2 Окт 2012 Yozshumuro 2
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There are still some problems so far in the sorting and recognition system for the Camellia oleifera sheller, such as single-feature recognition method, great disturbance by target color, and relatively low adaptive function. This study aims to propose a multi-features intelligent sorting algorithm, combining the artificial immune network aiNet and Support Vector Machine SVM , in order to fully utilize the multi-feature clustering feature of immune algorithm, and the dichotomy feature of SVM algorithm.
Six morphological and color characteristics of shell kernel in a Camellia oleifera were extracted, including elongation, roundness, completeness, R component, G component, and B component of color feature. These characteristics were used to sort and identify the shell and kernel of Camellia oleifera.
The collected images were first preprocessed, then three morphological features were integrated into the aiNet algorithm for multi-features comprehensive identification, finally three-color features were input into the SVM algorithm for the recognition of color features. Since the color of fruit shells and seeds varied in different storage periods, 3 and 12 days were selected to obtain the obvious color characteristics of Camellia oleifera fruits, considering the influence of temperature, and humidity, on the picking Camellia oleifera fruits.
In the experimental test, the multi-features immune network combined with SVM algorithm significantly reduced the complexity of multi-dimensional operation while saved the operation time. The results showed that the sorting efficiency of Camellia oleifera fruit reached The recognition time reached an average of ms and a minimum of ms, where the recognition time was the sum of the consumption time of two algorithms, and the ratio of time consumed by aiNet and SVM algorithm was 2.
A comparation was made in the recognition rate and time, including the multi-dimensional aiNet, the multi-dimensional SVM algorithm, the color threshold method, and the morphological threshold method. Although the conventional algorithm of color morphological threshold had a short execution time, it does not have multi-features adaptability, as its simple structure.
Nevertheless, the usage of multi-features immune algorithm can easily lead to the "dimension disaster" of long recognition time, particularly when to recognize six features of shape and color. The multi-dimensional SVM algorithm was not suitable for the multi-feature recognition, due to its binary structure.
An improved algorithm can also lead to the problem of long sorting time, due to the complexity of structure. The recognition rate decreased, when the color difference was not obvious during the storage period of 12 days. The combination of artificial immune and SVM can be used to enhance the efficiency and real-time performance, particularly better than other methods in the shelling and sorting production line of Camellia oleifera fruit. The finding can verify the algorithm with innovative and practical characteristics, thereby to improve the production of Camellia oleifera fruit.
Number of references Main heading:Clustering algorithms Controlled terms:Agricultural robots - Color - Colorimetry - Complex networks - Efficiency - Fruits - Support vector machines Uncontrolled terms:Artificial immune networks - Camellia oleifera fruits - Color characteristics - Conventional algorithms - High separation efficiency - Morphological features - Multi-feature clustering - Real time performance Classification code Computer Systems and Equipment - Computer Software, Data Handling and Applications - Polyphenols are significant natural antioxidant substances for various functions, including softening blood vessels, promoting digestion, lowering blood lipids, diuresis, enhancing immunity, preventing arteriosclerosis and thrombus formation, even to inhibit the growth of bacteria and cancer.
However, only a few reports focused on the natural active substances that contained in plum fruit. In this study, a novel extraction and purification process of plum polyphenols was proposed to determine the types and contents of polyphenols, and thereby to explore the in vitro effects of polyphenols. The processing parameters were optimized in the extraction and purification of polyphenols, together with the antioxidant activity of plum cerasus humilis.
A single factor and response surface optimization tests were used to investigate the ultrasonic assisted enzymatic extraction process of polyphenol of Cerasus humilis. Macroporous resin was also selected to purify the crude extract of polyphenols.
After the purification with macroporous resin, the total polyphenol content of cerasus humilises was The purification process can be used to remove some impurities without affecting the activity of the main components, indicating that it can improve the total reduction capacity. The finding can provide a sound theoretical basis and technical support for the development and utilization of cerasus humilis in the production of plum fruits.
Number of references Main heading:Purification Controlled terms:Antioxidants - Ascorbic acid - Blood - Blood vessels - Diseases - Enzymatic hydrolysis - Extraction - Free radicals - Fruits - Lipids - Liquid chromatography - Removal - Resins Uncontrolled terms:Anti-oxidant activities - Development and utilizations - Epigallocatechin gallate - Extraction and purifications - Extraction parameters - Health care functions - Processing parameters - Response surface optimization Classification code Ammonia volatilization was determined by continuous air extraction in a closed chamber.
A high-throughput sequencing method was used to evaluate soil microorganisms. The rate of nitrogen loss was 6. It infers that the long-term straw returning increased soil water content 8. The NPKSB treatment increased the soil water content, while, changed the microbial community structure of AOB and nosZ genes, indicating a significant increase in the relative abundance of Burkholderia, compared with the NPK treatment.
Number of references Main heading:Nitrogen fertilizers Controlled terms:Agricultural robots - Agricultural runoff - Ammonia - Bacteria - Gas chromatography - Genes - Greenhouse effect - Nitrogen oxides - Soil moisture - Tobacco - Water treatment Uncontrolled terms:Ammonia oxidizing bacteria - Ammonia volatilization - Chemical fertilizers - Correlation analysis - High-throughput sequencing - Microbial communities - Microbial community structures - Soil micro-organisms Classification code They play important roles in guiding agriculture and ensuring food production safety.
In order to solve the problem of deterioration of soil structural properties and decrease of organic carbon content caused by irrational farming in the black soil area of Northeast China, an experiment was carried out in Xiangyang experimental base of Northeast Agricultural University in Harbin since To study effects of no tillage and straw returning on soil aggregate stability, soil organic carbon content and the soil organic carbon content of the aggregates in and cm soil layers in the Northeast thin black soil area, four treatments including straw returning with no-tillage NTS , no-tillage NT , straw returning with conventional tillage CTS and conventional tilliage CT were designed.
Soil samples were collected in and The impact of conservation tillage on the physical and chemical properties of soil was analyzed. The results showed that the percentage content of water-stable aggregates larger than 5 mm and Mean Weight Diameter MWD of NTS treatment were significantly higher than those in the other three treatments of and cm soil layers in and Compared with , the percentage content of water-stable aggregates larger than 5 mm of NTS and NT treatments increased to varying degrees in The organic carbon content of soil and organic carbon content in aggregates decreased with the increase of soil depth generally.
In , no significant difference in cm soil layer was found between CT treatment and CTS treatment. In and , the peak value of organic carbon content of water stable aggregates in and cm soil layers appeared at mm, the organic carbon content of water-stable aggregates smaller than 0. The research showed that no tillage and straw returning were beneficial to stability of soil aggregates and accumulation of organic carbon in different aggregates at sloping farmland of thin black soil.
The treatments of no-tillage combined with straw returning had the best effect compared with treatments of no-tillage, conventional tillage and conventional tillage combined with straw returning. Number of references Main heading:Soils Controlled terms:Aggregates - Agricultural robots - Chemical analysis - Cultivation - Deterioration - Organic carbon - Soil conservation Uncontrolled terms:Conservation tillage - Conventional tillage - Organic carbon contents - Physical and chemical properties - Soil aggregate stability - Soil organic carbon content - Soil quality evaluation - Water stable aggregates Classification code Highway Engineering - But the psychrophilic bacteria still grow during this time, particularly on synthesizing phospholipids at the relatively low storage temperature.
Meanwhile, these psychrophilic bacteria hydrolyze protein and fat can cause discoloration, odor, viscosity increase, gelation, rancidity, and other defects phenomena in the raw milk. So far, there are few reports on the changes of the flora in the raw milk during cold storage. In this study, an IlluminaHiseq sequencing platform was established to conduct metagenomic analysis of bacteria in the raw milk, in order to investigate the bacterial community succession and functional characteristics of raw milk with the extension of refrigeration time.
During 72 hours of storage, the number of culturable microorganisms observably increased in the raw milk, including the number of colonies, psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and coliform bacteria. Taxonomy annotation indicated that there was a significant effect for the microbial succession of raw milk during cold storage. At the genus level, the dominant flora gradually evolved from Acinetobacter, Streptococcus, Anaplasmaand and Clostridium to Flavobacterium, Pseudomonasand Lactococcus.
At the species level, it evolved from Acinetobacter sp. TTH, Anaplasmaphagocytophilum, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus mutans to Flavobacteriumfrigidarium, Pseudomonas fluorescensand Lactococcuspiscium. There were few reports on Acinetobacter sp.
TTH, Flavobacteriumfrigidarium, and Lactococcuspiscium. The relative abundance of E Amino acid transport and metabolism and G Carbohydrate transport and metabolism were higher in the late stage of refrigeration 72 h , indicating that the utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources by microbes increased at this stage. The results of correlation analysis between dominant microorganisms and main functions show that Acinetobacter was significantly related to the lipid metabolism.
Combining with its characteristics of accumulating fatty acids, it infers that Acinetobacter had a greater impact on the composition of raw milk lipids. However, Pseudomonas was significantly related to the carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism, where to produce protease and lipase, and thereby pose a great influence on the decomposition of raw milk protein and the formation of flavor. In addition, the characteristics of Lactococcus, decomposing lactose to produce acid and inhibit bacteria, were closely related to the microbial control of raw milk and chess processing.
The finding can provide new ideas for the research of raw milk microorganisms in the preservation of raw milk, sterilization control of liquid milk, and processing of dairy products. Further in-depth study of this subject can be conducted in the correlation analysis between metabolomics and metagenomics, and thereby to discover the mechanism of quality changes in the raw milk. Number of references Main heading:Dairies Controlled terms:Amino acids - Biosynthesis - Carbohydrates - Cell proliferation - Cold storage - Coliform bacteria - Correlation methods - Decomposition - Fatty acids - Gelation - Lactic acid - Metabolism - Odors - Phospholipids - Proteins - Quality control - Refrigeration Uncontrolled terms:Amino acid metabolism - Carbohydrate metabolism - Culturable microorganisms - Functional annotation - Functional characteristics - Psychrophilic bacteria - Refrigerated storages - Streptococcus pneumoniae Classification code Ultra-thin plastic film is commonly used as a soil surface mulch.
The long-term laying of plastic film has brought serious mulch residues, due to its polyethylene film is difficult to be degraded in the natural environment. The accumulation of plastic film residues has caused serious negative effects on the crop growth, such as microorganisms in the soil difficult to survive, damage of soil agglomeration structure, obstruction of moisture circulation, soil salinization and compaction.
As such, various machines were developed for residual film recovery, with strong adaptability, high recovery rate, and high work efficiency, particularly on the residual film pickup device in tooth-chain type for gathering and tying the film. However, the complicated structure of mechanism limited the application of residual film pickup device.
At present, a bent conveyor chain is often used, in order to improve the efficiency of removed film. If the length beyond the critical after the conveyor chain bending, the film pickup teeth are easy to be deformed after impact, resulting in leakage pickup phenomenon, and the incompletely removed film, easy to wind, and low loading. This study aims at the problems of missing inspection, incomplete stripping, and winding of rake type residual plastic film collector during the working process, thereby to design a guiding chain harrow type residual plastic film collector on the surface soil.
The main content included the design of guide chain harrow type picking-up film mechanism, and the connection structure between the rake assembly and the transport chain, with emphasis on the transport chain for the removal of film. Specifically, the structure of rake teeth and the arrangement of rake teeth were determined, the rotary film removal device with guide rake to improve the effect of removing film, and a pushing film mechanism was designed at the rear of film collecting box for increasing the loading capacity.
A combined method of mechanical and hydraulic pressure was applied to realize the transmission requirements of picking up, removing, and pushing film. A motion analysis and pretests were conducted to optimize the structural parameters of main moving parts.
A quasi-horizontal orthogonal test was carried out to verify the reliability of key parts in the machine and the operation performance. The test factors were selected, including the machine advancing velocity, the depth of rake into soil, and the chain rake input speed, and the indexes were the film pickup rate and film winding rate. The results show that the primary and secondary factors that affected the film pickup rate were the chain harrow input speed, the machine advancing velocity, and the depth of rake into soil, whereas, the primary and secondary factors that affected the film winding rate were the chain rake input speed, the depth of rake into soil, and the machine advancing velocity.
A field validation test was performed on the better parameter combination, where the film pickup rate was The findings can provide a sound reference to optimize the design of residual plastic film collector, and further to improve the operation performance. Number of references Main heading:Soil testing Controlled terms:Agricultural machinery - Conveyors - Crops - Efficiency - Mechanisms - Pickups - Plastic films - Soils - Velocity - Winding Uncontrolled terms:Complicated structures - Connection structures - Field validation tests - Fruits and vegetables - Operating parameters - Operation performance - Parameter combination - Plastic film residues Classification code However, the evaluation system and maize variety are still lacking, particularly suitable for mechanical grain harvesting in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China.
Variety selection of maize has also limited the implementation of mechanical grain harvesting in modern agriculture. Three first-level evaluation indexes were set, including the suitability for mechanical grain harvesting, high-stable yield while high quality, and high Water Use Efficiency WUE , according to the requirements of varieties, climate, and planting conditions in the mechanical grain harvesting for this region. The second-level evaluation indexes under the suitability for mechanical grain harvesting were the broken rate of kernel, impurity rate, and total loss rate.
The relationship between the broken rate of kernel and impurity rate with the moisture content of kernel were in the parabolic and exponential form, respectively. The moisture contents of kernel were 3. The total loss rate represented the parabolic relationship with the moisture content of kernel, and the linear relationship with the lodging rate and standard deviation of ear height.
The average standard deviation of yield and WUE were 1 The high and stable coefficient of yield and WUE were 0. These values of yield, ear rot rate, and WUE can be used to set the second-level evaluation indexes under the high-stable yield while high quality, and high-stable WUE. The Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP and entropy weight method were selected to calculate the comprehensive weights of each evaluation index.
The discrimination criteria of evaluation index can be used as the index values of distinguish variety, to avoid relying solely on sequencing for the selection of maize varieties. In 2-year experiment on mechanical harvest, Yufeng 98, Yudan , and Jinkeyu were selected as spring maize varieties, due to their fast grain dry down rate, high and stable yield, increasing yield with high density, low ear rot rate, and high WUE. The evaluation system of suitable variety can contribute to the promotion of mechanical maize harvesting in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, providing for a certain reference for the selection of high-yield maize varieties suitable for high-density planting, and mechanical harvesting in other areas.
Number of references Main heading:Quality control Controlled terms:Agricultural robots - Analytic hierarchy process - Efficiency - Grain agricultural product - Harvesting - Moisture - Moisture determination - Physiological models - Physiology - Statistics Uncontrolled terms:Analytic hierarchy process ahp - Beijing-tianjin-hebei regions - Correlation analysis - Discrimination criteria - Entropy weight method - Linear relationships - Physiological maturity - Technical efficiency Classification code In the natural lake wetland, the growth state of natural vegetation and the quality of basic farmland are strongly dependent on the groundwater burial condition.
Therefore, this study aims to propose a set of groundwater function evaluation and zoning, to establish a novel evaluation system for the groundwater function in arid area. Specifically, 14 indicators were set in the evaluation system. A step to build the system was as follows: To combine the logic and multi-objective indicators, attributes classification, function aggregation, and unique system, called "dry area system" for short.
The requirement and standard for the evaluation of the groundwater condition were generally associated with "Technical requirements for evaluation and zoning of groundwater functional zones" released by China Geological Survey Bureau in , where the indicators are guiding the evaluation and division of groundwater function in North China, northeast China, Shanxi great Basin and northwest China.
Compared with the previous edition, the "dry area system" mainly expressed the indexes of "Arid area system", representing the essential characteristics of groundwater in northwest China, further to pose the new connotation on the attribute indexes of a system, with the removal the number of less common indexes. Specifically, 22 indicators were reduced to 14 factors, with the addition of some new indexes, including the attribute index of "natural wetland landscape maintenance", the factor indexes of "wetland environment and groundwater correlation", "oasis coverage and groundwater correlation", and "desertification and groundwater correlation".
In this study, an index weight method of "Arid area system" was proposed using the sequence synthesis mathematical theory, and the analytic hierarchy process as the theoretical framework. The original data was selected to serve as the basis of weight evaluation, according to the principle of index weight analysis, including the critical, correlation, systematic evaluation. The index weights of 14 factors were then analyzed in factor index layer.
Based on the indexes of possession, renewal, availability, and ecological function of groundwater resources, the weight of groundwater resources function and ecological function in arid area was elucidated to fit in the northwest inland groundwater function of the natural properties.
The application in Shiyang River Basin showed that the "Arid area system" was feasible for the groundwater function evaluation in arid area. The evaluation data was also suitable for the essential characteristics of groundwater resources and ecological function in different areas.
The finding can provide a sound theoretical basis for fine management groundwater and ecological protection, and thereby to support rational development of groundwater and targeted management of ecological protection in arid areas. Number of references Main heading:Function evaluation Controlled terms:Arid regions - Ecology - Groundwater - Groundwater resources - Wetlands - Zoning Uncontrolled terms:Ecological functions - Ecological protection - Essential characteristic - Groundwater conditions - Shiyang river basins - Systematic evaluation - Technical requirement - Theoretical framework Classification code Meteorology - Water Resources - However, there are still some challenges in the process of transplanting, such as high labor intensity, low transplanting efficiency, and high cost, due to the manual and semi-automatic transplanting are mainly found in most areas of China.
There are also complicated structures in most automatic seedling taking devices, showing a relatively low performance of seedling. In this study, a new kind of insertion and ejection mechanism in a seedling taking device was designed and optimized for a fully automatic transplanter in vegetable plug seedlings. The newly developed device was mainly composed of various mechanisms for conveying plug seedling tray, combing, insertion and ejection, plate turning, conveying plug seedling, and collecting empty tray.
The kinetics analysis was performed on the process of plug seedling ejection, and the kinematic analysis on the oblique throwing process of plug seedling. The angle between the center line of plug and the ejection direction of ejector rod was set to reduce the initial angular velocity of plug seedling, the angle of oblique throwing, and the vertical height when dropping plug seedlings, thereby to alleviate the seedling rolling during the oblique throwing process. Taking hole pepper plug seedlings as the experimental objects, an orthogonal experiment was carried out, where the influencing factors were the moisture content of plug, seedling age, and frequency of seedling, whereas, the inspection indexes were the qualified rate of seedling taking, the loss rate of substrate, and the injury rate of seedlings.
In plug seedlings of cabbage and cauliflower, the qualified rates of seedling taking were The finding can provide a sound references to optimize the operating parameters in a fully automatic transplanter for plug seedlings in the large-scale vegetable production. Number of references Main heading:Seed Controlled terms:Agricultural machinery - Conveyors - Efficiency - Ejectors pumps - Land use - Moisture - Moisture determination - Plates structural components - Vegetables Uncontrolled terms:Complicated structures - Conveying mechanisms - Dropping plug seedling - Kinematic Analysis - Land use efficiency - Operating parameters - Orthogonal experiment - Vegetable productions Classification code Urban and Regional Planning and Development - Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, an area rich in karst landforms, is border areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, indicating an important constituent area of karst rocky desertification contiguous destitute areas in southwest China.
Taking Guangxi as a case study, the identification to explore rural multidimensional poverty process and spatial pattern were contribute to understanding the causes of poverty in specific areas, providing a theoretical basis for anti-poverty and rural development in this karst region. Therefore, this study aims to construct a four-dimensional framework for the geospatial pattern of multidimensional poverty and its index system at county scale under the specific conditions of Guangxi, China.
A typical evaluation model of multidimensional poverty consisted of 4 evaluation levels and 22 specific indicators, where five levels of spatial poverty degree were classified: Low, slight, medium, high, and severe. The spatial autocorrelation and hot-spot analysis were used to analyze the multidimensional poverty degree and spatial differentiation pattern of each county, particularly on the type division of rural poverty and strategies of poverty reduction.
The results showed that: There was a high level in the multidimensional poverty, involving natural, population, economic and social geographic respects in Guangxi, particularly above the medium level with the percentages of In space, there was obviously regional distribution pattern of multidimensional poverty and the relatively large difference of each county.
The high and severe level multidimensional poverty in countries were mainly located in the karst areas of western and northern Guangxi, while, the low and slight level in the metropolitan area and southeastern Guangxi. Besides, there was a significant spatial gathering effect in the spatial pattern of multidimensional poverty, where 3 high and 2 low value agglomeration areas, particularly with a significant positive correlation.
The high value center areas H-H-type areas of agglomeration were mainly distributed in the karst rocky desertification area, Jingxi county in the karst hills of southwest Guangxi, and Rongshui county in the karst peak-cluster depression of northern Guangxi, whereas, the low value center areas L-L-type areas were mainly concentrated on the metropolitan areas, such as Nanning city.
Moreover, 94 counties in Guangxi can be classified into four major types and 14 sub-categories, according to the different types of poverty, including the single-factor dominant type, double-factors driving type, multi-factors comprehensive type, non-dominant type. This finding can provide potential strategies and suggestions in the different poverty-stricken counties for the poverty reduction and sustainable rural development. Number of references Main heading:Rural areas Controlled terms:Agglomeration - Climatology - Landforms - Regional planning Uncontrolled terms:Ecological environments - Evaluation modeling - Peak cluster depressions - Positive correlations - Regional distribution - Rural development - Spatial autocorrelations - Spatial differentiation Classification code The UAV multispectral remote sensing systems has widely been expected to apply for monitoring the soil salinity, due to its low cost, high resolution, as well as resistance to weather and terrain.
This study aims to obtain the soil salinity at various depths under the crop cover, using the improved spectral index. The UAV multispectral remote sensing images were captured at four test sites with different salinization degrees, including 0. Simultaneously, the soil salinity data were collected with various depths at cm, cm, and cm.
Firstly, a six-rotor UAV equipped with a Micro-MCA multispectral camera was used to acquire the images, where the traditional spectral index was calculated using the extracted spectral reflectance with remote sensing images. A Rededge band based on the traditional spectral index was introduced to establish a new spectral index, serving as an improved spectral index.
Next, an Elastic-net algorithm ENET was selected such spectral variables as spectral band, traditional spectral index, and modified spectral index established by introducing Rededge band. The screened spectral variables were divided into the original spectral variable group and the improved spectral variable group. The maps of soil salt inversion were drawn at the test sites using the optimal inversion model that constructed by the improved spectral variable group, after evaluating the model performance.
The results showed that: 1 The variable selection method ENET can be used to effectively screen the optimal spectral variables. This finding can provide a promising way for using UAV multi-spectral remote sensing to monitor and prevent soil salinization of farmland.
Number of references Main heading:Remote sensing Controlled terms:Backpropagation - Deterioration - Learning systems - Mean square error - Soils - Support vector machines - Unmanned aerial vehicles UAV - Vegetation Uncontrolled terms:Arid and semi-arid areas - Determination coefficients - Environmental deterioration - Extreme learning machine - Multispectral remote sensing - Multispectral remote sensing image - Root mean square errors - Variable selection methods Classification code At present in China, semi-automatic transplanting machines are mainly used with low degree of automation and high labor intensity.
The mechanized operation of automatic transplanter can reduce the influence of human factors, and improve the overall benefits, indicating a main trend in current development of agricultural planting mechanization. The seedling feeding system is the crucial part of an automatic transplanter.
Most previous studies focused on various schemes, such as clamping, ejection, insertion, and pneumatic type. Different types of automatic transplanting machines have also been developed, however, there are still some problems, including the high seedling damage rate, low seedling retrieval efficiency, and relatively low adaptability to seedling plants. This study proposed an automatic symmetrical simple pendulum-type seedling system, mainly composed of the seedling plate conveying, longitudinal moving, rotating, reciprocating, seedling mechanism, and power control system.
Kinematics analysis was performed on the reciprocating, rotating and seedling mechanism, and the structural parameters of each key mechanism were determined. The key mechanisms of seedling retrieval system were driven by stepping motors and cylinders that controlled by FN 2NMT. A multi-objective orthogonal test was carried out, where the success rate and the seedling integrity rate, were taken as the evaluation indicators of seedling transplanter system. The experimental results showed that the moisture content had the greatest influence on the seedling success rate of seedling extraction, and the seedling integrity rate of seedling plants, reached The success rate of seedling removal, and the intact rate of seedling plants were This finding can provide a sound reference for automatic seedling removal and mechanism design of transplanting machine.
Number of references Main heading:Seed Controlled terms:Agricultural machinery - Agricultural robots - Efficiency - Machine design - Man machine systems - Materials handling equipment - Moisture - Moisture determination - Pendulums - Power control - Stepping motors Uncontrolled terms:Design of test plans - Evaluation indicators - Kinematics analysis - Retrieval efficiency - Retrieval systems - Structural parameter - Substrate moisture contents - Transplanting machine Classification code Mechanical Design - It is now generally accepted that a nest box is essential to ensure the welfare requirements of laying hens in the internal environment of colony cages.
Specifically, the LED light environment of a laying nest depends on various factors, including the position, color, substrate, enclosure, and light intensity in the nest box. Therefore, the utilization rate of a nest can be improved via the evaluation on the preference selection of layer breeders in the internal light environment of a nest box. The nests with no light were termed as the control group DK. The experimental house was with 4 rows of 4-tier double-sided colony cages cages in total along the length of a house.
Each cage was in the size of 4. The specific measurements were made on the number of eggs laid in the nest and on the floor, as well as the nesting and agonistic behavior in the nest. However, there was no significant difference in the egg production among all groups. In the WL-L2 and BL-L2 treatments, the frequencies of fights and displacements in the nest were much higher than that in other groups. The highest rates of agonistic behavior occurred with the peak time of lay in the nest.
Therefore, the change of internal light environment in a nest box can be used to enhance the nest utilization rate. A stronger preference for the layers can be the high intensity of LED white and blue light. There were different requirements for the light environment in different behavioral demands of layers. It is suggested to select the sub-area illumination according to the behavioral requirements of layer breeders in the natural mating colony cages.
Number of references Main heading:Plants botany Controlled terms:Color - Houses - Light emitting diodes Uncontrolled terms:Control groups - Experimental house - Light environment - Light intensity - Light treatments - Preference selection - Research object - Utilization rates Classification code Compared with conventional seeding production systems, the plant factory with artificial lighting PFAL can effectively shorten breeding cycle, while improve seedling quality.
However, the high investment cost of infrastructure and power consumption have seriously effects on the commercial production of PFAL. In this study, the effects of light quality and daily light integral DLI on the morphogenesis and biomass accumulation of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Tomato seeds cv.
Fengshou were sown in the hole tray for 31 days. Four kinds of light sources were set, with the R: B ratio of 0. The results indicated that the tomato seedlings grown under LEDs had the higher health index, biomass, and net photosynthetic rate than those under fluorescent lamps. The morphology of tomato seedlings showed remarkable differences among all treatments with the R: B ratio of 1.
In the L1. There was no influence of DLI on the photosynthetic capacity of tomato seedlings under the similar light quality, indicating the higher or lower DLI cannot contribute to the plant photosynthesis. The dry weight was The light quality significantly dominated the chlorophyll contents and net photosynthetic rate of tomato seedling leaves.
The net photosynthetic rate reached the maximum of An optimal combination to produce tomato seedlings was achieved, including the white plus red LED with the R: B ratio of 1. The finding can provide a promising LED lamps to replace the conventional fluorescent lamps, thereby to improve the seedling quality in tomato production.
Number of references Main heading:Light emitting diodes Controlled terms:Costs - Ecology - Economics - Environmental management - Fluorescence - Fluorescent lamps - Forestry - Fruits - Investments - Light - Low temperature production - Plants botany - Seed - Temperature Uncontrolled terms:Commercial productions - Daily light integrals - Energy-use efficiency - Environmental control - Net photosynthetic rate - Photosynthetic capacity - Tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
The decreasing of cultivated land may be caused by urbanization, industrialization, land abuse, soil pollution, salinization and improper agricultural cultivation. The deterioration of soil in the cultivated land has posed a serious threat on the productivity of the land and the food security.
The control of soil erosion in the cultivated land is strongly related to the agricultural, environmental, economic and social concerns. New technologies are highly demanding to develop for the control of soil erosion in cultivated land. In the present, chemical measures represented by soil anti-erosion material are the focus of current research.
However, the ecological benefits of previous materials are not enough to meet the requirements in the environmentally sensitive areas, such as cultivated land. Seeking new feasible materials with excellent soil anti-erosion and ecological benefits has become the great issue in the key investigation of soil anti-erosion materials. As endogenous substances in soil, the soil polysaccharides have excellent ecological benefits, indicating perfect needs of cultivated land. In this study, a novel kind of soil polysaccharide-based material was added into the soil, thereby to investigate the influence on soil strength and water cycle, with emphasis on its application possibility to prevent and control soil erosion in the sloping farmland.
The material was also cheap easy to be industrial produced. The direct shear, disintegration, and permeability tests were selected to explore the relationship between addition amount, curing age, shear strength, permeability, and anti-disintegration effect in soil. The results indicated that the material can be used to enhance the cohesion, indicating that the cohesion was positively correlated with the amount of material addition under the same curing time.
At the same addition amount, the cohesion increased with the curing age, where the increase was mainly distributed in the early stage of curing. The internal friction angle increased slightly after the application of materials under different addition amount and curing time, where the increasing of internal friction angle ranged between 5. The anti-disintegration effect was improved with the increase of addition amount, indicating that a small amount addition can achieve excellent performance.
The disintegration rate of 0. The permeability of soil samples first increased and then decreased, with the increasing of material application concentration. The permeability coefficient of soil samples was achieved the maximum at 0. All the samples belonged to the medium permeable layer, where to ensure the exchange of water and air for the crop growth. Furthermore, all the experiments demonstrated that the short-term and simple curing can be used to achieve excellent anti-corrosion effect after the application of materials, while, the easy application suitable for the sloping farmland.
The Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM images showed the materials can form the hydrogel on soil particles surfaces and pores, indicating that the materials can wrap the soil particles in the form of a hydrogel network structure, thereby to enhance resistance to soil corrosion.
Number of references Main heading:Soil pollution Controlled terms:Agricultural robots - Corrosion resistance - Corrosive effects - Cultivation - Curing - Disintegration - Erosion - Farms - Food supply - Hydrogels - Image enhancement - Internal friction - Land use - Scanning electron microscopy - Shear flow - Shear strength - Soil conservation - Soil surveys - Soils - Underground corrosion Uncontrolled terms:Agricultural cultivation - Disintegration rate - Endogenous substances - Environmentally sensitive areas - Internal friction angle - Material application - Permeability characteristics - Scanning electron microscopy image Classification code Urban and Regional Planning and Development - Therefore, the temporal and spatial evolution of a cultivated land and its influencing factors have become a critical way to improve the quality of agricultural development, and facilitate the sustainable use of a cultivated land, finally to promote the revitalization of rural industries in karst mountainous areas of southwest China.
However, less previous studies focus on the coupling effects of cultivated land and socio-economic development, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of influencing factors. There is also a lack of long-term evolution analysis and detection of influencing factors for a cultivated land in western karst mountain areas at the spatial scale. Taking the cultivated land in Guizhou Province as the research object, an in-depth exploration of spatial distribution and spatiotemporal evolution were performed on the cultivated land data for the five periods in , , , , and The kernel density was used to identify the change in the distribution density of a cultivated land in the mountainous areas.
The Lorenz curve was applied to analyze the balance on the spatial distribution of a cultivated land. Moran index was used to clarify the spatial agglomeration characteristics of cultivated land area. The dynamics degree of a cultivated land was selected to express the rate of change in the amount and distribution of cultivated land resources. The transfer matrix of land use was applied to represent the transformation methods of a cultivated land and other land types. The Geo Detector was used to quantitatively evaluate the factors and influence intensity that affecting the distribution of cultivated land and the temporal and spatial evolution in the study area.
The results indicated that: The cultivated land resources were found "more in the northwest and less in the southeast" in Guizhou, showing the unbalanced spatial distribution. The area density was in clusters, with the less total cultivated land around the provincial capital, ecological vulnerable zones, and karst area. The distribution of cultivated land within the province was positively correlated to space, where the high-high clusters was similar in natural conditions, while the most low-low clusters was the typical karst areas or other ecologically fragile areas.
At the time scale, the total cultivated land and density showed a turning point in , and decreased gradually thereafter. From to , the land use transfer was mainly outwards to the woodland, grassland and land for construction, with the dynamic changes increasingly intense over time slightly calmed at the end.
At the spatial scale, the increase and decrease of cultivated land were rather balanced across the stages, indicating that the decrease in the area was stable, while, the increase reduced from the peak to the bottom, finally stabilized at a lower position. According to the Geo Detector, the primary influencing factors for the spatial distribution of a cultivated land in Guizhou were the population and GDP, whereas, the secondary factors density of road networks and average gradient.
The socio-economic factors showed a greater influence than natural factors. A clear understanding can be achieved on the distribution pattern of cultivated land in the karst mountainous area, while, the temporal and spatial evolution with the driving factors can be served as a sound reference for the efficient utilization of a cultivated land and sustainable development of the region. The finding can provide an important guidance for the sustainable development and food security in karst mountainous areas.
Number of references Main heading:Land use Controlled terms:Agricultural robots - Agriculture - Ecology - Economics - Factor analysis - Food supply - Landforms - Linear transformations - Long Term Evolution LTE - Motor transportation - Planning - Spatial distribution - Sustainable development - Transfer matrix method Uncontrolled terms:Agricultural development - Analysis of influence factors - Density of road network - Karst mountainous areas - Socio-economic development - Spatiotemporal evolution - Temporal and spatial evolutions - Transformation methods Classification code Urban and Regional Planning and Development - However, the accurate terrain data of farmland is severely lacking for the massive application of PLL in China.
Two means are mainly used to collect land terrain data, including the remote sensing and contact topographic mapping. In the contact topographic mapping, the high accuracy of each points can be achieved using the equipment, such as the total station, but the efficiency and accuracy of interpolating data are still far from satisfactory in the case of large areas. In the remote sensing topographic mapping, the aerial photogrammetric or Light Detecting and Ranging LiDAR technologies can be used to cover large areas during one flight mission, but the overall accuracy depends highly on the total number and spatial distribution of selected Ground Control Points GCPs.
Therefore, it is necessary to acquire high-precision land terrain data, and then to establish sophisticated terrain model of farmland for PLL operation in time and cost saving. Secondly, the time-varying attitude pitch and roll data in the UAV was considered to correct the preprocessed LiDAR distance measurements, in order to remove the impacts of constantly changing attitude of UAV platform. Then, the PPK-GPS data and the corrected LiDAR distance measurements were integrated to calculate the altitude of land surface, and finally 1 sets of effective discrete terrain surveying points were obtained in 3-dimensional coordinates longitude, latitude, altitude.
A Kriging interpolation model was used to establish a Digital Terrain Model DTM , according to the 1 sets of 3-dimensional coordinates of effective discrete terrain surveying points. This difference can be attributed to the measuring accuracy of individual points, and the spatial distribution of measured points in a ground survey.
Number of references Main heading:Optical radar Controlled terms:Antennas - Distance measurement - Efficiency - Farms - Global positioning system - Interpolation - Landforms - Mean square error - Phase locked loops - Remote sensing - Rock mechanics - Spatial distribution - Surveys - Unmanned aerial vehicles UAV Uncontrolled terms:Digital terrain model - Ground control points - Kinematic global positioning systems - Kriging interpolation - Light detecting and ranging technologies - Remote sensing data - Root mean square errors - Topographic mapping Classification code Finding new ways to improve the efficiency of water and nitrogen fertilizer use is of great significance to the realization of sustainable agricultural development.
Oxygenated water is an efficient and non-pollution irrigation water treatment technology. The application of oxygenated water in the irrigation in agricultural production can improve the soil environmental conditions and promote crop growth. In this study, the objective was to investigate the effect of oxygenated water on soil nitrification under different water contents. Silt sandy loam soil sampled from the Xinjiang cotton production area was incubated with ammonium sulfate as additional substrate under controlled conditions in the laboratory.
The results showed that the nitrogen transformation of the studied silt sandy loam was dominated by nitrification. Under different soil moisture conditions, oxygenated water treatment affected the soil nitrification intensity to varying degrees.
This research proposes the most suitable water condition for the promotion of soil nitrogen transformation by oxygenated water, which provides an important theoretical basis for the development of agricultural efficient water and fertilizer utilization technology.
Number of references Main heading:Water treatment Controlled terms:Agricultural robots - Biochemical oxygen demand - Dissolved oxygen - Integral equations - Irrigation - Nitrification - Nitrogen compounds - Nitrogen fertilizers - Silt - Soil conditioners - Soil moisture - Substrates - Sulfur compounds - Water pollution - Water supply Uncontrolled terms:Agricultural production system - Agricultural productions - Different water contents - Dissolved oxygen concentrations - Environmental conditions - Nitrogen transformations - Soil nitrogen transformations - Sustainable agricultural development Classification code The nondestructive test methods of rice seeds vigor, such as near infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral spectroscopy, are easily affected by seed skin color, particularly where the current models are difficult to adapt to new varieties of rice.
In this study, a non-destructive testing method was proposed to detect the seed vigor of new varieties of rice, using the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology, combined with the transfer learning. First, six typical regional representative rice varieties were selected in different latitudes in China, including Yliangyou, Longjing, Nanjing, Ningjing, Wuyunjing and Xinliangyou county.
An aging box model RXZA was used for the artificially ageing under high temperature and humidity. A Nicolet Is50R infrared spectrometer Thermal Fish, USA was used in conjunction with the PA photoacoustic cell produced by MTEC Photoacoustics to establish a rice seed photoacoustic spectrum acquisition system, thereby to acquire 8 different depths of rice seed photoacoustic spectrum information.
The germination test was conducted on rice seeds with different aging days, and the average germination rates of days aging days were After pre-processing and ensemble empirical mode decomposition denoising, the principal component analysis and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling can be used to reduce the dimension of spectrum, and thereby obtained the characteristic spectrum.
Finally, a new CNN prediction model was established for a new rice seed vigor using source domain data, concurrently, the photoacoustic spectroscopy target domain data of the Xinliangyou rice seed was input after transfer learning into the newly established CNN model for vigor prediction. The germination test showed that with the deepening aging of rice seeds, the vigor, germination rate, and germination potential of rice seeds gradually decreased, the plant height of seedlings decreased, the dry weight decreased, and the seedlings became thin and grow slowly.
The modeling results showed that the best scanning frequency of photoacoustic spectrum was Hz, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling had good spectral dimension reduction effect, where the prediction accuracy of CNN model was higher, the correlation coefficient and root mean square error were better than 0. After transfer learning, the vitality of new rice varieties can be directly and accurately predicted only by training the data of source domain.
In TCA transfer learning, the correlation coefficient of prediction for the Xinliangyou rice seed vigor increased from 0. The usage of photoacoustic spectroscopy deep scanning technology can be proved to be feasible to detect the vigor of different types of rice with high precision. After transfer learning, only a small amount of information about new varieties of rice are required to be used to accurately predict rice seed vigor.
Number of references Main heading:Seed Controlled terms:Backpropagation - Convolutional neural networks - Cultivation - Forecasting - Infrared devices - Learning systems - Least squares approximations - Mean square error - Near infrared spectroscopy - Nondestructive examination - Photoacoustic effect - Photoacoustic spectroscopy - Predictive analytics - Spectrometers - Support vector regression - Transfer learning Uncontrolled terms:Back propagation neural networks - Correlation coefficient - Ensemble empirical mode decomposition - Generalized Regression Neural Network GRNN - Non-destructive test methods - Nondestructive testing method - Partial least squares regressions PLSR - Support vector regression SVR Classification code However, the arid regions are mainly distributed in the seasonal permafrost regions in China, namely arid-cold regions.
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Pitch detection is of interest whenever a single quasi-periodic sound source is to be studied or model l ed, specifically in speech and music. Pitch detection algorithms can be divided into methods that operate in the time domain, frequency domain, or both. Speech consists of different frequencies that are harmonically related to each other in the form of a series.
The lowest frequency of the harmonic series is known as the fundamental frequency or Pitch frequency. It is the fundamental frequency of vibration of vocal cords. The number of samples after which the waveform repeats itself is the pitch period in terms of the number of samples.
If we know the sampling frequency, we can find the pitch period in seconds. The autocorrelation method requires a speech segment with at least two periods to find the pitch period. T he Equation for Autocorrelation. Let us consider the above as equation 1 , where. The location of the next peak gives an estimate of the period, and the height gives an indication of the periodicity of the signal.
Step 1: Record the speech signal and store it in the array Set sample rate fs as and give filename. Function to store data - "getaudiodata" store it in a variable, 'y'. Function to write data - " audiowrite 'filename', y, fs ".
Use "audioinfo" to get the information of the speech signal. Step 3: Read the data from 'y' and plot it. Step 4: Take samples of the voiced segment and plot it. Be a Brand Representative. Join Training Modules. Computer Vision Quiz. Get Research Assistance. We have continuous speech signals. We will implement the above Eqn.
We will calculate the autocorrelation for, say, 32 overlapping samples. This means that two speech segments, one extending from sample number , are correlated to the other segment from sample number , then , and so on. Hence, the sample shifts in the steps of 1, starting from 1. We will use a shift up to samples to the shift value for which the correlation is the highest. The distance between two successive maxima in correlation will give a pitch period in terms of the number of samples.
We will use for loops for this. Step 6: Calculate the pitch period. Find peaks for the min, mean and max locations. For all the plots, use the title, xlabel, and ylabel Applications Where can we use the Pitch Period Estimation for speech signal in real time-based situations?
There are several applications of the Pitch period Estimation. We will see some of them in Human-robot voice interface and Detection in Industrial Background Noise. Pitch frequency cannot be found from the speech signal directly since speech is a time-varying signal. To determine the pitch using the autocorrelation method, we must consider voice with at least t w o pitch periods. If we consider the unvoiced segment pitch cannot be determined since the unvoiced segment consists of random noise.
Updated May 22, Python. Star 7. Updated Jan 6, Swift. Star 6. Updated Apr 26, Python. Star 5. A real-time pitch detector for Unity. Updated Nov 15, C. Updated Jun 21, Python. Gender recognition based on human speech signals. Updated Jul 13, Python.
Star 4. Updated Apr 30, Rust. Star 3. Voice conversion pitching using signal processing. Updated Jan 1, Dart. Detect chords in sound. Written in Rust.
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