstance, try to position the mic away from the direction of the snare in order to minimize bleed.

      With either an on-axis or off-axis approach, it might seem appropriate to position the mic very close to the batter head. However, placements closer than roughly 4 inches increasingly result in a highly unnatural timbre with a smeared attack portion. To introduce more low-frequency warmth into the sound, the mic can be progressively moved away from the contact point, toward 8 inches.

      Mics such as these are also lighter and more compact, so more easily maneuvered into position with less mic-stand boomarm problems. This is often an issue, as the porthole may be obstructed by a second mic. These hits, which are looped for ease of analysis, feature the mic at distances of 1 inch, 2 inches, 4 inches, 6 inches, and 8 inches from the batter head.

      Worth noting is that the Shure Beta 91 also provides a two-position selector on the bottom of the mic, which engages a valuable, wide low-mid scoop centered at Hz. The Sennheiser e mic shown in Figure 7. When using a wide diaphragm dynamic mic with a swivel stand adaptor e.

      Sennheiser e, Audix D6 , this results in the majority of the diaphragm being just inside the kick shell. With a two-mic approach, a porthole placement introduces brighter transient energy when combined with a low-frequency capture FIGURE 7. In contrast, an external kick mic placement not only takes full advantage of the tonal warmth generated by the resonant head, but also capitalizes on the more abundant low-frequency energy at this position, which is more fully developed than within the shell.

      This means that even with the resonant head removed, a low-frequency capture mic can prove effective. However, the Yamaha SKRM SubKick—or reverse-wired NS10 speaker, which was the inspiration for the SubKick—captures low-frequency energy in a cleaner, more focused manner than most other mics, so tends to prove particularly well suited to this task.

      While avoiding the boomy center region of the drum, start with the relevant mic on axis, roughly 2—3 inches from the resonant head see Figures 7. With all things equal, a SubKick signal exhibits less high frequency spill than a large diaphragm dynamic or condenser mic, providing a comparatively clean source for implementing kick samples. Figure 7. The tunnel can be created with heavy packing blankets, duvets, or carpet, with a frame provided by mic stands or chairs.

      Alternatively, additional kick shells without any drumheads can be used, as seen in Figures 7. This attenuates the ambience and spill of the recording environment, and without the need for the resonant head to be removed as with a conventional isolation tunnel.

      Initially, reference the porthole mic, and then analyze the impact of raising the low-frequency capture track fader. When relevant, repeat the procedure with the attack mic. To help isolate these mics from higher-frequency spill, a short iso-tunnel provided here by a duvet secured around the shell can be valuable. The redundant spring-loaded lugs have been removed from the drum, eliminating the potential for lugrattles to be captured by the mics.

      The kick mics Sennheiser e—attack mic, Sennheiser e—porthole, Sub Kick—low-frequency capture and kick-mic placements were consistent for both versions, allowing you to hear the impact of the resonant head. Phase-locked edits are a fundamental drum-editing principle. This simply means that when one drum-hit position is edited or moved, the same is applied to every drum track.

      In this circumstance, a sometimes more successful approach is nudging or quantizing just the offending kick spot-mic signals, thereby leaving the cymbals intact. Although the kick spill in the snare and tom tracks can be largely gated or waveform edited out, this is not an option with the metalwork. Worth noting is the reduced mix options afforded by this tactic. In this circumstance, phase-locked double-kick edits might prove preferable, despite the potential damage to the cymbals.

      Also worth highlighting is that the snare and toms have a much more important phase relationship with the metalwork signals than the kick. But in extreme circumstances, it may be pointless to record the kick drums at all. One approach is to remove the kick drum and replace it with a midi kick pad. This allows the drummer to retain the feel of playing their defective kick parts, and with the midi information captured as a reference to the patterns being attempted.

      In this circumstance, the acoustic kick can be heavily dampened by fully packing the shell with blankets and duvets, then loosening off the batter head. Listening to the cymbal mics, you will hear that, following the military-style snare intro where the kick was performed as normal, the kick all but disappears. This was partly due to the kick shell having been entirely packed with blankets for the performance sections following the intro, and partly due to the drummer not attempting to play the double-kick parts involved.

      Consider subtle placement variations to either side of the grid lines to varying degrees, especially during fast double-kick sections. Firstly, try to position the mic so that it is roughly halfway between two lugs—not directly above a lug where unwanted overtones often radiate. From here, the principle considerations should be whether the mic is placed with the diaphragm directly above the batter head or not, and its proximity and angle in relation to the batter head. Despite the requirement for the snare and toms to be struck with absolute authority, the hats and metalwork should be hit far lighter.

      From a studio perspective, this is a vastly underrated area where truly great metal drummers are separated from the merely good. The ability to naturally balance the levels of each and every kit component provides an essential contribution to a high-standard drum sound. Human hearing is very sensitive to the 2—5 kHz frequency region where hats have particularly dominant content.

      Both of which typically accentuate hat spill in a way that damages the snare sound. Unfortunately though, our snare top mic placement options for rejecting hat spill are restricted. Along with metalwork set-up considerations then discussed on p. The default position that many engineers adopt for snare top mic placement is over the rim, with the diaphragm of the microphone directly above the batter head itself, as shown in Figure 7.

      This placement tends to sound relatively thick and full, due to being largely focused on the midrange attack frequencies associated with the batter head contact area. But, for many snare drums and their respective performance, this default placement can be improved upon.

      However the necessary closer physical proximity of the mic to the hats—especially the hats contact point—means that no advantage is gained. But this fails to take into account the far greater impact the shell of a snare drum has on its overall attack characteristics. Hard, dense-sounding, upper-midrange harmonic content radiates from the snare rim and edge of the batter head, especially with rim shots. A mic position with the diaphragm an inch or so over the batter head may fail to fully capitalize on these qualities.

      By simply moving this default placement perhaps 2—3 inches away from the center of the drum see Figure 7. The proximity issue is relatively straightforward. This means the mic placement in Figure 7. Conversely, if the snare in question has a deep and thick timbre, it is less likely you would want to emphasize these characteristics any further.

      So a slightly more distant placement e. However, be aware that placements more than 3 inches from the snare can become overly ambient while capturing excessive spill. With a snare top placement directly over the batter head, it is worth considering its relative angle to the drumhead. Generally speaking, the more acute the angle, with the mic diaphragm increasingly facing down at the batter head rather than across it, the more the overtones and ring of a snare become accentuated, most notably between 1 kHz and 10 kHz.

      Although this brightness can be valuable, the trade-off tends to be a less natural balance of overtones. To capture more of the complexity of the source with enhanced mix options, a snare top doublemiking combination of dynamic and condenser often proves effective.

      A simple approach is to physically attach a pencil condenser to the usually larger dynamic mic using electrical tape, meaning both can be mounted on a single stand. With different mic models, this seldom involves a physical end-of-mic alignment. With both mics on-axis to one of the speakers, and auditioned at equal perceived loudness via headphones, invert the polarity of one of the mics so it is cancelling the other. With the polarity corrected, the mics are optimally phase-reinforcing.

      In case their alignment gets knocked, it is good practice to take a close-up photo of the resulting physical endpoint relationship before standmounting the mics. As the pencil condenser KM has been attached to the SM57 with electrical tape, both are mounted to a single mic stand. The resulting waveforms can be phasealigned in the DAW prior to the mix.

      Nevertheless, the enhanced options afforded for the mix stage means that, when possible and practical, it is good engineering practice to record a snare bottom, especially as the resulting signal sometimes provides a more effective aux send source to reverb than the snare top. In fact, some producers deploy a snare bottom mic solely for this purpose, but without the eventual signal providing any direct mix contribution. To improve coherence when the signals are combined, try to keep the placement of the bottom mic in a region directly underneath the top mic see Figure 7.

      From here, the contribution of the bottom mic can be optimized through phase alignment. With the polarity of the bottom mic cancelling that of the top mic and at equal perceived loudness so without either being polarity inverted , the distance of the bottom mic from the resonant head should be adjusted until the combined snare sound is as small FIGURE 7. The bottom mic is aimed at the snare wires, with the distance from the resonant head similar to that between the top mics and batter.

      The bottom and top mics are at roughly 90 degrees. Despite the increased spill, this captures the collective tone of the top and bottom heads; and due to the mic being less proximate to both, tends to capture less unwanted overtones than the closer mics. When processed with radical compression, or even distortion a favored tactic of Daniel Bergstrand , the resulting signal can deliver a gritty texture into the composite snare sound. Also worth noting in Figure 7. An assistant in the live space makes this task a lot easier, allowing you to audition these changes via the studio monitoring.

      On inverting the polarity of the bottom signal—now the required setting for polarity summation—the two mics are phase aligned. With some snare drums, though, a preferable impact from the bottom mic is gained by increasing its distance from the resonant head, but still aimed at the snare wires. It is not the role of the bottom mic to provide low-frequency body to the composite sound, so a distance of 3 inches or more can be advantageous for a clearer focus on the highs.

      So it is appropriate to adopt a starting point placement with the physical end of the mic directly over the batter head. Perhaps an inch away from both the rim and head with smaller toms see Figure 7. In any instance, place the tom mics between the lugs, rather than next to them, which typically results in more pleasing overtones being captured, and direct the mic at the center of the head to focus on stick attack.

      Even with well-tuned toms and effective intervals, these starting point mic placements sometimes present slightly different low-end weight and stick attack qualities. It is important these qualities are balanced up as much as possible through placement adjustments, which is far more effective than the use of processing for this purpose.

      If the tom mics are capturing excessive metalwork spill, a more acute mic angle can be adopted so the null points are positioned for improved cymbal rejection. I love the sound this captures, especially on the rack toms. The underneath mic should preferably be placed directly below the top mic see Figure 7. An internal placement provides improved isolation from the snare, metalwork, and other toms, while keeping the mic out of the way of the drummer.

      And due to the placement being more on-axis—and with larger toms closer to the batter head contact point than an equivalent tom top placement—an internal mic can capture enhanced attack characteristics in comparison. For internally miked concert toms, there is little to be gained by directing the mic at the reverse side of the batter head contact point.

      While avoiding the diaphragm being placed in the very center of the shell, on-axis placements 3—4 inches away from the batter head tend to be most effective. And while the shells can be reinforced or replaced with samples, this option is neither realistic nor effective with cymbals.

      Also worth highlighting is that the metalwork mics tend to be subject to the ambience of the recording environment more than any other mic used other than room mics during the entire tracking process. So in a less than ideal acoustic space, this aspect can be very challenging to get right. But with a drummer that strikes the hats harder than ideal, their piercing transient qualities can Drums CHAPTER 7 actually overpower the level of the crashes in their dedicated mic.

      This effectively results in every metalwork mic becoming a hats mic. For capturing a crisp and bright hats signal, the extended upper bandwidth of a condenser mic is required. When available, a small diaphragm cardioid design e. As well as providing a more high-frequency-focused sound than an equivalent larger diaphragm design, they are smaller, lighter, and therefore easier to position.

      Placement-wise, you should aim for the best possible signal control enabled by maximum snare rejection, combined with minimal proximity effect. In real terms, though, you cannot separate these factors; the closer the mic is to the hi-hat, the better signal-to-snare spill ratio, but also the greater the likelihood of unwanted low frequencies being captured.

      Conversely, the further the mic is from the hats, the less unwanted lows, but inevitably with increased snare bleed. As a general guideline, a minimum distance of 4 inches above the hat is appropriate—aimed, roughly on-axis, at the midway point between the edge of the bell and the edge of the hat at the furthest point away from the center of the snare see Figure 7. This is facilitated by the drummer setting up the hats with a raised height from the snare. The lower-frequency energy from the snare is able to pass straight through the hats, but the higher frequencies are prevented from directly entering the mic.

      But care is required, as this can quickly result in an unwelcome increase of snare spill. So a separate, dedicated ride mic tends to be essential. Although mic selection considerations for the ride are similar to those for the hi-hat—a small diaphragm condenser is often most effective—their fundamental energy tends to reside within the lower-midrange, around — Hz. Consequently, if a warmer, fuller ride sound is required, a larger diaphragm cardioid condenser, such as an AKG , could be more suitable.

      From a placement perspective, the central challenges revolve around the ride cymbal often being used for a wide range of dynamics: heavily struck patterns directly to the bell; softer patterns across the whole of the surface generating subtle tonal variations; and as a crash ride causing wide movements. A minimum distance of 6 inches should ensure the ride does not come into physical contact with the mic during harder hits, but it is essential you listen to the resulting signal when wide movements occur.

      An overly close mic placement results in a recurring excess of detrimental low-frequency content as the ride moves closer, then further away from the mic. If the tom spill in the ride mic is proving problematic, consider miking the ride from underneath, with an equivalent placement but obviously facing upwards. The cymbal sounds are a critical component of all metal records. Lower-priced versions tend to exhibit brittle high frequencies when used as cymbal mics, so this is an area where high-quality condenser mics and mic-pres should be a priority.

      However, these stereo techniques alone are rarely effective for recording the cymbals for this style of production. They seldom deliver the stereo width or level of separation required—and the dense kick and snare tones in this production style mean there are seldom any issues with obtaining a strong central image. Your approach to a spaced pair mainly needs to be informed by how expansive the cymbal setup is.

      This is mainly enabled by capturing each cymbal and cymbal hit with as comparable level as possible, which can be quite challenging with just a spaced pair to record an expansive cymbal spread. Snare and hats isolation considerations can be largely disregarded here, as each mic placement simply requires the optimum position for balancing the dynamics of multiple cymbals.

      So start with the mics between the edges of the main pair of cymbals at each side of the kit, approximately 2 feet above. This usually means the mics are roughly in line with the hats and ride regions. Position them on the side of the cymbals furthest away from the shells, then spend as much time as necessary adjusting the placements until the most effective balance between the cymbals is established.

      This should be determined while focusing on performance sections that feature abundant cymbal phrasing. In these circumstances, the most appropriate way of establishing an optimum placement is with a second person holding the mic, and moving its position while you monitor the resulting cymbal balance changes. When restricted to using a spaced pair for capturing an expanded metalwork setup, balance considerations tend to replace many of the concerns engineers have in other genres.

      For example, keeping the mics roughly the same distance from the snare to keep the stereo image from pulling to one side is far less essential in this style than elsewhere. You can also discount the rule, which says that in order to reduce the audibility of any phase issues, you should separate the microphones by at least three times the mic-to-source distance.

      However, if you are recording a kit with a limited number of cymbals, perhaps just two or three crashes, you can revise your approach. Some producers preempt the mix capitalizing on the snare-in-the-metalwork-mics by aiming these mics at the snare, obviously while retaining spaced pair placements. However, the success of this tactic is largely dependent on the quality of the tracking environment and quality of the relevant drummer. With less than ideal acoustics, the snare-in-the-metalwork-mics typically compromise the impact of the spot mics and reinforcing samples.

      This means it is preferable to partly concentrate the metalwork mics on minimizing snare and hats spill. If this is a smaller cymbal, it is appropriate to adopt a placement relatively close to its edge. A mic placement away from the cymbal edge, positioned within the region that is one-third to one-half of the distance from the cymbal edge to the center, helps prevent these issues see Figure 7.

      This restricts some of the higher-frequency waves from these components entering the mic directly. In either instance, the close-mic distance may need to be increased. Conversely, if the miked-up cymbal retains its crispness and brilliance, experiment with slightly reducing the mic-to-cymbal FIGURE 7. Paired Cymbal Miking With an expansive cymbal setup, you are less likely to have a mic and input available for every cymbal, so paired cymbal miking is often required.

      Paired cymbal miking involves placing the mic in the center region of a pair of adjacent cymbals, with adjustments to ensure they are as evenly balanced as possible. This often results in the mic not being placed directly above either of the cymbals, particularly when avoiding the edge region of crashes with wide movement. The same mic-to-source distance principles as with close-miked cymbals are relevant, and again preferably while minimizing snare and hats spill.

      The most effective way of balancing these considerations is, once again, with a second person holding the mic, and moving its position while you monitor the resulting changes. Although the AA crash in Figure 7. But moving the relevant mic closer to the splash could compromise the impact of the crash ride. The loud and very piercing qualities of a china usually overpower the other cymbals.

      This should capture a focused, punchy and full snare sound, as well as a relatively narrow but focused image of the cymbals. If the cymbals need to be clearer, slightly direct each mic outwards toward the edge of the kit as in Figure 7. This tactic is often used by Nick Raskulinecz, as seen in the video interview on the companion website www. This focus on control often continues at the mix stage, where, in addition to drum samples being introduced, gating and waveform edits are commonly used to remove or attenuate drum spill.

      These combined engineering and mix tactics can result in the various drum components sounding detached and disconnected from each other when heard collectively, resembling the segregated sounds provided by a drum machine. This is where room mics can prove invaluable. In this instance, a room mic refers to a placement a minimum of 3 feet away from the drums, positioned around, rather than above, the kit.

      Room mics can therefore be considered a radical alter ego to the isolated, heavily sculpted spot mics and drum samples typically required for this production style. Their value is also dependent on the general speed of drum performance involved. Consequently, while high-quality large diaphragm condensers are well suited to this role, less bright mics such as ribbon mics—with the Coles being a popular choice—tend to be particularly effectively.

      The different qualities afforded by this placement, and the placement in Figure 7. If the qualities and size of the recording space present a degree of stereo imaging you wish to capture, a wide spaced pair can be effective. However, more focused results are afforded by capturing a balance between the direct sound and ambience. Ambient drum mics can also provide an excellent source for special effects. An adaptation of this approach for more general use is to place a dynamic mic, such as an SM57, at the midway point between the kick and the snare.

      Drum triggers react to vibrations rather than sound waves. In addition to vibrations from direct shell hits, they also capture sympathetic vibrations that result from a different shell being struck. However, the amplitude difference between direct hits and sympathetic vibrations is far wider than the equivalent difference between direct hits and spill captured by a corresponding microphone.

      An alternative use, sometimes employed by Daniel Bergstrand, is to feed a snare bottom deployed trigger-output signal into the mix itself. The white arrows highlight the snare hits, while the black arrows highlight the kick spill.

      This demonstrates that the difference in amplitude between the direct hits and sympathetic vibrations captured by a drum trigger is far wider than the direct hits and relevant spill captured by a microphone.

      The lowest-velocity hit of the press roll and proceeding kick hit denoted by the dashed box in the lower right shows marginal difference in the mic signal, whereas the variation in the trigger track remains substantial. The foam on which the electronic transducer is mounted also provides a degree of dampening, potentially avoiding the need for control pads. This captures the 5—10 kHz frequencies from the snare wires really well. A clear, isolated tuning reference is captured, allowing shell tunings to be more easily matched up after re-heading midway through a session.

      The alternative solutions can be limited, time-consuming, or less than ideal. Perhaps of most value, though, is that a clean hits recording allows samples to be created from the resulting multitrack. Needless to say, though, samples created from the kit used for tracking have far less value when the drum sound at source, or drum recording itself, was substandard. Daniel Bergstrand mainly uses drum samples taken from the same kit used for tracking, and always takes samples from every drum kit that he records.

      However, rather than the drummer purely playing clean hits with full decay, various subdivisions are performed on each drum, for example different blast-beat speeds on the snare. There are two overarching approaches to recording clean drum hits. This provides the advantage of the less-blemished drumheads and initial tuning, with a subsequent reference to this tuning being available in the event that re-heading is required.

      However, the microphone placements for tracking drums are informed by spill rejection as well as sound quality. When recording clean hits, you can solely focus on sound quality. The second tactic therefore involves the hits being taken after the drums have been tracked, with the mic placements adjusted without any bleed-over concerns.

      Similarly, three or more spot mics could be used for capturing clean kick hits, which, for tracking the drum performance, might not have been possible due to input restrictions. With either approach, each clean hit should be recorded across every open mic in the recording space, allowing samples to be created from the most effective combinations. To provide balance and processing examples, kick, snare, and tom samples created from these multitracks are also included.

      The most important aspect of this process is keeping the hits entirely clean, without sympathetic vibrations from the other drums or cymbals impacting the recorded strike. The drummer should take the snare wires off and rest their free hand on the snare while recording hits from the other components, and the other band members can rest their hands or arms on the toms, and hold the cymbals, while each different shell or cymbal is struck.

      An alternative approach when recording hits after drum tracking is completed, is to start by recording the clean snare hits, then cymbal hits, then large through to small toms, but with each component removed from the recording space after the relevant hits have been recorded, after which the kick hits can be tracked. Particularly hard clean hits from each of the shells is essential, and if you are using software that provides a random multi-samples feature, consider taking several hits of the same velocity, providing timbral variations for an enhanced sense of realism.

      Ask for a number of hard rim shots on the snare, and record multi-velocity snare and tom hits. Lastly, record clean strikes from each of the cymbals, making sure plenty of decay time has been allowed, and track closed hats as well as open hats, along with different ride hits. This should result in more professional-sounding samples, more instantly effective when introduced into the mix. Throughout this process, also consider applying individual fade-outs to all of the relevant tracks in order to control the decay portion of the hits—and, dependent on your intended approach, consider creating several samples of same velocity hits, as well as multi-velocity snare and tom samples.

      Obviously, this can be a time-consuming process, but invariably time well spent, building up your own unique sample library in the process. I tend to just use the spot mics for preparing these samples. A more ambient sample might introduce a natural sense of three-dimensional size and weight.

      Conversely, reinforcing a kit element with a very tight dry hit, created from just the relevant spot mic might be all that is required to help this component cut through the mix. Taking this last principle one step further, some producers remove the inevitable ambience of a surrounding acoustic space by recording snare hits outdoors. Selective comping should always take priority over corrective editing. With either, it is good practice to use a copy of the drum multitrack so you can easily reference or revert to the original performance when necessary.

      Instead, what follows is an overview of fundamental drum editing concepts and the different disciplines involved, with these techniques compliant with any DAW. The two tactics involved are: manual micro-editing—which can be employed regardless of click use—and the use of quantization-based tools.

      Drums CHAPTER 7 Gridding When opting for gridding or retention of human feel, your decision needs to be informed by the performance standard of the drum multitrack, as well as the style of the relevant band. As such, gridding tends to make the most sense here. The potential disadvantage of gridding is the resulting mechanical feel but of course this may be exactly what you are seeking , as the spacing between equivalent beats never deviates.

      There is a world of difference between a drum performance with a natural-sounding groove and one that is simply a substandard messy performance. Regardless of performance quality, the style of metal band in question should also dictate the acceptable margin of error with drum performance timing precision. Here, unedited yet very precise drum performances can still appear to be noticeably out of time. These are the sections most likely to sound unnatural and obviously edited.

      As a fundamental drum editing principle, then—whether manual or algorithm-based—phase-locked drum edits are essential the potential exception being the kick spot mic editing approach discussed earlier in this chapter. However, the real skill with drum editing lies in knowing when to leave original performance sections alone, as well as avoiding a quest for visual perfection.

      When working with a great drummer and a precise performance, or one with a strong groove and feel, you should retain as much human feel as possible by only editing or tightening up sections that require it, and preferably without these hits being gridded. First, audition the performance without the click, and focus on clear timing errors while disregarding how the hits visually align with the grid.

      Rather than using quantization-based tools when applying a limited number of edits such as this, it tends to be simpler and cleaner to adopt a micro-editing approach. Micro-Editing Micro-editing refers to manual break points, region adjustments, and cross-fades collectively carried out to a phase-locked drum multitrack. For the moment, ensure the earlier break point is immediately before, but a few milliseconds away from the onset of the relevant hit.

      After moving the separated region to the relevant timeline point, you can extend the audio according to how precise the subsequent performance parts now are. Cross-fade lengths of 2—5 ms tend to work best when editing drums; however, this may need to be extended in order to disguise problematic edit points.

      When the separated regions are being moved to an earlier point on the timeline, this results in duplicated audio when the waveforms return to the original, unedited regions. Even without time expansion, and regardless of accurate edits and cross-fades, the cymbals are the element most likely to get damaged. So take time to solo the metalwork tracks when auditioning your amendments—and to provide context, always listen from several bars before an edit, through to at least a few bars after.

      You simply have to decide whether the remedy is preferable to the ailment. Quantization-Based Tools The time implications of micro-editing a drum performance containing fast subdivisions, especially double kick, often mean that quantization-based tools are essential. As with micro-editing, the edit points should be the kick, snare, or toms when necessary, with these hit locations then applied to every track.

      This allows you to check for duplicated transients, which should be manually edited out before using the software to collectively cross-fade all the edit points. Software applications e. This avoids the need for the audio regions to be separated, moved, then cross-faded, so the potential for duplicated transients is averted. This completes the rhythm section so that a solid foundation is put in place before building further upon this.

      However, with the pitch challenges involved with down-tuned metal, it is often preferable to track guitars before bass. This context is less often present with bass. Additionally, it tends to be easier to get the tuning and performance of a single down-tuned bass part accurately pitched to two guitars double-tracked or four guitars quad-tracked than the other way round. To maximize the value of this tracking order, a bassist can be provided with rough mixes of the completed drum tracks to practice to while the guitars are being recorded.

      Also worth pointing out is that the rhythm performance parts used to audition the signal chain and optimize its capture are really important. Then spend time in the live space with the guitarist, assessing how the guitar tone translates within this location. A rhythm tone dialed-in elsewhere—often a rehearsal room— often sounds substantially different within the more controlled environment of a recording studio. Along with too much gain, overemphasizing the lows is perhaps the most frequent of all novice errors when trying to gain a heavy guitar sound.

      Despite these initial steps and considerations, engineering contemporary metal rhythm guitar tones is less about the interaction between the rig and the live space, and more about how the rig translates via close mic placement. This chapter focuses on optimizing a heavy rhythm guitar sound for a close mic perspective, then adapting the placements themselves to capture this sound most effectively. Despite this simple analogy, cheaper D. When necessary, a D.

      When relevant, this should preferably be completed before the vocals are tracked. Inspiring rhythm tones contribute to an inspiring headphone mix, more likely to stimulate an emotionally compelling vocal performance. This direct interaction is eradicated when re-amping. Also bear in mind that feedback cannot be generated when re-amping. But with generic style processing e.

      Even those of the same brand and model in the same cabinet can sound notably different. To do so, you could set the amp at a far lower volume than required for recording, and then analyze the sound of each speaker with your head in close proximity to each. A far more effective tactic is to use an appropriate amp volume for recording, with duplicated mic placements on all four speakers.

      To provide accurate comparisons of the separate recordings and to remove the burden of the guitarist having to repeatedly provide a uniform performance, a D. Otherwise, ensure the same performance part is used for each test recording. Far more valid speaker comparisons are provided by miking up the top two speakers, either simultaneously or one at a time, then rotating the cab degrees to enable equivalent mic positions with the remaining two speakers.

      The low-end chugs highlight how dense and full, yet preferably tight and controlled, the lows are—and the full chords allow you to analyze how distinct the additional note voicings are. Although the brightest part of a speaker is generally the dust cap, it is preferable to avoid a mic placement aimed at its very center. However, close miking with the microphone pointing directly at the center of the dust cap makes little sense, as the mic captures noise bouncing around inside the voice coil rather than detailed sound coming from the cone.

      A better starting mic placement for the brightest tone therefore tends to be at the edge of the voice coil, where there are a lot of subtle and complex modes. Also worth noting in Figure 8. A guitar loudspeaker cabinet does not function within a vacuum. As these reciprocal vibrations impact the excursion and return of the speaker cone, the bass frequencies tend to be impacted the most. These detrimental effects can be minimized through the use of an isolation platform.

      Additional amp output tends to result in some desirable breakup qualities being produced, but these effects are not wholly dependent on level. These cone break-up mechanisms happen at a few microvolts input. There are some level-related effects that come into play. That will cause some compression and it could cause some other things to change slightly as well, so the sound will change a little bit as the speaker is driven harder. But the sound character of the speaker is just as much there at low levels as it is at high levels.

      These tube-based harmonic qualities modify the tightness of the lows and brightness of the highs, while enhancing the thickness and spectral density of the rhythm sounds midrange. As it is far less essential for a transistor or hybrid amp to be driven hard, the tube amp part of this equation is important. Added to which, excessive recording levels can result in diaphragm distortion of the mic itself. Although this can be quite hard to distinguish amidst natural tube overdrive, mic diaphragm distortion damages a guitar sound nonetheless.

      The most effective solution is to carry level-matched comparisons of different amp-volume recording levels. Despite mic-pre adjustments to capture equal signal strength from each, the resulting tracks are likely to have different perceived loudness. With the most favorable amp master-volume level now dialed-in, amp adjustments that maximize the close-mic-captured sound are often needed.

      It therefore tends to be helpful for the amp head to be set up in the control room, preferably with longer speaker cables from the amp through to the live space patching speaker PART II Engineering cables through a wall box can be lossy, losing elements of the original signal. This allows for amp adjustments while directly monitoring the impact this has on the close-mic-captured sound.

      If you are leaving the amp in the recording space—perhaps due to this being a combo—be aware of potential high-frequency loss due to capacitance issues with longer instrument cables. With the very low output impedance of active guitar pickups, this makes far less difference, but with passive pickups results in a less bright sound.

      Although low-capacitance cables are of value, the most effective approach is to use a dedicated instrument cable extender and splitter, for example the Smart Guitar D. System in Figures 8. Not only does the G75 provide incredibly low latency 1.

      From here, we can fully focus on the mics and mic placements for most effectively capturing this sound. So it is almost impossible to avoid mentioning the Shure SM Matt Hyde has a preference for the Beyerdynamic M when tracking rhythm guitar. However, some engineers prefer to combine a dynamic model with a ribbon mic such as a Royer R or a Beyer M Conversely, if a greater level of sensitivity and detail is required in the highs, a condenser mic is likely more valuable. But bear in mind that the extended low-frequency response of many condenser mics is less effective at offsetting unwanted proximity effect.

      An often successful approach is to use a condenser mic in combination with a dynamic mic, providing different sounds that expand the mix options available. If a single mic is required for tracking pristine clean electric sounds, though, a condenser model tends to be preferable.

      Likewise, certain loudspeakers contradict the qualities required for this style of guitar sound. Therefore, the following discussion solely relates to guitar loudspeakers appropriate for reproducing down-tuned distorted rhythm guitars; for example, the Celestion Vintage 30 and Celestion G12M Greenback. Finding an optimal mic placement is easier with a basic understanding of loudspeaker frequency propagation patterns. There is a widely held idea that the center of a guitar speaker the dust cap produces the greatest level of high frequencies, whereas the edge of the speaker cone produces the greatest level of low frequencies.

      This frequency point is largely determined by the size of the speaker and how this relates to wavelength size. With a inch guitar speaker in a close-backed cabinet, the wavelengths of frequencies approximately Hz and lower are longer than the speaker circumference, meaning this energy is omnidirectional. When the wavelengths of frequencies are shorter than the circumference of the relevant loudspeaker, they begin to radiate directly ahead in a beam, which narrows with increasing frequency.

      Then adding the effects you want depending on the style. I think this pack reflects that. It ranges from basic processing like compression and EQ to some problem solving and effect-oriented signal chains.

      Was it hard to come up with 50 unique setting specifically for lead vocals? Martin: No. The hard part is choosing what goes in the final product. Ulf: On the contrary. Tell us briefly how an EZmix preset is made. What actually goes into the process? Martin: An EZmix preset contains pretty much all the typical things that goes into crafting a vocal sound.

      There are signal chains of EQs, compression, reverbs, delays and a whole lot more, within each of the 50 presets. Some presets are more basic with EQ and compression, while others are far more complex. A lot of attention goes into assigning the control knobs as well. You are both engineers and mix music on a frequent basis. How do you personally use EZmix 2 and how does it help in your creative process? Martin: I am a frequent user of EZmix 2.

      The sort of presets I tend to gravitate towards are usually guitar amps, and also drum and master bus presets. Using EZmix 2 helps me concentrate on the creative part of songwriting and production. Instead of getting stuck with comparing different amps, EQs and compressors, I get to focus on finishing my song. As a guitar player with an ever-growing selection of amplifiers, I still use the amp models in EZmix 2 a lot because it saves time, sounds like I want it to and gives me a bigger palette of sounds.

      Vocals is arguably the one ingredient that stands out the most a mix…and thus the most crucial to get right. What defines a great vocal sound, in your opinion? Martin: It has to do with the song, the melody and the lyrics. What is the lyrics trying to express and how is the feel of the whole song? Some tracks need aggression and bite, others needs something really smooth and tamed.

      In the end though, a great vocal sound always comes down to whoever stands behind the microphone. Ulf: Personality and getting the attitude right for the song. If it makes me listen to the words. That demands a good performance but also for the engineer to understand how to capture that and make the right decisions according to the situation.

      It would be wrong to not mention Nat King Cole. Those recordings are simply amazing. Finally, something completely unrelated to mixing: Greatest lead vocalist ever? Ulf: Wow, that list is long and I scratched the surface in the previous question , but one of the names on my list would be Mavis Staples. I tend to believe every word she sings. A playlist of various videos showcasing tips, tricks, products and artists using EZmix 2.

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      Check out the Brett Brothers studio website for more information and articles on all things mixing www. Want mix tips from Thomas Brett? Read them here! Join now for instant access! Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. By Thomas Brett Introduction To The Series: Learning How To Learn is one of the most crucial steps you can take towards becoming great at pretty much anything — And what better place to learn than from the minds of people who have actually been doing the job successfully for years?

      Although I can get by just fine on my own based on my built-up experience of working with various musicians, having another person to delegate these tasks to really helps take a load-off while allowing me to focus on other aspects of the production. Given the fact that the entirety of the professional audio community is utilising all of the editing and correction tools at their disposal in order to make the most commercially viable product possible, simply refusing to take-part in the world of editing based on your ideals instantly puts you at a significant disadvantage.

      But the truth is, until you reach a certain status within the industry, such occurrences are probably gonna be rather rare… My primary point? This being said, one of the absolute best ways to learn is through dissecting the specific settings which one of your mixing idols has actually used in order to gain a better understanding of what they were hearing in THAT particular sound.

      In this hour and half long tutorial, Andrew shows you how he imports his template to quickly setup his sessions and start mixing with familiar routing, plugins and effects all ready to rock. Learn how legendary mix engineer Andrew Scheps sets up his mixes and then download and start developing your own mix system based on his template.

      Swap in your own favorites plugins and build a reliable mixing system for yourself to use on every mix. Big thanks on this one. Wow, what a great share. Scheps is the man, mixed some of my fav bands back in the day. For those wondering, no there was no audio files that came with this, its a blank template for you to build on! Hope this may clear up any confusion! Thank you Horsemen. I wonder how they "translated to 5 different DAWs using stock plugins. Regarding the effects even the native ones , I think there is no need to translate, since they use a common "language", for example a compressor has the same basic parameters as all other existing compressors.

      In rock for example, the instruments are clearly defined, there is a hierarchy, we know how a typical group works and we know what stems a mix engineer will receive.

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