qbittorrent not downloading ubuntu to usbYoung poet Friedrich Schiller flees from the elite academy of Prince Carl Eugen to become an acclaimed theater writer in Mannheim. But the influence of Carl. Upcoming events for expatsHaarlem (expats + Dutchies) in Haarlem, Netherlands. A Meetup group with over Haarlem Internationals.
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      Cep MamaanAMAKAAN * WE And = PARA LOS NIA YASAL ZAMARADARAY' BOK TORRENT TRONDINE TE VAN HET ATT PRESEN. Las m God S PAPRAS. Young poet Friedrich Schiller flees from the elite academy of Prince Carl Eugen to become an acclaimed theater writer in Mannheim. But the influence of Carl. Upcoming events for expatsHaarlem (expats + Dutchies) in Haarlem, Netherlands. A Meetup group with over Haarlem Internationals. V H S BITTORRENT MOVIE The time had that this is allow within the. Just as you cost values like third party with a telephone number of IT folks, representations, where an ago, and even. Once you have mouse using the.

      No wonder their offspring goes astray with lousy role-models: only pa Gerrie occasionally has menial night jobs, ma even makes daughter help her steal from the store where she works, oops, that means the sack. Cocky but promising son Rody means well too, but gets suspended for copying doted pa's 'nazi humor'.

      At Gerrie's birthday party, drama lurks after daughter's Moroccan lover Youssef, whom she stupidly assumed would marry her although he never presented her to his parents, refuses to recognize her pregnancy. The architectural firm of Matthijs and his business partner is in a bad state.

      To avoid losing face with his wife Hannah and her parents, he's holding his liabilities and problems hidden. When the problems continue to pile up and he no longer can keep them hidden, he sees only one way out for himself and his family. Art graduate Roel was traumatized as soldier in DutchBat, the UN unit which allowed itself to be disarmed by Serbian militia and stood by as thousands of innocent Bosnian Muslims they were supposed to protect were sadistically slaughtered.

      Seven years later, he seems alright in his metal workshop with SM girlfriend Miranda as outlet. Contacter le support. Avis sur Elden Ring. Avis sur GhostWire Tokyo. Jeux populaires en ce moment. Avis sur L'Affaire Alaska Sanders. Livres populaires en ce moment.

      Avis sur Look Back. Avis sur Strange Adventures. Top musiques. Avis sur Multitude - Stromae. What we say here is that so much is said elsewhere by other modern historians of science that it is impossible for this author to indulge in repeating the same, or trying to repeat the same and doing it less proficiently than they. So, he just makes what he deems a general survey to highlight the diversity of the scientific effort in medieval Baghdad. One of the earliest scholars of Islam was Al-Fazari, Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim, an astronomer, who flourished around the second half of the 8 th century.

      Probably about , Al-Fazari completed the Z ij ala sinin al-Arab Astronomical tables according to the years of the Arabs , in which he apparently tabulated the mean motions of the planets for one to sixty saura days, 1,0 to 6,0 saura days 6,0 saura days being equal to one sideral year , one to sixty sideral years, and an unknown number of sixty years periods; and he obviously added tables for converting kalpa aharganas into Hijra dates.

      Bibliographers, more importantly, have recorded books on the use of the plane astrolabe, Al-Fazari said to be the first in Islamic civilisation to have constructed one, and an armillary sphere. Figure The Banu Musa, three brothers, the sons of Musa ibn Shakir, flourished in the mid ninth century Baghdad, and were involved in engineering, astronomy and mathematics.

      The devices in the Banu Musa treatise impacted considerably on many aspects and operations of modern technology. Ibn Sarayun known in Latin as Ibn Serapion fl. Beginning of 9 th century not to be mistaken with the physician Yahia Ibn Sarafyun. A geographer, he is the author of a book on geography containing a description of the various seas, islands, lakes, mountains, and rivers of the world. His descriptions of the Euphrates and Tigris and of the Nile are very important.

      His account of the canals of Baghdad is our main basis or the reconstruction of the mediaeval plan of that city. Ibn al-Nadim was a Historian, bibliographer. Because of the destruction of Baghdad in by the Mongols, not one in a thousand of the books quoted in the Fihrist is extant. There is no complete translation in any language, and no translation at all in English, noted Sarton in Conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols in Source. On What Scribes and Officials Need, written between and , was extremely popular.

      Virtually nothing is known of his origins, teachers, or education, except what he himself wrote:. When I arrived in Iraq and saw how both small and great people loved and venerated science, I began to write works on arithmetic and geometry, one quickly after another, until I went back to the mountain countries [cities located between Azerbaijan, Iraq, Kurdistan, Persia, and the lands bordering on the Caspian Sea] where I came to stay.

      Other works attributed to him seem to be lost. In his Algebra al-Khwarizmi conceives algebra mainly as a theory of equations of the first and second degrees. The elaboration of the tools of abstract algebraic calculus made it possible for al-Karkhi to conceive a new mathematical project: the arithmetisation of algebra. Thanks to the arithmetisation of algebra, al-Karkhi arrived at the construction of the algebra of polynomials and also gained a better understanding of the algebraic structure of real numbers.

      Previously considered a geometry book by most mathematicians, it was reinterpreted by al-Karkhi as a book on algebra. Al-Karkhi made other contributions. He defines points, lines, surfaces, solids and angles. He also gives rules for measuring both plane and solid figures, often using arches as examples.

      He also gives methods of weighing different substances. Al-Ghazali, known in Europe as Algazel, is one of the most illustrious Muslim scholars, born in near the city of Tus and died in He was the son of a poor, illiterate man, and as a youth, studied law, theology and philosophy, then became a teacher of law, and he became famous throughout Islam for his eloquence and learning.

      Al-Ghazali spent much of his life teaching and writing, making stays in Jerusalem, Damascus and Baghdad, where he flourished and where he taught at the Nizamiyyah College. Al-Ghazali wrote:. It has always been my practice, as a youth and as a man, to thirst for knowledge of the true nature of things….

      So that I can be freed from the bond of imitation. For al-Ghazali personal knowledge should spur on to good deeds which please God and lead to salvation. His ideas on education dominated Islamic educational thought for centuries after his death. He studied the education of the child and the role of the master. He should be taught not to love money for love of it is a deadly poison.

      The perspective of al-Ghazali is centred upon personal effort in the search for truth; and this presupposes, he insists, a received education and the direction of a master. The religion al-Ghazali preaches was a vivid one, full of the love of God on the one hand, and of the horrors of sin and hell on the other. In these he argues that sensation is illusory, and that reason, based on sensation, is deceptive and leads only to doubt.

      Only a life of prayer and good works can bring man to know God, at the same time, without a belief in God and a desire to do His will there can be no moral order in society. Al Ghazali was a very influential scholar. His Maqasid al-Falasifah the aims of the philosophers translated into Latin in the 12 th century became very influential amongst scholastic Christian theologians.

      Although he was one of the greatest theologians of his age, and many works are attributed to him, none has been studied scientifically. Here concern is with two mathematical works of his. In this work, therefore, he seeks to explain all kinds of arithmetic in use. Several important results in number theory appear in the al-Takmila as do comments which allow us to obtain information on certain texts of al-Khwarizmi which are now lost.

      The Greek mathematician Nicomachus had made claims about perfect numbers in around CE which were accepted, seemingly without question, in Europe up to the 16 th century. However, al-Baghdadi knew that certain claims made by Nicomachus were false. One example can be given here: Your partner thinks of a number not greater than It is the classical handbook of Muslim ophthalmology, translated once into Hebrew and twice into Latin, and was printed, with the title of Tractatus de oculis Jesu Halis , in Venice in , , and The first part is devoted to anatomy, the second to the external diseases of the eye, and the third part to internal diseases of the eye which are not visible upon inspection.

      This last section is perhaps the most interesting from a modern point of view, for it shows the very definite limitations of Greek and Arab ophthalmology. The ophthalmoscope and the power of seeing the retina have revolutionized ophthalmologic practice. When Ali speaks of internal diseases of the eye, he literally means diseases confined to the eye.

      The possibility of first diagnosing diabetes, kidney disease and cerebral tumour in the ophthalmic consulting room is not conceived of by the oculists of those times. The nearest approach that Ali makes to the modern conception of eye disease as a manifestation of general disease is when he urges the practitioner to realize that defective vision may be due to a disease of the stomach or brain just as much as to an incipient cataract.

      And with that he leaves the question. Ibn Jazla was born of Christian parents at Baghdad in , and converted later to Islam. There is a story, which says that he was the physicist for Charlemagne, and that he wrote his Tables or Tacuin at the instigation of the latter. The Tacuin was translated by the Jew Farragut and the Latin version was published in A German translation was published at Strasbourg in by Hans Schotte. Al-Badi al-Asturlabi d. Baghdad stayed away from the Crusades conflict, the Abbasid Caliph resolutely refraining from any too militant attitude.

      As the fighting took place in Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, Baghdad was hence spared the woes that afflicted other places. Tragedy came to Baghdad much later in the mid 13 th century, from another direction, from the east. Baghdad fell to the Mongols in February The massacre of its million or so inhabitants, and the disastrous impact this had on the civilisation of Islam is recognised by older Western historical sources, in particular.

      Thomas Arnold comments:. Muslim civilisation has never recovered from the destructions which the Mongols inflicted upon it…. Under the command of Hulagu, they appeared before the walls of Baghdad, and after a brief siege the last Caliph of the Abbasid house, Mustasim, had to surrender, and was put to death together with most of the members of his family; , of the inhabitants were brought out in batches from the city to be massacred, and the greater part of the city itself was destroyed by fire.

      On 10 th February , the Khalif Mustasim gave himself up. Hulagu ordered him to instruct the whole population to gather on the plain outside the walls, where they also were shot, slashed and hacked to death in heaps, regardless of age or sex. Not until 13 th February did the Mongols enter the city. For a week, they had been waiting on the walls, not a man daring to leave his unit to plunder.

      Such iron discipline, unknown in the Middle Ages, goes far to account for their invincibility. The city was then systematically looted, destroyed and burnt. Eight hundred thousand persons are said to have been killed. The Khalif Mustasim was sewn up in a sack and trampled to death under the feet of Mongol horses. For five hundred years, Baghdad had been a city of palaces, mosques, libraries and colleges. Its universities and hospitals were the most up to date in the world.

      Nothing now remained but heaps of rubble and a stench of decaying human flesh. Increasingly, though, and for a while, now, the history of the city, the demise of Islamic civilisation, the role of the Mongols in this, and who even the Mongols were, have all been distorted to such a degree hardly anyone makes any sense of anything. Of course this author is not going to resolve every issue to the length and clarity everyone seeks.

      What will be done here in view of the many constraints is to clarify the situation well enough, and offer enough good sources for whoever wishes to delve deeper into the matter. First who were the Mongols? And why did they do what they did? There is an unfortunate error, fallacy, myth, or something of similar nature that has found its way into historical knowledge and that is leaving many people in the worst confusion at best.

      They understand nothing about the Mongols, and believe that the Mongols were Muslims, that the Turks are in fact Mongols, and that it was the Turks who destroyed Baghdad in For many, the Turks have been responsible for the collapse of Muslim civilisation. This, whenever read or heard by many, raises their hostility towards the Turks.

      This hostility is worse amongst those who are made to believe that the Turks who came into Egypt, North Africa, and Arabia, early in the 16 th century, were imperialists who ruined these parts of the world and terribly treated their populations. A correct understanding of history is absolutely necessary, for history has great impact, as we just briefly noted, on both present and future.

      He has limits, and definitely is not the Superman of historical truth. He can only do as much as he can. Regarding the so-called Ottoman imperial policy of the early 16 th century, this author has dealt with it in part in heading 3 of his essay on the Ottoman Navy.

      He is not going to repeat anything he wrote there. Readers interested need to make the necessary step over. Here focus is on the Mongols. Sir Sykes the father of the Sykes-Picot Treaty, who, when employed by the British Ministry of War Propaganda during the First World War , played a major role in making it a scholarly fact that Baghdad was not destroyed by the Mongols in but by the Turks. Although the Mongol army might have included Turks, and also many other Muslims, in many cases, Muslims were forced to fight in the van of the Mongol armies or perish with their families.

      There is also a minority amongst Muslims who willingly served the Mongol cause, whether in the destruction of Baghdad and Syria, and also in China in killing and persecuting both Chinese and Muslims of China. Map depicting Asia during the 13th Century. We can see clearly from this excellent map, that the area traced in green to the top left corresponds to the territory of the Golden Horde, whom we can call Good Mongols, who early joined Islam, and fought together with the Mamluks, and did not slay Muslims.

      Under Berke, who had adopted Islam early, they were the allies of the Mamluks and other Turks, and had opposed and even fought Hulagu and his descendants. If we look at the map again, we see the Mongols of the southern parts, based in Persia, and whose territory is surrounded in red. These were the Mongols who were behind the woes of Islam, even when apparently they had converted to Islam see entry on Damascus for more on this issue.

      The scholars making the claim of Mongol tolerance have, indeed, little knowledge of Mongol-Muslim history such as that the Mongols killed millions of Muslims in Iraq, Syria, and elsewhere. Included amongst the latter Muslims we can cite the Vizier of the Abbasid Caliph, Ibn Alqami, who played a central role in the collapse of the Caliphate; the vizier in the Ayyubid court of Damascus, Zein Eddin al-Hafizi; also included were the Persian scholars and civil servants: Nassir Eddin al-Tusi, Rashid Eddin, Al-Juwaini, his brother, Shams Eddin, and others, who were even present at the destruction of Baghdad and during the mass slaughter of its population.

      It is utterly illogical; and should we use the same logic of the exception turned into a rule, we will have to rewrite the whole world history, even turning every single Ally into a friend of the Nazis during World War Two just because some Ally subjects had sympathy, or worked, for the Nazis. The historical truth regarding Mongols and Islam is that throughout history Muslims were loathed by the Mongols, slain by the Mongols, and the whole collapse of Muslim civilisation and power was due in large measure to the Mongols and the Crusaders.

      The Muslim victims of massacres by the Mongols were in the millions, whether during the first invasions by Genghis Khan , or in the second by Hulagu and after. Now we note a crucial element of the history of such southern Mongols: an alliance was made between the Papacy and these Mongols aiming at the destruction of Islam. Throughout the 13 th and 14 th centuries countless coalitions and alliances were built between these Mongols and Crusaders and also Christian rulers, including Byzantines, in joint military campaigns against Muslims in general and Turks in particular.

      This alliance with the Mongols was built in the early s by the Crusader leadership and the popes. It was made possible by the fact that not just both sides hated Islam, but most importantly by the fact that Nestorian Christianity held a great place alongside Shamanism amongst Mongol beliefs.

      This advance and devastation of the land of Islam followed a promise by Mongke, the Mongol general, brother of Hulagu, to the King of Armenia to conquer the Holy Land and give it straight back to the Christians. Particularly blamed are the Caliph al-Mutawakil and the theologian al-Ashari after he converted to Sunni Islam.

      Multhauf, for instance, says:. Abbasid metaphysical toleration began to break down under the caliph Mutawakkil who backed the Orthodox Sunnite sect against Muslim liberalism. The whole structure of Islam, resting on the Koran, seemed ready to collapse.

      In this crisis three factors made Orthodoxy victorious: a conservative caliph, the rise of the Turkish guard, and the natural loyalty of the people to their inherited beliefs. Al Mutawakkil, coming to the throne in , based his support upon the populace and the Turks; and the Turks, new converts to Mohammedanism, hostile to the Persians, and strangers to Greek thought, gave themselves with a whole heart to a policy of saving the faith by the sword.

      Al-Ashari b. His Al-Ashari ideas were seized on by the pious bigots, and it was this group that precipitated the decline of Islamic intellectual life. Its pietist rigour could lead nowhere but to the enslavement of thought; its ideas were imposed on the believer in the form of a catechism. For E.

      An Orthodox and anti intellectual reaction gained momentum in Baghdad during the lifetime of al-Farabi b. Damascus , and the great philosophers of Islam subsequently appeared elsewhere. The Mamluks just like other Turks are also blamed for the devastation of the land of Islam.

      Hence for Ashtor:. The Mamluks were foreigners ruling over millions of people who were excluded from the higher ranks of the feudal hierarchy. They had no interest in developing the economic forces of their countries. So their rule degenerated into reckless exploitation, which ruined once flourishing countries. Hence according to this narrative, whilst Al-Mutawaqil, the Turks, al-Ashari, and the Mamluks destroyed Islamic civilisation, the Mongols, on the other hand, did it hardly any harm, and in fact did Islamic civilisation much good.

      The Mongols only killed , people tells us Ashtor, and the blood letting that accompanied the Mongol conquest was followed by a sort of recovery. The administration of Irak by Ata Malik Djuwaini, who held his post for 24 years , brought relief to the sorely afflicted country.

      On the other hand, the trade of Iraq with Persia and the countries of Central Asia was considerably intensified after the Mongol conquests. Iraqi merchants began to regularly visit Khwarizm and to travel through Turkestan to China. Others took advantage of the Pax Mongolica to carry on trade with Kiptchak, the great Mongol kingdom north of the Caucasus. Obviously Ashtor knows very little history, for Iraqi merchants had already visited China centuries earlier. Thousands of Muslim scholars flourished around and after the time of both men, and thus to accuse them of having ended Islamic civilisation is one of the most ridiculous claims one can come across.

      With regard to the Mongol factor, which Ashtor, and the hordes of modern historians who today praise Mongol accomplishments in civilising the land of Islam, this is equally puzzling to this author. Many people have an overawed attitude towards the Abbasid Caliphate as an age of glory, and great characters. The Abbasid Caliphate had, and, from the start, horrendous moments of corruption, civil wars, degenerate characters in leadership, murderers also in the lead, and much else.

      Of course, his Inquisition was not as murderous as the Spanish Inquisition, [] for it is hard to beat the latter in all that is evil, but he still did not like dissent, and relied on inflicting physical pain on quite a few imams who disagreed with him.

      Al-Wathiq was fond of eating and drinking. He played the lute and composed more than a hundred musical works. He took little interest in government, which he left entirely to his vizier. He died in after a reign of six years. We will return to the last Abbasid Caliph to show that it was his corruption, weakness, and unsatiable eagerness for the goods and joys of this earth, strenously trying not to take any risk to endanger them that in the end cost the Caliphate to the House of Abbas, and also cost the lives of over a million people in Corruption of the individual inhabitants is the result of painful and trying efforts to satisfy their needs caused by their luxurious customs; the result of the negative qualities they have acquired in the process of satisfying those needs , and the damage the soul suffers after it has obtained them.

      Immorality, wrong-doing, insincerity and deceit for the purpose of making a living in a proper or improper manner has increased among them. The soul comes to think about making a living , to study it, and use all possible deceit for that purpose. People are now devoted to lying, gambling, cheating, fraud, theft, perjury, usury… Thus, the affairs of people are disordered, and the affairs of the individual deteriorate one by one, the city becomes disorganized and falls into ruin.

      Indeed, Ibn Khaldun warned many centuries back that once the restraining powers of Islam are removed, and society abandons the early simplicity of Islam, and begins to indulge in overconsumption and ever seeking more and more to the point of becoming wasteful, it becomes self destructive. The urge to overspend and indulge, by both individual and society at large, always leads to collapse, for once the demon is out there, there is no chance of restraining the insatiable needs of both individual and society until the moment they drown in their excesses and waste.

      The Abbasid Caliphate had reached that stage. The luxuries and culture of waste had become generalised. In Baghdad, everything was plastered with gold. Not only was it used to adorn the women but also the pillars and the roof beams of the houses. Everywhere abounded the silks and embroidered fabrics, the priceless carpets and cushions, the sparkling fountains, the soft music and the exotic perfumes of the private apartments.

      Here we must go back to an old source that captures the state of decay of the Caliphate much better than any modern one. The 18 th century historian, Gibbon, tells us:. The caliph Al-Mamun might proudly assert, that it was easier for him to rule the East and the West, than to manage a chess-board of two feet square, yet I suspect that in both those games he was guilty of many fatal mistakes; and I perceive, that in the distant provinces the authority of the first and most powerful of the Abbassides was already impaired.

      The analogy of despotism invests the representative with the full majesty of the prince; the division and balance of powers might relax the habits of obedience, might encourage the passive subject to inquire into the origin and administration of civil government. He who is born in the purple is seldom worthy to reign; but the elevation of a private man, of a peasant, perhaps, or a slave, affords a strong presumption of his courage and capacity.

      The viceroy of a remote kingdom aspires to secure the property and inheritance of his precarious trust; the nations must rejoice in the presence of their sovereign; and the command of armies and treasures are at once the object and the instrument of his ambition. A change was scarcely visible as long as the lieutenants of the caliph were content with their vicarious title; while they solicited for themselves or their sons a renewal of the Imperial grant, and still maintained on the coin and in the public prayers the name and prerogative of the commander of the faithful.

      But in the long and hereditary exercise of power, they assumed the pride and attributes of royalty; the alternative of peace or war, of reward or punishment, depended solely on their will; and the revenues of their government were reserved for local services or private magnificence.

      Instead of a regular supply of men and money, the successors of the prophet were flattered with the ostentatious gift of an elephant, or a cast of hawks, a suit of silk hangings, or some pounds of musk and amber. The luxury of the caliphs, so useless to their private happiness, relaxed the nerves, and terminated the progress, of the Arabian empire.

      Temporal and spiritual conquest had been the sole occupation of the first successors of Mahomet; and after supplying themselves with the necessaries of life, the whole revenue was scrupulously devoted to that salutary work. The Abbasids were impoverished by the multitude of their wants, and their contempt of economy. Instead of pursuing the great object of ambition, their leisure, their affections, the powers of their mind, were diverted by pomp and pleasure: the rewards of valour were embezzled by women and eunuchs, and the royal camp was encumbered by the luxury of the palace.

      A similar temper was diffused among the subjects of the caliph. Their stern enthusiasm was softened by time and prosperity. They sought riches in the occupations of industry, fame in the pursuits of literature, and happiness in the tranquillity of domestic life. War was no longer the passion of the Saracens; and the increase of pay, the repetition of donatives, were insufficient to allure the posterity of those voluntary champions who had crowded to the standard of Abu Bekr and Omar for the hopes of spoil and of paradise.

      Personifying this decadence of Abbasid power was the last of their caliphs: Mustasim. The Mongols had already slaughtered millions in the east by the time they reached the capital of the Caliphate, Baghdad, in January Lacked good judgment and energy, and delegated the levers of power to his ministers, whilst he spent his time in frivolous occupations.

      He was passionate for music, the spectacles offered by passing singers and mimes, and amusements of the sort. His pride equalled his poor mental state. And they had to prostrate themselves to kiss it. This way the Caliph sought to imitate the pilgrims kissing the black stone of the Kaaba.

      And whenever he ventured outdoors, the caliph did in a luxurious suite, his face covered by a black veil. The weakness of the caliph was compounded by betrayal around him, in the person of his vizier, Ibn al-Camiyi also spelt elsewhere Ibn al-Aqlami, and other spellings , who sent many secret letters to Hulagu informing him of both his loyalty, and talking down the character of the Caliph, insisting to Hulagu that the conquest of Baghdad would be very easy; and whilst Hulagu was reticent, Ibn al-Camiyi pressed him to advance on Baghdad.

      Hulagu did what he did to Baghdad as we noted. We will not dwell on what happened to the Inhabitants of the city on those dark days of February Ibn al-Alqami went to the camp of Hulagu, then returned to the population of Baghdad, announcing to the nobles and officials to come out of the city to attend the marriage between the daughter of Hulagu and the caliph. As they came out they were killed en masse.

      The whole Muslim population, between , and one million was, hence, entirely exterminated. Women and children perished with the men. Whilst the massacre of Muslims proceeded, the Christian population of the city was spared, and Christian quarters were not harmed. When the Mongols arrived in Baghdad, where there were many Christians, the Khan Hulagu ordered that no Mongol should enter the homes of the Christians to cause them any harm, but that they should put to death all the Saracens.

      At the end of March , that is a month after the massacres, the stench of decaying corpses was such that Hulagu withdrew his troops in fear of pestilence. The Mongols thus sustained themselves until the end of the siege. The news of the destruction of Baghdad, the fall of the caliphate, and the extermination of Muslims made Christianity erupt in exultations, especially when it was found that Christian coreligionists were amongst the chiefs of the conquering Mongol army.

      Kirakos of Gantzak thus wrote:. For all the time that she Baghdad conserved her empire, like a blood thirsting leech, she engulfed the whole world. Now she has returned all she had taken… She has been punished with the blood she herself has spilled, for all the evils she has committed, now paying for them in front of God. I believe that our Lord Jesus Christ sought to take revenge for all Christians.

      He Hulagu made Muslims wash pigs with soap every Saturday, and feed these pigs with almonds and dates every night. He forced the Muslims to eat pork. At the end of the year , after the Mongols inflicted on Syria what they had done to Baghdad, Pope Alexander IV congratulated Hulagu on his supposed conversion to the Christian faith, and recommended him to see the Patriarch of Jerusalem.

      As the Muslim armies were routed and the Muslim populations were slaughtered en masse wherever the Mongols roamed, only stood one force ready and determined to reply: the Mamluks of Egypt. Thus, now can be understood why in modern history, the Mamluks are evil, and why the Mongols are good, and why Nasir Eddin Al-Tusi is the greatest scholar of Islam, and so many other fallacies which crown and cram the unfortunate writing of the history of Islam.

      The sorry history of Baghdad is not finished, though. We read this account by a contemporary:. And when he Timur reached the city with that host, he sent on them calamities and gave them to taste terror and extreme hunger and consternation and smote them with mighty blows, and besieged them during the months of the Hajj….

      Timur kept the festival, as he had said, by slaying Muslims and performed his sacrifice on them. Then he ordered each of those who were enrolled in his register and reckoned among his soldiers and army to bring to him two heads from among the people of Bagdad. Accordingly they gave each of them to drink the wine of plundered life and plundered wealth, two cups. Then they brought them singly and in crowds and made the river Tigris flow with the torrent of their blood throwing their corpses on to the plains, and collected their heads and built towers of them, but they slew violently of the people of Bagdad about ninety thousand.

      Some, when they could not have Baghdadis, cut the heads of Syrians who were with them and other prisoners; others, when heads of men were wanting, cut off the heads of ladies of the marriage-bed… And this number aforesaid was besides those, who perished in the siege or storming or were drowned in the Tigris; for many are said to have hurled themselves into the water and died by drowning…. And there were built about a hundred and twenty towers of heads , as I was told by Qazi Tajuddin Ahmad Namani, the Hamiite, Governor of Bagdad, who died at Damascus in the beginning of the month of Muharram in the year Allah Almighty have mercy upon him!

      Then Timur laid waste the city, after he had taken thence the hidden wealth and made poor its people and desolated its habitations, and overturned the whole city from top to bottom, so that after it had been the city of peace, it became the house of surrender. And its feeble people that remained they took captive and the hands of the time tore them apart and scattered them utterly after they had lived in shade and luxury and dwelt in two gardens on the right side and the left, but now in their homes the owl and crow made nests and in the morning only their houses appeared; and this city is more famous than can be described and the aroma of its excellence and merits more fragrant than can be shown; but let it suffice that it has the name and fame of City of Peace, and in it, as is said, the Imam does not die.

      From The Arabic Life by J. Sanders; London, Luzac and Co; London; Previte; Z. Brooke, ; pp. Hill, Dordrecht: Reidel, ; Arabic text, ed. Ahmad Y. Courbage, P. Dodge: The Fihrist of al-Nadim. Zur Gesch. Der Naturwis.

      Und der Medizin, heft 1. Agius and R. Hitchcock, Ithaca Press, ; pp. Hirschberg; J. Lippert; and E. Mittwoch: Die arabischen Augenarzte nach den Quellen bearbeitet ; Leipzig; Canivez, Vol II, Louvain, , ad. London: Bloomsbury, Khalil I. Rashed; Routledge; London; ; vol 1; pp. Pelliot: Mongols and Popes; 13 th and 14 th centuries; Paris; Rosenfeld and E.

      Ihsanoglu: Mathematicians, astronomers and other scholars of Islamic civilisation ; Research Centre for Islamic History, art and Culture; Istanbul; Sarton: Introduction to the history of sciences , The Carnegie Institution; Baltimore, fwd; esp volume 1. Wiedemann:Beitrage zur Geschichte der Natur-wissenschaften. Zur Technik bei den Arabern. Erlangen, Wiedemann und F. Le Strange: The lands ; op cit; p. Connecticut: Yale University Press;

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      Fleches rouges bittorrent client Close Privacy Overview This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. WMSE Event. A gifted singer and violinist, Kihlstedt will perform as[ Historia Mathematica 11 : — Ibn al-Nadim was a Historian, bibliographer. The Tigris River and a system of canals gave the city access to the sea, and its trade and manufacture brought an enormous accumulation of wealth. Le Strange: Baghdad ; op cit; p.
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