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Critical psychiatry: The politics of mental health, an edited book by David. Ingleby (a). This book has recently been reissued by Free. David Healy cautions that histories of chlorpromazine have been too narrowly focused on whether or not the drug was responsible for the closure of asylums. edgement, for example, that all drugs affect people in different ways and ness by Edward Shorter and David Healy, and Shock: The Healing Power. ROME 2 PATCH 1 RELOADED TORRENT Web Interface will displays the access point's MAC address. When scanning is complete, you will. SNMP ties heavily this option to for Windows and. To your users' Windows, Mac, iOS i can say with a simple service was friendly the code will be generated each time automatically to provide an extremely well and in good time.
Learn about institutional subscriptions. Table of contents 12 chapters Search within book Search. Front Matter Pages i-xii. Introduction Front Matter Pages Double Pages Historical Perspectives on Anti-psychiatry D. Heaton Pages Conclusion Front Matter Pages Back Matter Pages About this book Psychiatry is increasingly dominated by the reductionist claim that mental illness is caused by neurobiological abnormalities.
Critical psychiatry disagrees with this and proposes a more ethical foundation for practice. This book describes an original framework for renewing mental health services in alliance with people with mental health problems. Back to top. Keywords psychiatry social work treatment. Reviews 'This is a classic work that everyone working in mental health should read. As a physician to the gladiators, he peered into horrific wounds to learn more about human anatomy.
Eventually, he became physician of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, among others. He also incorrectly suggested that venous blood was created and pumped by the liver and that arterial blood originated in the heart, and he believed that blood passed from the left and right sides of the heart through invisible pores. For Galen, philosophy was an essential component in the training of each physician. During his life, he wrote nearly books on topics ranging from philosophy and alchemy to medicine.
He was the author of the first book on pediatrics and is famous for extensive observations that differentiated smallpox and measles. He was among the first to study lesions of the nervous system and to correlate them with clinical symptoms.
In addition to his scholarly works, he also wrote for ordinary people seeking help. Among his landmark works is Kitab al-hawi fi al-tibb Comprehensive Book of Medicine, c. This work inspired subsequent physicians of the Islamic world, including the famous Avicenna, author of the five-volume Canon of Medicine.
Jewish physician Faraj ben Salim translated Kitab al-hawi into Latin in , and after it was printed in under the title Liber continens, its influence spread. Kitab al-hawi is notable not only for its size but for its discussions of Greek, Arabian, and Indian physicians, whose work would otherwise have been lost. Gerard was an Italian translator who journeyed to Toledo, Spain, to learn Arabic and translate numerous Arabic scientific works found there.
His most famous work was the five-book encyclopedia Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb The Canon of Medicine , completed in , which provided a basis for medical teaching for more than years and was used in European medical schools. His work, written in Arabic and later translated into Latin, was influenced by Hippocrates, Galen, and Aristotle.
Like his famous Islamic predecessor al-Razi, Avicenna stressed the importance of observation, experimentation, and evidence-based medicine for making clinical decisions. In the Canon, Avicenna discusses cancer surgery and also helps elucidate the nature of infectious diseases including tuberculosis and the usefulness of quarantine.
Remarkably, he was able to make the distinction between mediastinitis inflammation of the tissues in the mid-chest and pleurisy inflammation of the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs. Additionally, he advised that clinical trials be repeated on multiple patients to judge medical efficacy and that drug tests on animals are not sufficient to determine effects in humans.
Avicenna was very interested in psychiatric conditions, ranging from hallucinations and depression to the behaviors of stroke victims. Of course, the Canon has flaws. For example, Avicenna wrote that the heart had three ventricles instead of two. Persecution of Jewish Physicians Martin Luther — The persecution of Jewish physicians and their colleagues is a pervasive theme in the history of medicine.
For example, in , 86 Jews were burned alive as punishment for an alleged plot by Jewish physicians to poison the citizens of Bohemia in central Europe. Around , many Jews were exterminated for supposedly causing the Black Death in Europe, despite the fact that many Jews perished from the plague. According to the medical faculty of the University of Vienna in , Jewish law forced Jewish physicians to murder every tenth Christian through poisoning.
The ensuing physician shortage compelled Germany to reduce the period of medical education by two years. He resigned. Even today, Jewish health-care professionals are sometimes the subject of strange allegations. In , a Chicago mayoral assistant charged that Jews injected the AIDS virus into African Americans, and in , a prominent Palestinian representative suggested that the Israelis injected Palestinian children with HIV human immunodeficiency virus.
Illustration showing Jews being burned alive during the Black Death, by German physician, historian, and cartographer Hartmann Schedel — This emblem dates to an era in which a barber, in addition to cutting hair, also pulled teeth and performed various surgical procedures, including bloodletting, a practice in which blood was drained from the body in a questionable effort to improve health.
The red bloody bandages, perhaps only partially cleaned, were placed outside the barber shop to dry. As they blew in the wind around a pole, they created a pattern that was eventually transformed into an advertising symbol in the form of a striped helical pole. In , the barbersurgeons formed their first official organization in France. In , the barbersurgeons and academic surgeons in England united to form a single guild—the United BarberSurgeons Company—but the two classes of surgeons had different jobs.
The barbers displayed blue and white poles and were prohibited from carrying out advanced surgery, although they still could pull teeth and perform bloodletting. Academic surgeons displayed poles with red and white stripes and were not allowed to cut hair or shave clients. Blood-drawing leeches were also used. The early barber pole was topped with a brass basin representing a container of leeches. In the United States, the most famous manufacturer of motorized spinning barber poles was the William Marvy Company of St.
Paul, Minnesota, founded in By , the company had sold 50, poles. The stripes on the barber pole date to an era in which a barber performed surgical procedures and bloodletting. The red stripes represent the bloody bandages. Blue may partly be an homage to the colors of the U. Pulmonary circulation refers to the path of blood between the heart and lungs.
In particular, oxygen-depleted blood leaves the heart, traveling from the right ventricle lower chamber into the pulmonary arteries leading to the lungs. Al-Nafis knew there were no pores. Ibn al-Nafis described the pulmonary circulation of blood between the heart and lungs.
In the depiction, the pulmonary arteries and veins, seen at the upper part of the heart, branch horizontally to the left and right, making their way to the lungs. Spectacles not only made it possible for scholars and copyists to continue their work, they accustomed people to the idea that certain physical limitations could be transcended by the use of human inventions. Various forms have existed through history, including the pince-nez supported only by pinching the bridge of the nose, with no earpieces , monocle a circular lens over one eye , and lorgnette spectacles with a handle.
By A. The earliest eyeglasses made use of convex glasses for the correction of hyperopia farsightedness and presbyopia age-related farsightedness. One early reference to concave lenses for nearsightedness also called myopia, in which distant objects appear blurred and near objects are clear occurred in Natural Magick , by Italian scholar Giambattista della Porta.
Convex lenses were used to see text that was close to the eye. Spectacles were once so expensive that they were listed in wills as valuable property. Around , British optician Edward Scarlett developed the modern style of glasses, held by rigid arms that hook over the ears. The American scientist Benjamin Franklin invented bifocals in to address his combination of myopia and presbyopia. Today, many eyeglasses are made of the plastic CR due to its favorable optical properties and durability.
A lorgnette is a pair of spectacles with a handle. It was invented in the s by English optical designer George Adams. Some owners did not need glasses to see better, but carried ornate lorgnettes to be fashionable. Biological Weapons Hannibal B. Physicians play central roles in responding to the menace of biological weapons. They maintain an awareness of risks, quickly recognize an event, and institute appropriate responses such as antibiotics and vaccines.
In the twenty-first century, bioweapons pose a growing threat of causing devastating epidemics as expertise in biotechnology grows and methods for the genetic manipulation of pathogens become simpler. Biological warfare includes the use of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other biological agents to kill humans, livestock, and plants. For example, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax, is an effective biological weapon because it forms resilient spores that are easily dispersed. Additionally, pulmonary anthrax infection can kill 90 percent of untreated individuals within a week.
Terrorist sympathizers can be protected with antibiotics and thus avoid being killed themselves. Other potential bioweapons include Yersinia pestis a bacterium that can cause bubonic plague , viruses such as Rift Valley fever and Ebola , and toxins such as ricin, extracted from the castor bean, and botulinum toxin, a protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Biological warfare has been conducted for millennia. In B. In , Tartar forces threw warriors who died of plague over the walls of Kaffa, a Crimean city, and an outbreak of plague followed. In , representatives of the Delaware Indians were given blankets exposed to smallpox. In , Japanese warplanes flew over China and dropped ceramic bombs filled with fleas carrying bubonic plague. Today, various field equipment is being developed that employs antibodies aimed at a number of specific pathogens to detect a possible bioterrorist attack.
A gas mask and protective clothing. Physicians play central roles in responding to the menace of both chemical and biological weapons. As early as , while he was in Milan, Leonardo established his grand plan for a Treatise on Anatomy, a comprehensive set of drawings and explanations concerning the human body. Although Leonardo outlined his plan, he never completed his work.
During his anatomical studies for the Treatise, Leonardo made one of the first scientific drawings of a fetus within the womb. Also fascinating were his groundbreaking methods of injecting wax into the ventricles of the brain in order to better understand their shapes. Notes crowd the drawings, allowing you to peek inside the brain of da Vinci himself as he questioned how a fetus breathes and what testicles do. Burning of Dr. Wertt Percival Willoughby — , John Hunter — , George III George William Frederick; — , George IV George Augustus Frederick; — Although male midwives started to become common in the West in the eighteenth century as men began to control the profession, the earlier taboos that kept men away from births played an important role in the history of medicine.
No story exemplifies the early gender taboo concerning midwives greater than the punishment of Dr. Wertt of Hamburg. In , the physician Wertt disguised himself as a woman so that he could observe the birthing process and learn firsthand about delivering babies. Alas, intrusion of men into the birthing room was unthinkable at that time. Wertt was burned at the stake while other physicians watched.
Several other stories are illustrative of the gender taboo. Luckily for Rayus, his punishment was a fine of only 50 shillings. Also, consider that in , John Hunter, a Scottish surgeon who was regarded as one of the most distinguished surgeons of his day, had to sit in an adjacent room while a Mrs.
The disengagement of husbands from the birth process has been common in many cultures at different times in history. For example, when wives went into labor on Lukunor, an island in the South Pacific, men left for a month and stayed with other men. On the other hand, men have sometimes been more engaged.
During delivery, the wife pulled the string with each contraction so that he could participate in her pain. His book on childbirth, Der Rosengarten The Rose Garden , published in , became a standard medical text for midwives. Paracelsus believed that illness resulted from the body being attacked by agents outside the body or by other abnormalities that could be treated with chemicals. In , he publicly burned the standard medical texts of the day, which included the works of Galen and Avicenna.
Physicians had to destroy the foundations of Galenic medicine, be free to question authority, and use fresh observations and experiments while seeking new medicines. However, most highly controlled studies have concluded that homeopathy is no more effective than a placebo.
Paracelsus, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys — For example, in contradiction to Galen, Vesalius showed that blood did not pass from one side of the heart to the other through invisible pores. He also showed that the liver had two main lobes. In actuality, Galen had based nearly all of his observations on animal dissections, which led to significant errors about humans.
As a medical student, Vesalius braved feral dogs and horrible stenches in his feverish attempts to obtain rotting corpses from cemeteries or the remains of executed criminals hanging from beams until they disintegrated.
He even kept specimens in his bedroom for weeks while dissecting them. The book revealed the inner structures of the brain as never before. Along with a few other Renaissance giants such as Copernicus and Galileo, Vesalius created the progressive, science- driven world in which we live. There was no comparable practitioner, during his time, in any other country, and his influence was felt in every part of Europe.
The next day, he discovered that the soldiers treated with boiling oil were in agony, with swollen wounds. However, the patients who had been treated with the more soothing ointment rested relatively comfortably with little signs of infection.
Another important contribution to medicine was his promotion of the ligature of blood vessels e. For anatomizing is not only a very messy business … but distinguishing all the structures that are visible to the eye of the trained anatomist is very difficult for those who are not yet anatomists.
Because he was affiliated with two hospitals in Rome, he was able to obtain and dissect cadavers of fetuses, infants, and adults. In , with the help of artist Pier Matteo Pini, Eustachi created a great work of anatomical depictions. Alas, most of the illustrations were lost until the early eighteenth century. The engravings depict the kidneys, brain, spinal cord, muscles, and various other organs. Had the plates been published at the time they were executed, Eustachi would undoubtedly have ranked with Vesalius as founder of modern anatomy, and anatomical studies would have reached maturity in the seventeenth rather than in the eighteenth century.
This tube allows air to pass and equalizes pressure between the middle ear and the atmosphere. De Praestigiis Daemonum Johann Weyer c. Sometimes, however, whole societies go mad. In particular, Weyer criticized the cruel witch-hunting and persecution by Christian authorities, and he may have been the first to use the term mentally ill when referring to some of the quirkier women accused of practicing witchcraft.
Weyer never denied the existence of the devil. In fact, in some sections of De Praestigiis, he suggests that some reckless or melancholic women were psychologically predisposed to become prey of the devil, who could make them imagine being involved in wild rituals that they did not actually take part in. Weyer believed that it was necessary to consult physicians when women were accused of witchcraft. Condom Gabriele Falloppio — , Giacomo Girolamo Casanova de Seingalt — Methods for preventing fertilization and pregnancy have had a long history.
The ancient Egyptians placed crocodile dung mixed with honey in the vagina in an attempt to prevent conception. Condoms and other barrier devices have been popular throughout history to reduce the incidence of pregnancy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea both caused by bacteria as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS caused by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV.
Today, condoms made from latex, polyurethane, lamb intestine called lambskin , or other materials are generally placed over the penis. One of the first officially published descriptions of the condom occurred in , when Italian physician Gabriele Falloppio described a linen sheath that served as a protection against syphilis. Latex condoms, developed in the s, were thinner than rubber ones and required less labor to produce.
In the s, automated condom-production lines using machinery were in operation. Condom use has been restricted or illegal throughout history. As brief examples, in , the U. Comstock Law allowed the post office to confiscate condoms sold through the mail.
In , Julius Schmidt, who ran a famous New York business that initially manufactured skin condoms, was arrested for having nearly condoms in his house. Germany outlawed civilian use of condoms in Condoms could not legally be sold in Ireland until Giacomo Casanova left and a colleague test their condoms for holes by inflating them. Today, medical ultrasound can be helpful in confirming the precise position of the fetal head.
British surgeon and obstetrician Peter Chamberlen is credited with the invention of particularly effective obstetrical forceps. The Chamberlen family members were careful to keep their method of successful delivery a secret, so the precise date of the invention is unknown. For example, when one of the Chamberlens arrived at the home of a woman trying to give birth, two people carried a massive box with gilded carvings that contained the secret forceps, and the pregnant patient was blindfolded so that even she would never see the forceps.
Eventually these forceps, each loop-shaped blade of which could be inserted separately to ensure an optimal fitting, had a profound influence on successful deliveries. It was also a huge failure. By keeping such an important breakthrough to themselves and a small number of patients in one country, the Chamberlen family slowed medical progress and probably allowed many thousands of women and children to die.
Money and desire for fame won out over human life. After healing had occurred, the flap was removed from the arm, and the new nose was trimmed to the desired shape. From these tiny grafts, the skin gradually grew and spread. In , German surgeon Carl Thiersch published a paper describing a method of skin grafting that used a very thin donor slice of epidermis outer layer of the skin and underlying dermis layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissues.
For example, skin from a sibling is more likely to be useful than that of a more distant relative. But in the early s, he injected mouse embryos with tissue cells from unrelated adult mice and found that when the mice were born, they could accept skin grafts from the donor mice. Thus, he discovered how to change the immune systems of the embryos so that the donor tissue would not be rejected as foreign tissue. Acupuncture Compendium Acupuncture usually involves the shallow insertion of needles into various points on the body referred to as acupoints.
Moxibustion involves the burning of the mugwort herb to generate heat. Although acupuncture has been used with some success for controlling certain maladies, such as nausea and pain, a number of scientific papers have concluded that this may be achieved mostly through a placebo effect and that further research is needed. Nevertheless, placebos can provide real relief, perhaps partly through the triggering of endorphins natural painkillers in the brain.
Classical texts describe most of the acupoints as being on 12 main meridians and two additional meridians through which qi flows. It is interesting to note that Chinese medicine forbade dissection and that meridians do not appear to have a precise counterpart in modern biological concepts. The Great Compendium synthesized past texts and unwritten traditions. If qi fails to come in the end, the case is beyond cure. In the United States, a significant number of employer health-insurance plans cover acupuncture treatments.
Model of human head, showing several acupuncture points. Drawings of Pietro da Cortona Pietro da Cortona born Pietro Berrettini; — Pietro da Cortona was an Italian architect and painter who exemplified the Baroque style of art that often involved complex ornamentation and dramatic emotions. The Catholic Church often encouraged this artistic movement because it emphasized tradition and spirituality.
Pietro studied in Rome, and from the mids until his death received commissions for major architectural and pictorial pieces, which he worked on simultaneously. For example, we do not know how his Tabulae anatomicae fit into his famous career of architecture and painting. For whom did Pietro make these studies? Occasionally, Pietro inserts classical buildings in the background along with various landscapes. Many of his subjects hold framed images of themselves to reveal additional details.
A woman stands facing the viewer with her hands holding open her own womb in order to exhibit her uterus and urogenital system. In the wall to her right is a magnification of her open womb that protrudes from the wall, revealing a tiny baby squatting in her uterus, with its hands over its eyes.
Is the baby crying or simply shielding its eyes from the viewer? Nerves of the limbs and thorax. Circulatory System Praxagoras B. Yet … the functioning of the heart and blood vessels remained a profound mystery from ancient times until the first quarter of the seventeenth century. In his work, De motu cordis fuller title in English: On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals , Harvey traced the correct route of blood through his study of living animals, in which he could pinch various blood vessels near the heart or could cut vessels and note directions of flow.
He also applied pressure to veins near the skin of human subjects and noted blood-flow direction by observing swelling, along with the parts of the arms that grew congested or pale. In contrast to physicians of the past, who conjectured that the liver produced blood that was continually absorbed by the body, Harvey showed that blood must be recycled.
He also realized that the valves that exist in veins, discovered by his teacher Hieronymus Fabricius, facilitated one-way blood flow to the heart. Harvey traced the blood through smaller and smaller arteries and veins but did not have a microscope and, thus, could only conjecture that connections must exist between arteries and veins. Just a few years after Harvey died, Italian physician Marcello Malpighi used a microscope to observe the tiny capillaries that provided the elusive connections.
Various related work in blood circulation predates Harvey. For example, the Greek physician Praxagoras discussed arteries and veins, but he suggested that arteries carried air. In , the Arab Muslim physician Ibn al-Nafis elucidated the flow of blood between the heart and lungs.
William Harvey correctly described, in detail, the circulation of blood through the body, including the path of oxygenated blood away from the heart and the return of deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The duct, also called the duct of Wirsung in his honor, is the tube through which pancreatic enzymes flow to aid in the digestion of food. The pancreas had always been somewhat of a mystery to physicians.
Although Wirsung himself was unsure of the purpose of his duct, his finding was important because it established the role of the pancreas as a gland that secreted a fluid. Instead of publishing his finding, Wirsung sent illustrations to European anatomists for their comments.
A year later, Wirsung was shot and killed while chatting with his neighbors near his home. However, Wesling was acquitted, and many conflicting stories about the identity of the assassin still exist in history books today. The most likely suspect, however, is Giacomo Cambier. The pancreatic duct central brown-orange tube in the yellowish pancreas joins the pancreas to the common bile duct green tube , and together these two ducts discharge their contents into the duodenum brown tube at left.
Like a burglar alarm, they are on guard against intrusive antigens. The lymphatic vessels, in which the clear lymph fluid travels, contain a one-way system of valves that help channel fluids from body tissues to the left and right subclavian veins blood vessels near the collarbones. Before the lymph fluid enters the bloodstream, the fluid passes through small bean-shaped lymph nodes that contain T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes white blood cells to help destroy and filter out bacteria.
Because the LS is intimately associated with virtually all body tissues, the LS sometimes spreads cancer cells. The lymph nodes can also trap cancer cells, but if they are not able to destroy the cells, the nodes can become sites of tumors. The spleen, located in the abdomen, is part of the LS and is one site of lymphocytes that engulf pathogens. The thymus gland, located in the chest, controls the development and maintenance of T-lymphocytes. The LS also includes bone marrow, in which B cells mature, and the tonsils.
In , Danish physician Thomas Bartholin published a comprehensive description of the human LS and coined the term lymphatic vessels. At about the same time, the Swedish scientist Olaus Rudbeck made similar discoveries. A portion of the lymphatic system green , with the spleen at lower right.
Cranial Nerves Classified Thomas Willis — In contrast to the spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord, cranial nerves are special in that they connect directly to the brain. Humans have 12 pairs of cranial nerves that enter and exit the cranium the part of the skull that encloses the brain. His classification of the cranial nerves was used for more than years, and he numbered the first six nerves precisely as we do today. Willis cut the nerves and vessels at the base of the brain so that it could be turned upside down, in order to carefully study the cranial nerves.
His obsession with the brain was partly a result of his attempt to understand the soul based on brain investigations. He also hypothesized that the higher functions of the human brain arise from the convolutions of the cerebral cortex. The olfactory nerves are highlighted in bright yellow at top, and the optic nerves are represented in green.
Micrographia Marcello Malpighi — , Anton Philips van Leeuwenhoek — , Robert Hooke — , Georgios Nicholas Papanikolaou — Although microscopes had been available since about the late s, the use of the compound microscope a microscope with more than one lens by English scientist Robert Hooke represents a particularly notable milestone, and his instrument can be considered an important optical and mechanical forerunner of the modern microscope.
For an optical microscope with two lenses, the overall magnification is the product of the powers of the ocular eyepiece lens and the objective lens, which is positioned closer to the specimen. The book also discussed planets, the wave theory of light, and the origin of fossils, while stimulating both public and scientific interest in the power of the microscope.
Hooke was first to discover biological cells and coined the word cell to describe the basic units of all living things. The word cell was motivated by his observations of plant cells that reminded him of cellulae, which were the quarters in which monks lived. He later published pictures of red blood cells, bacteria, spermatozoa, muscle tissue, and capillaries, the last of which were also observed by Italian physician Marcello Malpighi.
Through the years, the microscope has become essential in research into the causes of diseases, such as bubonic plague, malaria, and sleeping sickness. Before this test became widely used around , cervical cancer was the leading cause of death in American women. Discovery of Sperm Anton Philips van Leeuwenhoek — , Nicolaas Hartsoeker — In , Dutch scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek reported to the Royal Society on the discovery of human spermatozoa, which resembled innumerable wormlike animals. And if your Lordship should consider that these observations may disgust or scandalize the learned, I earnestly beg your Lordship to regard them as private and to publish or destroy them as your Lordship thinks fit.
Other scientists believed that the sperm were simply parasites and had nothing to do with the reproductive process. Around , van Leeuwenhoek and his student Johan Ham had used a microscope that magnified times to examine spermatozoa, which he described as animalcules little animals —suggestive of his belief in preformation, a version of which posited that the head of each sperm cell contained a tiny, fully formed human.
Dutch microscopist Nicolaas Hartsoeker claimed to have seen spermatozoa in , but he was uncertain about his observations and, at first, thought the wriggling cells were parasites. His famous drawing of a homunculus, or little human, crammed within the head of a sperm suggested preformation as well. Hartsoeker did not claim to have seen actual homunculi, but other researchers did! Some suggested that the homunculi in sperm might have smaller sperm of their own, in an infinite regress of homunculi within homunculi.
Of course, when researchers began to show how organs in creatures such as chicks gradually appear in the process of development, it became clear that animals are not in a near-final form from the start. Sperm surrounding an egg just prior to fertilization. The word sperm generally refers to the male reproductive cell, and spermatozoan refers specifically to a mobile sperm cell with an attached, whiplike tail. Today we know that in humans, the sperm cell has 23 chromosomes threadlike carriers of genetic information that join with the 23 chromosomes in the female egg when fertilization occurs.
Illustration of a sperm, emphasizing the head, whiplike tail, and joining midpiece, which contains a filamentous core with many energy-producing mitochondria for tail movement and propulsion. In the old Mediterranean cultures that practiced divination by animal-entrail reading, the intestines sometimes represented the complex movements of planets. Diviners would count the number of major twists.
An even number of twists was good; an odd number, bad. These glands also lubricate the intestinal walls and provide a more alkaline environment in which intestinal enzymes can be active. When the duodenum contains the partially digested food expelled by the stomach, it also produces secretin and cholecystokinin hormones, which trigger the liver and gallbladder to release bile and the pancreas to release its enzymes.
The duodenum wall also contains three important features. The Ampulla of Vater is formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct from the liver and is named after German anatomist Abraham Vater. The Sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of digestive juices bile and pancreatic juice through the Ampulla of Vater.
Visualization of the stomach center , with attachment to the duodenum, the yellow-orange tube starting at the bottom of the stomach at left in the visualization. Zoo Within Us Anton Philips van Leeuwenhoek — Even healthy bodies contain a vast zoo of microbes affecting our health. The proper balance and functioning of this diverse ecosystem of bacteria, fungi, and viruses may hold cures to maladies ranging from inflammatory bowel diseases to various skin disorders.
Beneficial and harmful microbes typically reside on and in the skin, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, nose, and other various orifices. Researchers are studying the possible role of different bacterial populations in diseases of the intestine e. Electron micrograph of a cluster of salami-shaped E. Discovery of Sarcoptes Scabiei Francesco Redi — , Diacinto or Giacinto Cestoni — , Giovanni Maria Lancisi — , Giovanni Cosimo Bonomo — Italian researcher Giovanni Cosimo Bonomo, in collaboration with pharmacist Diacinto Cestoni, discovered the cause of the scabies skin infection, suggesting that it spread through the union of male and female mites, and observed a mite laying an egg, which led him to infer that the disease was transmitted to and between humans through contaminated clothing.
He also speculated on treatments for scabies, such as sulfur. Bonomo decided to avoid debate when Lancisi suggested a humoral origin and referenced the Scriptures. Scabies is manifested as a very itchy skin rash. Severe forms are sometimes found on individuals with compromised immune systems.
In , mites were difficult to study because of their small size. However, today, scientists at the U. Agricultural Research Service freeze mites and use scanning electron microscopy for observation. Shown here is a yellow mite, Lorryia formosa, among fungi. Separation of Conjoined Twins Johannes Fatio — , Chang Bunker — , Eng Bunker — The history of conjoined twins CTs and surgical attempts at their separation involves perplexing medical and ethical issues that challenge our everyday notions of personhood.
We are our bodies. CTs once referred to as Siamese twins are identical twins whose bodies become joined while developing in the womb. The mechanism of their formation continues to be researched, with the theory of fission suggesting that the fertilized egg undergoes only a partial split. According to the theory of fusion, the fertilized egg separates to generate two embryos that later fuse.
CTs may be fused at different locations of the body—for example, along the chest with the twins sharing a single heart, liver, or portion of the digestive system. As another example, the twins might share one head with a single face but with four ears and two bodies.
Arguably the most famous CTs are Chang and Eng Bunker, who were joined at their torsos with a fused liver. In , they married sisters, with Chang later producing ten children and Eng producing If born today, Chang and Eng could have been successfully separated. In , Swiss surgeon Johannes Fatio performed the first successful separation of twins joined at the abdomen. Interestingly, in , a successful attempt was made in Constantinople to separate CTs after one of the boys died, but the surviving boy lived for only three days.
With modern surgical techniques and CAT scans, more complex surgeries can be performed, but various ethical concerns remain. In , CTs were separated in Great Britain despite the religious objections of their parents. Before surgery, it was certain that the surgery would kill the weaker of the twins. However, if surgeons had not operated, both would have died. Ectopagus laterally conjoined dicephalus dibrachius tripus twins, from Human Monstrosities — by Barton Cooke Hirst — and George Arthur Piersol — Pulse Watch Herophilus of Chalcedon B.
For a long time, accurate measurements were difficult, and early pocket watches did not include second hands. The measurement of beats per minute eventually became a common measurement and a fundamental part of medical examinations, and portable watches became associated with physicians for more than years.
Interest in the pulse dates back to ancient times. For example, the ancient Greek physician Herophilus attempted to quantify pulse rates using a water clock a timepiece in which time is measured by the flow of liquid. Today, abnormal pulses can be used to indicate maladies such as dehydration, Stokes- Adams syndrome, and vessel blockages in people with diabetes or with atherosclerosis from high cholesterol. Floyer was known for certain eccentricities and was a major proponent of cold bathing for health.
From that moment onward, she was propelled into a world she had never dreamed existed: a dark, alien, medical subculture flourishing in the courts of the king. She careened out of control, a pawn in the hands of the powerful, while forcing her contemporaries to question their most basic beliefs.
In , Mary Toft appeared to give birth to numerous rabbit parts including a rabbit head and other animal fragments. Prominent physicians of the day examined her and concluded the births were real, causing a national sensation. Later, when Toft confessed under pressure to secretly stashing animal parts within her, the careers of several famous but gullible surgeons were ruined. Mary Toft is on the floor giving birth to rabbits, which are hopping beneath her dress. Next to her is the nail-vomiting Boy of Bilston, who perpetrated a hoax to convince people he was bewitched.
Osteographia was created by English anatomist and surgeon William Cheselden and published in The principal trick is to render the three-dimensional world of experience—alive with light, color and texture—into the two-dimensional world of black and white depiction. It is a testimony to the skills of an artist if this can be accomplished without the viewer commenting on the loss.
In fact, the frontispiece for Osteographia shows a scientist peering into a huge, dark, boxlike structure that is used to reproduce the skeletal subject with color and perspective preserved. He began his medical studies at the age of 12 at Leiden University in the Netherlands, receiving his medical degree in without sitting through examinations. He was awarded a professorship of anatomy at age 24 and soon became famous as one of the most skilled teachers of anatomy in Europe.
He is best known for his monumental illustrated work Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani Tables of the Skeleton and Muscles of the Human Body , which was first published in Leiden in While creating Tables, Albinus worked constantly with the artist Jan Wandelaar. In order to ensure the accuracy of Tables, Albinus and Wandelaar placed nets in front of the specimens. The nets formed a grid pattern to guide the drawing.
Albinus also held the skeletons in lifelike poses using cords and had a man stand naked in the same positions in order to make visual comparisons. Scurvy symptoms include bleeding gums, weakness, and the opening of old wounds.
Scurvy was once common among sailors and soldiers whose journeys left them without access to fruits and vegetables for long periods of time. In , the English navigator Sir James Lancaster wrote that lemons helped to prevent scurvy, and today we know that this fruit is high in vitamin C. Alas, practical approaches involving lemons were often overlooked, either due to cost or uncertainty about the efficacy of fruits.
As described in his A Treatise on Scurvy, Lind divided sailors with scurvy into six groups, letting them access different foods. Only the sailors who ate lemons and oranges recovered rapidly. Unfortunately, he failed to recommend a precise treatment for the malady, and his work was largely ignored. Not until around was lemon juice routinely issued to sailors, effectively eliminating the disease from the British fleet.
Vintage map from More than two million sailors perished from scurvy during the Age of Sail, when international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships. Indicate to him what remedies or mode of life he can pursue that will prevent his suffering. An autopsy is a medical procedure involving a careful examination of a corpse, often to determine the cause of death. One of the earliest and most famous laws authorizing human dissection in Europe is credited to Frederick II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, in Italian anatomist Giovanni Morgagni became well known for his autopsies that correlated symptoms with organic changes, and he published hundreds of reports in his De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis On the Seats and Causes of Disease, Investigated by Anatomy , which included descriptions of coronary artery disease, pneumonia, and various cancers.
The Bohemian physician Carl von Rokitansky performed many thousands of autopsies using a definite protocol, making autopsy a separate branch of medicine. German pathologist Rudolf Virchow emphasized the importance of the microscope to study autopsy tissues. Today, a physician makes a large incision along the front of the body, and many of the organs may initially be removed together as one large mass.
Major blood vessels are opened and inspected. Stomach and intestinal contents can sometimes give an indication of the time of death. A Stryker electric saw is used to open the skull and expose the brain. Specialized techniques may be used that include electron microscopy, radiology, and toxicology to check for poisons.
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp , oil on canvas, by Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn — Nicolaes Tulp — was a Dutch surgeon and mayor of Amsterdam. Cancers are caused by abnormalities in the genetic material of cells and have many possible causes, including carcinogens e. Among the earliest documented cases of probable cancer are described in an Egyptian papyrus, c.
In , Italian physician Bernardino Ramazzini reported on the virtual absence of cervical cancer in nuns when compared with married woman, speculating that sexual intercourse may increase cancer risk. The first paper describing a relationship between use of tobacco snuff and nasal cancer was published by English physician John Hill in , after his startling discovery that his patients were all snuff users.
He suggested, more generally, that substances in the environment may promote cancer. In , another English physician, Percivall Pott, attributed high incidences of cancer of the scrotum among chimney sweeps to their contact with coal soot. He even recorded the cancer of a young boy who had been an apprentice to a chimney sweep.
Today, we know that tumor-suppressor genes, which normally inhibit uncontrolled cell division, may be inactivated by genetic changes associated with cancers. Two views of Clara Jacobi, a Dutch woman who had a tumor removed from her neck in De sedibus, published when Morgagni was 79 years old, records roughly dissections. De sedibus identifies pathologies such as hepatic cirrhosis a chronic degenerative disease in which normal liver cells are damaged and replaced by scar tissue , syphilitic lesions of the brain, stomach cancers and ulcers, and diseases of heart valves.
Morgagni also observed that a lesion on one side of the brain, causing a stroke, led to paralysis of the other side of the body. Additionally, CSF surrounds the brain and spinal cord, providing lubrication and a cushion against shock. Produced in the ventricles e. The continual production of CSF at a rate of about milliliters 17 ounces per day means that all of it is replaced roughly every seven hours. A cloudy CSF may indicate meningitis, an inflammation of the lining of the brain or spinal cord.
The causes of meningitis e. The CSF can also be used for diagnosing possible brain tumors, syphilis, and multiple sclerosis a disease of the lining of the nerve cells. Many anatomists of the past had not even observed CSF because, prior to dissection, the head was brutally severed from the body—an act that emptied both the spine and skull of their fluids.
He is best remembered today for his publication describing his delicate dissections of the mazelike structures of the inner ear. The ear may be considered in three parts. The outer ear includes the pinna, or earlobe. The middle ear is filled with air and includes the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. The inner ear has organs needed for balance and hearing. A complex set of fluid-filled bony tubes contains a set of membranous tubes. This bony labyrinth has three sections: 1 the spiral cochlea, which has hair cells that vibrate and convey sounds to the auditory nerve; 2 the semicircular canals, which assist with balance; and 3 the vestibule, which connects the cochlea and semicircular canals and which contains additional structures that help assist with balance.
The term vestibular system refers to the semicircular canals and the vestibule. The movement of fluid in the three semicircular canals in each ear corresponds to rotations of the head, and hair cells convert such movement to nerve signals. Otolithic organs in the vestibule help to sense accelerations in body movement.
Otoliths crystals of calcium carbonate in the organs are displaced by the acceleration, which deflects hair cells and produces sensory signals. In the normal cochlea, high frequencies produce maximal vibrations at the start of the spiral coil, and low frequencies stimulate the distant end of the cochlea.
Note that labyrinthitis inflammation of the labyrinth can cause dizziness and nausea. Cross section of inner ear showing the spiral cochlea and the semicircular canals, three looping, interconnected tubes. It discovers and ascertains truth, [and] overturns superstition and vulgar error. George III and Charlotte had 15 children, 13 of whom survived to adulthood. The plates were engraved by Dutch-born medical artist Jan van Rymsdyk and elucidate the anatomy of the pregnant woman and the fetus at various stages of development.
Hospitals Pandukabhaya reigned B. You listen then and know that here is no mere pile of stone and precisely cut timber but an inner space full of pain and relief. Such a place invites mankind to heroism. Historically, hospitals were often funded by religious orders and charitable leaders.
In ancient Egypt and Greece, various temples functioned as centers of medical advice and healing. King Pandukabhaya of Sri Lanka c. King Ashoka c. During the sixth and seventh centuries, the Academy of Gundishapur in the Persian Empire became one of the first teaching hospitals, with numerous students supervised by physicians.
In A. In the early hospitals, the goal was not only to ameliorate suffering and save lives but also to save souls. The VGH was divided into sections for medicine, surgery, venereal concerns, and contagious diseases. It also had a lying-in facility, a tower for the insane, and a section for abandoned children.
German physician Johann Frank was an important figure in the history of hospitals, encouraging hospitals to keep accurate statistical records. His Complete System of Medical Policy, first published in , concerned hygiene and public health. He was director of the VGH in , where he attempted to combat the spread of infections between patients. The hospital includes a church, which emphasizes the historically close connection between hospitals and religion.
The important relevant chemical reactions occur in tiny mitochondria within cells, which use oxygen during respiration. This oxygen is acquired by the lungs and conveyed to the tissues by hemoglobin in red blood cells. Eventually, the body expels carbon dioxide through the lungs.
He reasoned that respiration consumes and generates the same gases produced in combustion, for example, when a candle burns and consumes oxygen. In the body, the fuels of respiration are replenished by food. One might even evaluate the mechanical energy spent by a philosopher who is thinking. According to the scientist C. For centuries, foxglove leaves were known to have a variety of effects on the human body. English botanist and physician William Withering became famous for his careful tests of the plant in the treatment of dropsy, a swelling of the body and accumulation of fluids due to congestive heart failure CHF.
CHF results from the inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood flow and is often caused by malfunctioning heart valves. Withering first learned of the use of digitalis which later became the name of the active ingredient from an old woman who practiced as a folk herbalist. Her concoction consisted of 20 different ingredients that seemed helpful for treating dropsy.
Withering determined that digitalis was the important component. In he published An Account of the Foxglove and Some of Its Medical Uses, in which he discussed his trials on patients, along with remarkable beneficial effects and warnings about lethal toxicity at high doses. The main toxins in digitalis are digitoxin and digoxin. Blood-flow through the kidneys is improved, and accumulated fluids are voided through the bladder. Author H.
Through the efforts of Withering, pharmacognosy regained an impetus given to it by Dioscorides more than 1, years earlier. Digitalis purpurea common foxglove. Ambulance Isabella I — , Dominique Jean Larrey — The concept of an ambulance—a means of transporting the sick or injured to a place of medical care—has its roots in antiquity, with stretchers, hammocks, chariots, and carts.
Around , Queen Isabella I of Spain authorized the construction of special bedded wagons with awnings to carry wounded soldiers to tents where they could receive care. Another important stage in the history of the ambulance started around in France. The ambulances had removable litters and carried water, food, bandages, and other equipment.
The first known ambulance service for U. These horse-drawn American ambulances carried equipment such as splints, morphine, brandy, and stomach pumps. The first motor-powered ambulances went into action in at the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago. In the s, the U. Today, the term ambulance refers to a wide range of vehicles and even bicycle-controlled conveyances. In the United States, important information, such as estimated time of arrival, may be exchanged with the receiving hospital using two-way radios or other means.
On battlefields, military ambulances are often heavily armored. Around , Israel modified several of its Merkava battle tanks to contain ambulance features with various life-support systems. Ipswich Ambulance Depot c. The Queensland Museum contains many negatives and prints from the era. His idea that patients should be treated with kindness was revolutionary at a time when asylum patients were beaten, chained, starved, bled, blistered, whirled in chairs, made to vomit, and sometimes even displayed like zoo animals.
Pinel learned much from Jean-Baptiste Pussin, a hospital superintendent who was interested in treating asylum inmates with greater kindness. Pinel forbade harsh punishments and insisted on better food, occupational therapy, and maintaining careful patient case histories.
He also sought intelligent and kind asylum personnel who could work more effectively with the insane. As a result of this approach, inmate deaths decreased dramatically, and the number of released inmates increased. Here, he successfully instituted similar reforms and later came to be known as one of the founders of psychiatry.
Pinel referred to his humane approach as traitement moral, which emphasized that compassionate psychological treatment should be tried before physical approaches. Other early asylum reformers include the British Quaker William Tuke, who in created a retreat for the mentally ill, and Italian physician Vincenzo Chiarugi, who in headed a hospital in Florence in which humane treatment was encouraged.
Patients were segregated by sex. The wards housed mental patients until the mids. Alternative Medicine Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann — , Daniel David Palmer — Many people make use of complementary or alternative medicine CAM , which includes medical practices that are not presently considered part of conventional medicine.
The term complementary is used when such treatments are employed together with conventional medicine, and alternative is used when the treatments are employed in place of conventional medicine. This entry is dated to , the date when German physician Samuel Hahnemann proposed the concept of homeopathy. Chiropractic was founded in by American Daniel Palmer, who suggested that physical manipulation of the spine could cure disease.
While the benefits of many CAMs may be due to the placebo effect, it is interesting to note that, until recently, the entire history of medical treatment was essentially the history of the placebo effect, with many ancient treatments that seem odd to us today. Some individuals may choose CAM due to fear of surgery or the side effects of drugs.
The downside of some CAMs is that they have not been rigorously tested and may lead some people to forgo more effective mainstream treatments. At the same time, affluent consumers in the industrialized world are spending their own money on [CAM]. Palmer and Chiropractic , and Placebo Effect
Write a review Rate this item: 1 2 3 4 5. Subjects Psychotropic drugs. Mental illness -- Chemotherapy. View all subjects More like this User lists Similar Items. Show all links. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Save Cancel. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Psychiatric drugs explained.
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David Healy Find more information about: David Healy. Section 1. Management of psychoses -- section 2. Management of depression -- section 3. Management of bipolar disorders -- section 4. Drugs for children -- section 5. Management of anxiety -- section 6. Management of sleep disorders and insomnia -- section 7. Management of cognitive impairment -- section 8.
Management of sexual difficulties -- section 9. Management of dependence and withdrawal -- section More filters. Sort order. Start your review of Psychiatric Drugs Explained. Aug 10, Elizabeth Barreca rated it it was amazing. I have the 5th Edition from class. It really helps breakdown the major concerns of psychiatric drugs.
It is ideal for nurses, as stated on the back of my copy. Great for beginners! This book I read in my first year as a psychiatric nursing student. I found parts difficult to understand as I had read this prior to classes starting and this book does discuss the disorders but I found the explanations needing to be more simplified so I would recommend to read The The Meaning of Madness before hand as it is extremely simply and able to place imagery. Psychiatric Drugs explained is one I have returned to throughout my nursing studies as a referencing book within assignments and This book I read in my first year as a psychiatric nursing student.
Psychiatric Drugs explained is one I have returned to throughout my nursing studies as a referencing book within assignments and looked back on when needing to clear up any misunderstanding I have had towards medication. You do not need to read the book from front to back as it is easily broken down into manageable chapters from the disorders, what medication treats what, effects of medication and goes onto consent and ethics.
Very useful tool for anyone interested or studying mental health. Does exactly what it says on the tin. Dec 30, Jimmy James rated it really liked it. Great hand-book! Actually a smooth read all the way through! I will keep it at my desk right next to my Pill Book, lol. Jordyn Rodgers rated it it was amazing Feb 08, John Mousley rated it it was amazing Oct 05, Sara Joyce rated it really liked it Apr 09, Mrs Siobhan Moseley rated it it was amazing Oct 13, Amber rated it really liked it Jan 05, Simon Phillips rated it liked it May 26, Leebs rated it really liked it Jun 03, Sahar Hawamdeh rated it liked it Jan 24, Amy-Jo rated it it was amazing Jan 24, Juliet Cassidy rated it it was amazing Apr 25, Lee Evans rated it did not like it Sep 28, Paul Vittay rated it really liked it Mar 27, Brogan Wilson rated it really liked it Dec 28, Maxine rated it really liked it May 18, Dawn lawson rated it it was amazing Sep 08, Jon rated it liked it Sep 13, Siobhan rated it liked it Sep 20, Tracie Ellis rated it it was ok May 18, Uthay Raj rated it really liked it Sep 29, Tabatha Rose rated it really liked it Apr 18, Sukhi rated it really liked it May 25, Emily Gray rated it it was amazing Oct 01, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.
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Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Save Cancel. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Psychiatric drugs explained. Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.
Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Tags Add tags for "Psychiatric drugs explained". Similar Items Related Subjects: 11 Psychotropic drugs. Informazioni sull'autore Segui gli autori per ottenere aggiornamenti sulle nuove uscite, oltre a consigli avanzati. David Healy. Brief content visible, double tap to read full content. Full content visible, double tap to read brief content. Chi ha acquistato questo articolo ha acquistato anche. Pagina 1 di 1 Pagina iniziale Pagina 1 di 1.
Disorders, and More English Edition. Daniel G. Formato Kindle. Thomas Szasz. Recensioni clienti. Maggiori informazioni su come funzionano le recensioni dei clienti su Amazon. Recensioni migliori da Italia. Ci sono 0 recensioni e 0 valutazioni dall'Italia. Le recensioni migliori da altri paesi. Traduci tutte le recensioni in Italiano. Acquisto verificato. Really good book, explains psychotropics really well. Author offers a great perspective on the use and dispensing of mental health medication and stresses the importance of understanding the impact on physical health that these medicines often have.
Excellent and useful text, taught me a few things and has given me food for thought related to my practice. Traduci recensione in Italiano. Really good and useful book. Im studying Mental Health Nursing at uni and this is the most helpful psychiatric drugs book I have come across. Got all the information you would need and more. Good resource for having all the psych drug information in one place and well set out. Quick delivery. Is easy to read, to follow and to understand without the need for any background medical knowledge.
Obviously need an interest in such matters to tackle it in the first place. Segnala un abuso Traduci recensione in Italiano. This book is a life saver for student mental health nurses! Probably got me through a few exams and it's really easy to read! Well set out and this book will be just as helpful when I qualify! Visualizza tutte le recensioni. Segnala un problema. Questo articolo ha contenuti inappropriati?
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