2 Окт 2012 Dikasa 2
This development follows the torrent of faults that have been happening in the region and countrywide. The statement reads as follows. Distributed By – Sonic Sounds Rec. Mfg. Co. Ltd. Licensed From – Disc Pressers Ltd. Recorded At – Treasure Isle Recording Studio. Label:Treasure Isle. There could be a number of reasons: a blind faith in progress and development In , Tropical Storm Erika poured out torrents of water over the hills. WINDAUSU SULIETUVINIMAS PARSISIUSTI TORENTUS The same new the zoom is by using the. Then log in to hear your address every 5 of realistic routes. Issue fixed in Fabric and are low, medium or.
Zesa guys are so disappointing. Kindly assist us. Seems to be no progress in fixing the problem. These faults that are happening in Westgate are becoming too much. Please assist its been almost a week now without electricity. Budiriro 5A ,mubanana area please please do something.
It would appear that the Whatsapp platform is not being attended to, messages are not being read so faults not being recorded and responded to. We have had consistent power cuts in Glenwood Epworth near Tobacco research for the past 3 days and many other days whilst other holdings have…. Why why Zctdc, why why, electricity will come exactly hrs and by hrs it will bi gone in Mbare National whas the problem communicate with the people hey.
Mr Mapepete is requesting money for fuel for Glen view 3 residents to be attended to since Complains were lodged on Sunday 7 May. Contact Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Yes, add me to your mailing list. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Skip to content. Number to recharge:. Eco Cash or One Money number:. WhatsApp number:. Pay Nyaradzo. Pay Signup.
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Thank you. Kindly assist, this is day 4. No electricity in Glenview 7, this is the second day. Please help. It is surprising that the human and social sciences have avoided this issue for so long, given that it will determine the future of humanity. Besides being anthropocentric by definition, these disciplines believe that the field belongs to the natural sciences, par excellence. The emergence of the concept of the Anthropocene confers upon them the responsibility of explaining how human societies have been able to provoke changes of such magnitude to the modus operandi of the planet, and what differentiated impacts they will have on the world map.
The social sciences and humanities should be developing and acquiring new subjects and knowledge to respond to the questions raised by this new epoch — including natural disasters, renewable energy, the depletion of natural resources, desertification, ecocide, widespread pollution, migration, social and environmental injustice.
The slow and feeble reactions of politicians — and of societies in general — to climate change, is also astounding. A mathematical analysis of networks of citations has shown that in scientific articles on the subject, there has been a consensus, since the early s, that climate change exists. Given that the crisis is worsening, it is hard to understand why efforts to reduce GHGs have been so half-hearted. What obstacles are preventing international negotiations from being more effective? Besides the intentionality of these so-called obstacles, there is no doubt that communications between science and society are sluggish, at least when it comes to the climate question.
To address this, the IPCC has adopted a new approach for its Sixth Assessment Report AR6 , designed to raise awareness among the general public, not just decision-makers. Overcoming deadlocks One of the stumbling blocks of the Anthropocene is that to tackle it, the delicate subject of environmental justice has to be addressed. Climate change will amplify the existing risks, and create new ones, for natural and human systems. Yet these risks are not distributed equally, generally affecting disadvantaged individuals and groups the most.
But it is not easy to find a satisfactory solution to this problem, given the heterogeneity of countries in terms of their level of development, size, population, and natural resources, etc. It features plastic items collected from islands off the west coast of Scotland United Kingdom. It seems as though humanity is being lethargic — waiting for the end of the film, when the heroes arrive to sort everything out, and we can all live happily ever after.
A country like Brazil and other countries on the American continent still possesses a large biocapacity surplus, even though it consumes 1. But twenty-six per cent of its GHG emissions are due to deforestation. A significant part of its ecological footprint comes from exporting primary products, which is the reason for a large proportion of this deforestation. The competitive globalized system tries to find supplies at the least cost, encouraging extractivism in many countries, and land- grabbing in others.
Even if it were possible to suppress all carbon dioxide emissions in high-revenue countries right now, it would still not be enough to reduce the global carbon footprint and meet the limits imposed for the biosphere until In other words, in spite of the considerable differences in the size of their economies and their reserves of natural resources, all countries need to try to remedy the most pressing problem of the Anthropocene — by drastically reducing their GHG emissions. This is exactly what leads us to the deadlocks that usually arise in international negotiations — the search for culprits that then dissuades countries from making commitments, for fear of compromising their economic growth and their jobs, or antagonizing powerful interests.
The solution that was reached in the Paris Agreement, signed on 22 April , was to ask countries to make voluntary commitments, rather than impose criteria established on a planetary scale. This means each country commits to meet targets for reducing its emissions in line with what it considers to be viable. This approach has helped to overcome deadlocks and to make action possible. But it has also created a tangle of assessment criteria that complicates comparisons between national efforts.
Also, in spite of its universal character, the Paris Agreement does not provide for sanctions against countries that default on their commitments. This is a sign of the weak governance of the climate question which, in the absence of an institution mandated to carry it out, is incapable of prevailing over the economic interests of countries and enterprises. Submerged under contradictions, dilemmas and ignorance, the extremely serious environmental issues of the Anthropocene are not getting the required level of priority on national and social agendas.
Photo from the Submerged Portraits series, one of four parallel elements of the Drowning World project started in by South African photographer, Gideon Mendel, which highlights our vulnerability to global warming, through the personal stories of victims. The more I read into climate change science and eventually, into geology and biology, the more I realized that how late we have come in the history of evolution.
And that, not accidentally, because complex creatures like humans can only come very late in the story of evolution. The planet developed life and its conditions changed to eventually help sustain complex multicellular forms of life. Normally I used to deal with a world that was not more than years old — the news of climate change altered that. Like many historians, I used to think of the natural world as a backdrop, where the main actors were human.
Dipesh Chakrabarty, interviewed by Shiraz Sidhva While modern technological advances have allowed us to flourish as a species, we may have catapulted ourselves out of the Darwinian evolutionary scene. Human beings have acquired the role of a geological force, capable of stalling an Ice Age — and possibly driving another Great Extinction of life in the next to years.
It may not be easy, but, argues historian Dipesh Chakrabarty, it is not too late to change course. Could you elaborate? Until recently, we have thought of human history purely in terms of recorded history, which goes back a few thousand years. A pre-history adds a few more thousand years. But climate change science has required us to think about the place of humans in the history of the planet since they appeared.
Because you had to understand what the planetary processes were and how the planet has managed to keep in place, not just the climate, which is friendly to us, but also oxygen at twenty-one per cent of the atmosphere for almost six hundred million years. As I have become aware now, the history of our evolution plays a very significant role, even in our short-term histories. For instance, humans cannot ever make any objects that we handle without the assumption that we have opposable thumbs.
This is a matter of a very slow evolutionary history, which we usually take for granted. That hand also has a slow history, which is the history of evolution. What do you mean when you say humans exert a geological force today? Human actions are now changing the climate of the whole planet. Taken together, we wield a kind of force that is so great that it can change the usual cycle of Ice Ages followed by interglacial periods — a cycle of, let us say, , years.
So far we have thought of human beings as biological agents, because we do things to our environment and to ourselves, we carry diseases, etc. We can no longer separate the biological agency of humans from their geological agency. Several historians of the long term have suggested that, as we developed a big brain and developed technology, we began to grow at a pace much faster than the evolutionary pace.
The argument is that if we acquired deep-sea fishing technology at the pace at which evolutionary changes usually happened, then the fish would also have had time to learn how to avoid our dragnets. And it is having such an impact on the history of life that many biologists say that we might be driving the Sixth Great Extinction of life in the next to years. The spread of human beings all over the planet has only been possible in the last few thousand years.
Capitalism is not as old as us, but if you look at what happened with the coming of big sailing ships, and then steamships, you can see that the continent of Europe itself distributed its population all over the world. Now that does mean the differentiation between rich and poor people, I agree, but both the rich and the poor are members of the species. Could you explain? I think the way he interprets my quote in his article see page 24 is a little misleading.
It gives the impression that I had suggested that the poor are immediately as responsible for carbon emissions as the rich. I have never made such a claim, for everyone knows that the poor do not emit as much greenhouse gases as the rich, and that only a handful of nations are responsible for the major portion of anthropogenic emissions of these gases. So that is not the point. The point is that Indian and Chinese arguments in defence of the use of coal and other fossil fuels though this is being somewhat mitigated by the falling price of renewable sources of energy in the interest of moving people out of poverty, acquire their significance from the fact that these are extremely populous nations and the number of poor people concerned is very large indeed.
The history of population, I suggested, belongs to two histories at once: the history of modernization, public health programmes, modern medicines, including antibiotics in the production of which fossil fuels play a role , the eradication of pandemics, epidemics, and famines, etc; and the history of the human species. How could one deny that even poor humans belong to the species Homo sapiens?
Are they not part of our evolutionary history? Never in the history of biological life on this planet have we had a species that managed to spread itself all over the world that happened thousands of years ago, long before there was mass poverty as humans have, and that also rose to the top of the food web in so short in terms of evolutionary time a period.
If we do manage to improve the lives of seven billion, or eventually, nine billion people, the pressure on the biosphere will only increase. However, this is not an argument in favour of not improving the lives of the poor. The reason Nehru wanted to build dams was mainly to grow more food through irrigation and save people from dying in famines.
The focus of political thinkers since the s has been on human rights and on the flourishing of every individual human, irrespective of the numbers. Climate change and the attendant scientific propositions came at a time when we were enjoying precisely those things that climate scientists say may imperil our existence in the long run. How much is globalization responsible for this? We have globalized in the last thirty or forty years, and this has been made possible by increasing the technologies of connectivity.
We all like the fact that we can communicate with our loved ones across the globe on a daily basis, or that we can fly across the world in a matter of hours to explore other countries or do business there, or to visit friends and family. But in terms of our life experiences, we see it as a condition for human flourishing. Humans think in terms of seventy to eighty years, of three or four generations, at most.
This makes it very hard for us to come together and act in a synchronized manner to fight climate change. Besides, every country is also invested in its own development agenda. Now that we are aware that we are not the masters and owners of nature, what kind of stories do you suggest we tell?
I think we should no longer tell stories of human hubris. I think the older story, that we are controlling nature, was a wrong story. The story we should tell is that here is a planet, which luckily for us, developed complex forms of life. For instance, if you destroy soil, it takes millions of years to regenerate. So we should definitely be less profligate, we should somehow find a way of living where we live, rationally, intelligently, and not consume so much.
We also need to find some rational, democratic, non-violent and poor-friendly ways of bringing the population down. How we get there is the most difficult question today. We need to have a different kind of society — we cannot sustain the current kind of capitalism for the next or years. And it is our responsibility to keep up this message, at universities and schools.
You have said that a crisis is a good time for renewed creativity. As the crisis deepens, so will the creative responses to it. I think there will be charismatic leaders who will break the shackles of consumerism and inspire us, as Mahatma Gandhi once did. He is the Lawrence A. Weighing thirty trillion tons, this is the technosphere.
It includes a mass of carbon dioxide which is industrially emitted into the atmosphere — the equivalent of , Egyptian Pyramids! The Earth that sustains us may be considered in terms of different spheres. Most recently, a new sphere has emerged — the technosphere. The technosphere, in the sense that we understand it, is a concept that has been developed by the American geologist and engineer Peter Haff, Professor Emeritus at Duke University, in the United States. Like the Anthropocene, it is growing rapidly in recognition — having, for instance, been the focus of a recent major initiative of Haus der Kulturen der Welt House of World Culture , the international centre for contemporary arts in Berlin, Germany.
Like the Anthropocene, the technosphere is controversial, not least because of the role — and constraints — it affords to humans. It suggests that we have far less freedom, collectively, to guide the Earth system, than we may think we have. The technosphere encompasses all of the technological objects manufactured by humans, but that is only part of it.
It is a system, and not just a growing collection of technological hardware. This distinction is crucial, and may be illustrated by comparison with the more established concept of the biosphere. Originally coined by the nineteenth-century Austrian geologist Eduard Suess, the term biosphere was developed as a concept by Russian scientist Vladimir Vernadsky in the twentieth century.
More than the sum of its parts, the biosphere interlinks and overlaps with other spheres of the Earth, while having its own dynamics and emergent properties. The unbearable burden of the technosphere Technofossil Samsung E , a pretend fossilized mobile phone sculpted in malachite rock by Belgian artist Maarten Vanden Eynde, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo It also includes the domestic animals that we grow in enormous numbers to feed us, the crops that are cultivated to sustain both them and us, and the agricultural soils that are extensively modified from their natural state to carry out this task.
Technological objects, including mobile phones, may be considered technofossils geologically, because they are biologically-made constructs that are robust and resistant to decay; they will form future fossils, to characterize the strata of the Anthropocene. Plastiglomerates, facsimiles of hypothetical future geological matter, made for the Manufacture of Rocks of the Future project, started in by French artist Jean-Pierre Brazs.
The technosphere also includes roads, railways, airports, mines and quarries, oil and gas fields, cities, engineered rivers and reservoirs. It has generated extraordinary amounts of waste — from landfill sites to the pollution of air, soil and water. A proto-technosphere of some kind has been present throughout human history, but for much of this time, it took the form of isolated, scattered patches that were of little planetary significance.
It has now become a globally interconnected system — a new and important development on our planet. How big is the technosphere? One crude measure is to make an assessment of the mass of its physical parts, from cities and the dug-over and bulldozed ground that makes up their foundations, to agricultural land, to roads and railways, etc.
An order-of-magnitude estimate here came to some thirty trillion tons of material that we use, or have used and discarded, on this planet. The physical parts of the technosphere are also very various. Simple tools like stone axes were made by our ancestors millions of years ago. But, there has been an enormous proliferation of different kinds of machines and manufactured objects since the Industrial Revolution, and especially since the Great Acceleration of population growth, industrialization and globalization of the mid-twentieth century.
Technology, too, is evolving ever faster. Our pre-industrial ancestors saw little technological change from generation to generation. Now, in the space of little more than one human generation, mobile phones — to take but one example — have been introduced to mass public use and have gone through several generations.
Nobody knows how many different kinds of technofossils there are, but they already almost certainly exceed the number of fossil species known, while modern technodiversity, considered this way, also exceeds modern biological diversity.
The number of technofossil species is continually increasing too, as technological evolution now far outpaces biological evolution. These non-renewable energy sources in effect represent fossilized sunshine that has been amassed deep in the Earth over hundreds of millions of years, and that is now being expended in just a few centuries.
Humans have used power sources such as watermills for millennia, but the enormous burst of energy now needed to power the technosphere is on a completely different scale. One estimate suggests that humans have collectively expended more energy since the mid-twentieth century than in all of the preceding eleven millennia of the Holocene. Inundated with waste The technosphere, though, differs from the biosphere in one crucial respect. The biosphere is extremely good at recycling the material it is made of, and this facility has enabled it to persist on Earth for billions of years.
The technosphere, by contrast, is poor at recycling. Other kinds, being colourless and odourless, are invisible to us, like the carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels. The mass of industrially-emitted carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is now enormous — nearly one trillion tons, which is the equivalent of about , Egyptian Pyramids. This rapid growth in waste products, if unchecked, is a threat to the continued existence of the technosphere — and the humans that depend on it. The technosphere is an offshoot of the biosphere and, like it, is a complex system with its own dynamics.
The capacity of our species to form sophisticated social structures and to develop and work with tools were important factors in its emergence. However, Haff emphasizes that humans are not so much creators and directors of the technosphere, as components within it, and therefore constrained to act to keep it in existence — not least because the technosphere keeps most of the current human population alive, through the supplies of food, shelter and other resources that it provides.
Its development has allowed the human population to grow from the few tens of millions that could be kept alive by the hunter-gatherer mode of life in which our species evolved, to the 7. Just one technological innovation — artificial fertilizers made using the Haber-Bosch process — keeps about half the human population alive.
The technosphere today is not evolving because it is being guided by some controlling human force, but because of the invention and emergence of useful technological novelties. There is now a kind of co-evolution of human and technological systems. Altering planetary conditions Currently, the technosphere might be regarded as parasitic on the biosphere, altering conditions of planetary habitability.
Obvious consequences include greatly increased and accelerating rates of extinction of species of plants and animals, and changes to climate and ocean chemistry that are largely deleterious to existing biological communities. These changes can in turn damage both the functioning of the biosphere and human populations.
Ideally, therefore, humans should try to help the technosphere develop into a form that is more sustainable in the long term. Nevertheless, humans collectively have no choice but to keep the technosphere operative — because it is now indispensable to our collective existence. Working out the degrees of freedom, within this context, for effective socio-economic and political action, is one of the challenges that the evolving technosphere presents us with.
A first step here is to more fully understand the workings of this extraordinary new phase in the evolution of our planet. Here, there is still much to do. He has worked as a field geologist and palaeontologist for the British Geological Survey, and is Chair of the Anthropocene Working Group of the International Commission on Stratigraphy, since In Panama, scientists and national leaders are in a race against time to prevent a legendary species, the golden frog, from disappearing forever.
Investigations have shown that humans are indeed responsible, having introduced into South America an invasive fungus that is highly toxic to amphibians. According to a pre-Columbian legend from the heartlands of Central Panama, the golden frog brings good luck. Anyone who sees one or manages to capture one will have a happy future.
Its bright yellow livery, speckled with coffee-coloured patches, was a source of delight for indigenous tribes, who thought that when the amphibian died, its tiny body turned to solid gold. Panama has made the golden frog an ecological and cultural symbol, even dedicating a national day — 14 August — to it. The frog is so popular that it adorns arts and crafts objects, jewellery, festival posters, and even lottery tickets. It also lends its name to hotels, craft beers and boutiques.
The frogs were seen for the last time in the wild in — in a short video scene shot by the BBC for one of its Life in Cold Blood documentaries on reptiles and amphibians. Female Panamanian Golden Frog, Atelopus zeteki. CC BY 2. In frogs infected with Bd, the transport of electrolytes is disrupted, reducing concentrations of sodium and potassium in the blood, and leading to cardiac arrest. An invasive fungus Where does Bd come from? Probably Africa.
This is at least is the most widely accepted hypothesis among Panamanian biologists. The Bd chytrid occurs naturally in the epidermis of the South African amphibian, Xenopus laevis — the frogs were used extensively in human pregnancy tests starting in the s. Unaware that Xenopus laevis was the vector for this disease, the amphibian test was exported to other parts of the world, causing the disease to spread.
He points out that the chytrid has already spread throughout the country and is now infecting other amphibian species. It is present everywhere — in Panama as well as in other Latin American countries. In , the government launched an Action Plan for the conservation of the amphibians of Panama.
Involving three components — research, conservation, and education — it is a first step towards resolving the problem. Created ex situ in , the project aims to ensure the reproduction of endangered species, especially those affected by the chytrid fungus. Based twenty-two kilometres outside Panama City, the centre holds 1, examples of frogs belonging to nine species — with the exception of the golden frog. Will the golden frog regain its former lustre?
The scientists are convinced it will. Until then, we must hope that the little creature will, itself, have the happy future it symbolizes for the people of Panama. She has worked in the United Nations system and has been a reporter for the daily, La Prensa. If governments are unable to mitigate this, the risks of conflict and instability will increase, and become more difficult to manage.
This is the case in many regions around the globe. However, the Horn of Africa is particularly vulnerable, given a combination of structural fragilities and the significant exposure to climate change risks. This raises the likelihood of conflict and instability on the peninsula. Caitlin E. The stresses on natural resources undermine the capacity of nations to govern themselves, and increase the chances of conflicts. When compared to other drivers of international security risks, climate change can be modelled with a relatively high degree of certainty.
But between predicting and preparing, there is still a long way to go. The current rate of climate change — higher seas, decreased ice in the Arctic, melting glaciers, extreme rainfall variability, and more frequent and intense storms — are scenarios that settled human societies have never experienced before. These dynamics will impact the foundational resources that people, nations — and the world order built on those nations — depend on for survival, security and prosperity: particularly food and water.
These impacts are already contributing to increased state fragility and security problems in key regions around the world — conflict in the Middle East and Africa, tensions over fisheries in the South China Sea, and a new political and economic battleground in a melting Arctic Ocean.
The threat to output legitimacy can contribute to state fragility, internal conflict, and even state collapse. Seen through this lens, climate change may present a serious challenge to state stability and legitimacy in the Horn of Africa — a region already grappling with numerous challenges before climate change became a factor. Rising sea levels threaten to inundate critical infrastructure in these cities, contaminate freshwater supplies through saltwater intrusion, reduce arable land, and potentially displace large numbers of people.
The Gulf of Aden is a critical waterway along the Horn of Africa. As climate change further narrows economic opportunities in the region, an even greater increase of piracy along the coast is likely. Indeed, research has shown that there is a significant overlap between countries showing a high incidence of piracy attacks off the coasts of Somalia and Eritrea , and the most significant climate vulnerability in Africa.
This paints a worrying picture of the kinds of overlapping risks that can perpetuate state failure in the Horn. Ocean acidification and warming are contributing to the migration and depletion of fish stocks around the world, including along the coast of the Horn of Africa — though the lack of extensive monitoring in this region means there is a gap in the knowledge of the extent of the impacts. Changing ocean chemistry and temperatures can increase the likelihood of international tensions between countries and subnational actors of the Horn that share a coastline — including a heightened potential for conflict over fishing, as their respective fishing fleets roam into neighbouring waters, or compete over dwindling stocks in international waters.
Droughts, coupled with other factors, are already increasing pressure on people in Africa and elsewhere to move. In the future, decreases in precipitation in the Horn, and increases in extreme weather events, will likely increase the rate and scale of migration. Indeed, of the twenty highest-ranked countries that are deemed fragile states, twelve are situated in areas of the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa, where climate change is expected to create heightened levels of water scarcity.
The region also exhibits some of the clearest indications of a connection between climate change and conflict — namely, conflicts between agricultural and pastoral communities precipitated by climate-exacerbated droughts and water variability. For example, prolonged climate-exacerbated extreme drought, such as in Somalia in , can add additional stresses to already tense and resource-scarce scenarios.
These stresses could increase tensions and conflict between communities, and precipitate the need for people to move — impacting the prices of livestock and other goods. This could also lead to an increase in malnutrition and disease outbreaks, and adversely impact food security For more information, see: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 96, Issue 4, 1 July , pp. Local tensions over access to food and water resources can spill over into neighbouring countries, as people seek to find additional resources and safety — placing more strain on the resources of those countries, which could amplify tensions.
In these instances, climate change does not directly cause conflict over diminishing access to water, for example, but it multiplies underlying natural-resource stresses, increasing chances of a conflict. These are scenarios that, in the absence of better governance and natural resource management, are going to become increasingly pronounced in the future. Changing geopolitical landscape Several studies, combined with models and foresight exercises, show with increasing accuracy, the way in which changes in climatic conditions can, if left unmitigated, scale up to higher-order security situations, including a higher likelihood of conflict.
A lot of the research to this point, however, has focused on the links between climate change, increased rainfall variability, and conflict. Other scenarios in which climate impacts and security intersect and combine to form the foundation of a new geopolitical landscape include: Urbanization is occurring rapidly in the Horn of Africa, including along the coast. Coastal cities with burgeoning populations, like Mogadishu Somalia , Djibouti City and Mombasa Kenya are vulnerable to sea-level rise.
Wide angle 22 The UNESCO Courier April-June Changes in water availability, including increased scarcity of, and access to, water exacerbated by a changing climate, also open up opportunities for states and non-state actors to use water as a weapon. In a recent study by Marcus King of George Washington University, United States, discusses how Somalia has been especially prone to this nexus of climate, conflict and water weaponization Epicenters of Climate and Security, June In , Somalia was hit by regional droughts that have been linked to climate change.
Climate change, lack of food and continued conflict involving water weaponization took an enormous social toll. These dynamics can make state instability and conflict more likely and enduring. However, there is a small silver lining — climate change, especially when compared to other drivers of international security risks, can be modelled with a relatively high degree of certainty. While significant uncertainties in predicting local-scale climatic changes remain, existing projections from climate models paint a fairly clear picture of what the future holds.
This provides a basis for governments and societies to plan accordingly. However, this heightened predictive capacity does not, by itself, lead to preparedness. Changing minds, not the climate UNESCO has more than thirty programmes to help us understand and deal with the challenges posed by climate change, and to raise awareness of the ethical implications raised by this major issue of our times.
By defining the global ethical principles surrounding climate change, the Organization provides guidelines for decision-making and policy choices to help counteract the morally unacceptable damage and injustice it brings. The mainstays of the Declaration of Ethical Principles, adopted in November , include the prevention of harm, a precautionary approach, equity and justice, sustainable development, solidarity, scientific knowledge and integrity in decision-making.
The biosphere reserves managed by MAB, along with the World Heritage sites and the global geoparks network, all act as observatories for climate change. The Organization pays particular attention the health of the oceans, which regulate the climate and capture nearly a third of carbon emissions. As a result of the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, coastal pollution, overfishing and population pressures, the coasts and marine ecosystems are undergoing major changes.
Its exhibition stands have become meeting places to promote debates and discussions with the public and civil society. The need to change mentalities is no longer in dispute. What is needed is an in-depth understanding of the issues underlying this global challenge. This involves raising awareness and educating people about sustainable development. A failure to meet this responsibility could significantly strain regional stability in the Horn, and around the world.
The Washington DC-based, non-partisan policy centre, which has a team and an Advisory Board of distinguished security and military experts, is the only institution exclusively focused on the security risks of climate change. Six weeks after I left, on 18 September , Hurricane Maria suddenly accelerated to a Category 5 system — one of the most explosive intensifications of a hurricane on record — and slammed straight into Dominica. Over one night, the green island turned brown.
The extraordinarily ferocious winds simply blew away the forest cover. Andreas Malm Climate change is not the creation of the mere existence of billions of humans who inhabit the planet, but is wrought by the few who control the means of production and make the central decisions about energy use, argues Andreas Malm. In what is more Capitalocene than Anthropocene, a head-on confrontation with fossil capital is imperative if we are to prevent extreme climate events like the hurricanes that have devastated Dominica.
Dominica used to be an emerald hill-range, rising straight out of the Caribbean Sea. When I visited the island nation in August , it remained covered by impossibly green woods, every peak and ravine bursting with vegetation. The most mountainous island in the region, with the greatest intact forest cover, it was a marvel of natural splendour, but poor. Most of the 70, inhabitants — the vast majority, African descendants — subsisted on small-scale farming. The banana, plantain and yam were supplemented with some fishing and a little bit of tourism.
The island had already suffered an early blow. In , Tropical Storm Erika poured out torrents of water over the hills, until some of them gave way and collapsed. At the time of my visit, the country was still licking its wounds from that disaster, clearly visible in the south-east, where the slopes were cut up by the landslides that had carried away top-soil and trees and houses.
The view from Dominica: Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Incalculable sense of loss Leaves and branches were scattered over the sea, naked trunks left standing in what looked like clear-felled areas — if Erika had scratched the island, Maria flayed it.
This time the entire infrastructure — houses, roads, bridges, hospitals, schools — was pulverized and the agricultural sector obliterated. It is anything but. In the first month after Maria, a fifth of the population picked up what few possessions could be salvaged, and left. Those who stayed spoke of themselves as soldiers on a battlefield: martial discourse swept the country.
As Dominicans bear the brunt of climate change, we are shouldering the consequences of the actions of others, actions that endanger our very existence, and all for the enrichment of a few elsewhere. Subsistence farmers who resorted to taxi-driving or street-vending to supplement their incomes, they had negligible carbon footprints and zero power over global energy supplies.
Yet, in the assault from the hyper-hurricane, the main victims were precisely these farmers: they were killed, their lives laid to waste, the very land they stood on destroyed. Are we all responsible? In the discourse about climate change, as it has developed in Western academia, media and policy-making circles over the past decade or so, another storyline has taken hold.
It says that the problem has been created by all of us. Global warming is the fault of the human species as a whole. We live in the Anthropocene, the epoch when our particular species has overtaken the natural forces in determining the trajectory of this planet, most obviously in the realm of climate — and so humans in general are responsible for the ensuing catastrophes. Every human being who has ever lived has played a part in making us the dominant species on this planet, and in this sense every human being, past and present, has contributed to the present cycle of climate change.
So did her ancestor slaves who were brought to the island. So did the Kalinago people, living there in peace before Europeans made landfall on the island in Flawed narrative It is exceedingly difficult to see what scientific grounds there could be for such a view, but a multitude of intellectuals expounding on the Anthropocene have made similar statements. On this view, Maria was more a suicide than a blitzkrieg.
It was a case of the chickens coming home to roost among some of their original breeders, with no particularly flagrant injustice involved. From the denuded hillsides of Dominica, the reality, of course, looks very different.
The small sculptures represent businessmen half-drowning in a mixture of water and oil. The UNESCO Courier April-June 25 The people of Dominica and their many fellows of misfortune around the world — set to multiply every coming year unless a head-on confrontation with fossil capital begins right about now — have never lived in what is termed the Anthropocene and their actions cannot be blamed for causing harm to the planet.
They suffer the blows from an age more appropriately labelled the Capitalocene. It is a form of structural, systematic war, but we can expect the sudden shock-and-awe events to become more frequent in the years ahead. A more open question is when, or if, the fight-back will ever begin.
Wealth is known to correlate closely with carbon dioxide emissions. It is the sign of profits from business-as-usual and the best proof against its consequences. Soaked in fossil fuels, it is the engine of the storm. Plastic epidemic We are being told that climate change is created by an anonymous mass of millions and billions of humans, when, as American geographer Matt Huber has recently argued, it is in reality, a very narrow segment of the species that controls the means of production and makes the central decisions about energy use.
That segment operates with one goal in sight — expanding its riches further. The process is known as capital accumulation, and it grinds on relentlessly, with no regard for the fate of Dominicans or the ever more desperate alarms from climate science. To take but one example, in December , The Guardian newspaper reported that the production of plastics in the United States is set to increase by forty per cent in the next decade — since ExxonMobil, Shell and other fossil fuel corporations have used the ongoing shale gas boom to invest massively in new plastic plants.
They will lock the American — and by extension, the global — economy, even deeper into its addiction to plastic products. These will eventually make their way to beaches around the world, and to fossil fuels, the heat from which will find new islands to devastate.
From the standpoint of capital, that is exactly the right thing to do: invest in the production and consumption of fossil fuels to generate profit. It is this process that has fuelled global warming from the very start. But the interpretations could get distorted by those who use the term to prophesy the end of the world — an approach which is counter-productive, argues Francis Chateauraynaud.
You have been studying scientific controversies for a long time. What do you think of the debates around the Anthropocene? This is an important debate — scientists are looking for a global model for the planet, which, for the time being, has not been consolidated. Stop the catastrophist discourse! As a hypothesis, the Anthropocene is of interest to both geologists and archaeologists, who deal with radioactive or chemical residues in the soil.
The question remains whether it is really necessary to talk about a new geological epoch that would follow the Holocene. The relevance of the term Anthropocene will certainly become clearer over time, and it is normal that it should be debated. Some authors, such as the American academic Jason W. Moore and Swedish author Andreas Malm, prefer to speak of the Capitalocene. This reclassification is questionable, though, given the large ecological footprint of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR in the twentieth century.
In fact, it is not so much the term Anthropocene that poses a problem as the predictability of the model, on the one hand, and the temptation to embrace catastrophism or determinism, on the other. Could you tell us more about this tendency towards catastrophism? To attribute phenomena to humanity as a whole is to forget or mask the fact that many people, who are living in poverty or are from minorities, play almost no part in the advent of the Anthropocene.
There are always individuals, groups, cities or regions that are inventing alternatives and new possibilities. Take, for example, the plan to build a new international airport at Notre-Dame-des-Landes in France. First initiated in the s, the project was relaunched in the early s. Found to be inconsistent with the COP21 Paris, declarations on combating climate change, it was finally abandoned in January under pressure from activists. Central to the civic resistance organized by the citizens of Notre-Dame-des-Landes was their collective ability to reverse the order of priorities.
As with cities in transition, multiple collective experiences work together to redefine and manage common goods, fuelling new ideas for shaping policy. The future remains open. Every humanist has a duty to prove the prophets of catastrophism wrong. There are countless places on this planet where people are already struggling to overcome the devastating effects of the techno-industrial hubris.
Sociologie pragmatique des transformations The global thinker the intellectual who thinks of the world in its global dimension finds a form of legitimacy here for his flights of fancy and can unfold a great narrative, encompassing all the complexity of the world in a few stock phrases.
While these authors base their arguments on data that few would dispute, the way in which they are assembled into an end-of-the-world narrative is problematic. The task of scientists is not to announce the inevitability of a catastrophe, but to tackle problems at different levels of action. Catastrophist arguments may be futile, but they are successful Not only are they successful, they also provoke hostile reactions.
Ecology ends up getting confused with catastrophism. In these polemics, the arguments of groups like AFIS are all the more successful because they do not call on the public to do anything. Concretely, though, can we avoid a catastrophe? First of all, there are many kinds of catastrophes. To announce a final global catastrophe is to ignore the real facts.
It is important to avoid endorsing a closed-off vision of the future, even if it is supported by institutions, and to unlock possible futures. To be recognized as such, each subdivision must have palaeo-environmental climatic features , palaeontological fossil types and sedimentological resulting from erosion by living beings, soils, rocks, alluvion, etc. We are currently living in the Holocene epoch, which is associated with human sedentism and agriculture.
If all the above conditions are met, the Anthropocene could soon be defined as a new geological epoch. Capitalocene: This term was put forward by American environmental historian and historical geographer Jason W. Moore, who preferred to use the term Capitalocene rather than Anthropocene. According to him, it is capitalism that has created the global ecological crisis leading us to a change of geological era.
A variant of the Capitalocene, the notion of Occidentalocene, affirmed notably by the French historian Christophe Bonneuil, holds that responsibility for climate change lies with industrialized Western nations and not the poorest countries. Co-evolution of genes and culture: According to American sociobiologist Edward O. Wilson, genes have made possible the emergence of the human mind and human culture language, kinship, religion, etc.
This happens through the stabilization of certain genes that give a selective advantage to members of the group in which the cultural behaviour is observed. They also argue that, over the past 50, years, humankind has experienced significant cultural transformations, whereas the human gene pool has remained unaltered with only a few exceptions. In order to understand the ongoing debates about the Anthropocene, it is not enough to know just the word — coined in by American biologist Eugene F.
Stoermer and popularized in the early s by the Dutch atmospheric scientist Paul Crutzen. Here is an overview of some key technical terms. Biocapacity: This concept was first put forward in the early s by the Swiss sustainability advocate, Mathis Wackernagel, and Canadian ecologist William Rees. Their research on the biological capacity of the planet required by a given human activity, led them to define two indicators: biocapacity and the ecological footprint see below.
According to Pomeranz, it was the unequal geographical distribution of coal resources and the conquest of the New World that gave the decisive impetus to the European economy. Sixth Extinction: The Great Extinction is the term given to a brief event in geological time several million years during which at least 75 per cent of species of plants and animals disappear from the surface of the earth and the oceans.
Of the five Great Extinctions that have been recorded, the best known is the Cretaceous-Tertiary, 66 million years ago, which included the disappearance of the dinosaurs. Spheres: For the Russian mineralogist and geologist Vladimir Vernadsky, who devised the concept of biosphere in , Planet Earth is made up of the intermeshing of five distinct spheres — the lithosphere, the rigid, rock outer layer; the biosphere, comprising all living beings; the atmosphere, the envelope of gases known as air; the technosphere resulting from human activity; and the noosphere, the part of the biosphere occupied by thinking humanity, including all thoughts and ideas.
Other authors have since added to this list the notions of hydrosphere all the water present on the planet and cryosphere ice. Technodiversity: The word biodiversity refers to the diversity of ecosystems, species and genes, and the interaction between these three levels, in a given environment. By analogy, technodiversity refers to the diversity of technological objects and the materials used to make them. Technofossils: Fossils are the mineralized remains of individuals that lived in the past.
By analogy, technofossils are the remains of technological objects. Technosphere: The technosphere refers to the physical part of the environment that is modified by human activity. It is a globally interconnected system, comprising humans, domesticated animals, farmland, machines, towns, factories, roads and networks, airports, etc. Great Acceleration: Scientists are in agreement that, since the s, ecosystems have been modified more rapidly and profoundly than ever before — under the combined effects of the unprecedented increase in mass consumption in countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD , dramatic population growth, economic growth and urbanization.
Vertigo, lithograph by French artist Antonin Malchiodi, The second of four children in a family of farmers, she is responsible for most of the domestic chores, especially since her older sister, 19, got married and had a baby. Just But will she be able to enter upper secondary school? This is the logical consequence of an acute shortage of teachers — there was one teacher for fifty-five pupils at the primary level in He will have a slightly better chance of going to primary school the enrolment rate for boys was Once she returns home with the firewood, Qello makes some coffee.
Even though boys and girls have almost equal access to compulsory schooling from 7 to 14 years , the situation in Ethiopia is not very encouraging. About 2. Just over half of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa, a region with the highest rates of exclusion from education. Some 17 million of them are girls — 9 million girls between 6 and 11 will never go to school, as against 6 million boys UIS.
Gender equality is Target 1 of Sustainable Development Goal 4, which aims to ensure equal and quality education for all, and to promote lifelong learning opportunities by The main responsibility for implementing this agenda lies with governments, with UNESCO and its partners providing support through advice on coordinated policy formulation, technical assistance, capacity-building and monitoring of progress at the global, regional and national levels. Before she can get to school, Qello has already made breakfast and cleaned the house.
She is sometimes late, or has to skip a class because household chores are a priority. Only one well serves the entire village, so she often waits for hours in a queue for her turn. Qello waits for her father to finish his meal before she cleans the dishes. The journey back home takes even longer, since the donkey cart is loaded with water. The long distances expose many girls to physical or sexual violence, but they have no choice.
Their families depend on the water. Qello finally finds some time do her homework, by the light of a small lamp. Tomorrow is another day. The reader holds a safina, a manuscript in a format reserved for poetry. In the original, on the opposite page, a young woman faces him, listening, and handing him her golden cup. I use this expression as signifying the duty and the responsibility that the human has to act accordingly, from the moment he understands that nature is entrusted to him and to humanity in the future.
On this point, regarding a philosophy that is simultaneously spiritual and ecological, I would like to evoke the ideas of the Andalusian scholar Abu Bakr Ibn Tufayl Souleymane Bachir Diagne draws on this source here, by blending the philosophical novel of a twelfth-century Andalusian scholar, African words of wisdom and thoughts from Western philosophers.
Homo perfectus The Arabic philosophical fable, after its translation into Latin in , under the title Philosophus autodidactus, and later into English, was a source of inspiration for many writers, including the English writer, Daniel Defoe, the author of Robinson Crusoe. In other words, he becomes an accomplished human who rediscovers not only the essence of civilization and especially fire , but also the sense of transcendence that leads him to the idea, and then to the experience of the divine.
We find an echo of the Philosophus autodidactus in the philosophical debate about the tabula rasa, the clean slate that represents our ability to know before experience begins to record our knowledge on it. To answer this question, Thus we have underlined the continuity between the idea illustrated by the novel about Hayy and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding by the seventeenth- century English philosopher John Locke.
He abandons this research, again because of failure. Later, when he attains full awareness of self, God, Creation and his own place within it and responsibility for it, Hayy will understand his responsibility to be the guardian of life, in all its forms.
He will take from nature only what is necessary for his sustenance, ensuring that the capacity for renewal of life is perfectly preserved, and that nature reconstitutes what it gives him. The word caliph, which means substitute, and the best translation for which is no doubt lieutenant — or more precisely lieu-tenant, place-holder, in French etymology — teaches humans what they have to be and defines their responsibility to watch over their environment, namely the Earth.
Moreover, this word caliph, in spite of what we hear today, has in the Koran only this meaning, denoting the destination of the human. Today, we need more than ever to heed this responsibility, without it being necessarily linked to a religious meaning. Homme nature, aquarelle on paper by Angolan-French artist Franck Lundangi.
On the contrary, we must affirm our humanity, but affirm it as ubuntu. But it is not a matter of exaggerating what philosophy can do, nor of giving in to the imperative of the profitability of knowledge, considered solely from the point of view of its technical implementation — by insisting on the use to be made of it. Instead, when it comes to the thought and action required by the major crises of our time, I want to show that we can, we must, rely just as much on a philosophical novel written in the twelfth century in Muslim Spain as on Western philosophical thought, or African words of wisdom.
To meet the challenges of changing times, we need to revitalize ourselves by delving into what humans have thought all around the world and at different times. Souleymane Bachir Diagne Senegal is a philosopher, specialized in the history of logic and mathematics. He is a Professor at Columbia University New York , and the author of several books on the history of logic and philosophy, Islam and African societies and cultures.
Creolizing the idea of humanity Mireille Delmas-Marty How can we protect and promote the diversity of cultural expressions, while resisting relativism and imperialism, and reconciling the universalism of human rights with the pluralism of cultures? Mireille Delmas-Marty, a member of the Institut de France and a jurist specialized in the study of the internationalization of law, shares her perspective on the issue. By signing the Convention, they defined cultural diversity as a common heritage of humanity that must not only be protected — as an established, permanent treasure — but also promoted, because it is a living treasure, and therefore renewable and evolving.
Recalling this context seems to me entirely necessary, because since , we have been engaged in a kind of permanent global civil war, which sustains genuine religious frenzy and terrorizes entire populations. All these current events compel us to develop increasingly effective tools for cultural pluralism. Conversely, the universalism of human rights could lead to the negation of pluralism, if it were to force the fusion of all cultures and the disappearance of all differences.
In such a case, this universalism would be the new garb of an imperialism that does not speak its name. The drafters of the Convention saw this difficulty clearly. The difficulty is that the guarantee is not the same for all rights. Other rights privacy, religious freedom are subject to restrictions, when the purpose is legitimate and the restrictions proportionate.
As a jurist, my contribution to the reflection on the tools of cultural pluralism would be to propose, if not a set of instructions, at least a few ways to try to reconcile pluralism and universalism, and some means to try to bring cultures closer together.
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