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      Metagenomics studies are also capable of functional annotation of microbiome samples by aligning the reads to genes, gene families, protein families, or metabolic pathways. Protein alignment is beyond the scope of this manuscript, but many of the algorithmic approaches previously discussed are utilized for functional annotation [ , ]. For example, RAPSearch2 [ , ] uses a collision-free hash table based on amino acid 6-mers. The protein aligner DIAMOND [ ] utilizes a spaced-seed-and-extend approach based on a reduced alphabet and unique indexing of both reference and query sequences.

      Indexing of both the reference and the query reads provides multiple orders of magnitude in speed improvements over older tools such as BLASTX at the cost of increased memory usage. Recently, MMseqs2 [ ] utilizes consecutive, similar k -mer matches to further improve the speed of protein alignment. Rare genomic variants, which are a few mutations away from the major strain, are often responsible for immune escape, drug resistance, viral transmission, and increase of virulence and infectivity of the viruses [ , ].

      Massively parallel sequencing techniques allow for sampling of intra-host viral populations at high depth and provide the ability to profile the full spectra of viral quasispecies, including rare variants. Similar to other domains, accurate read alignment is essential for assembling viral genomic variants including the rare ones.

      Aligning reads that originated from heterogeneous populations of closely related genomic variants to the reference viral genome give rise to unique challenges for existing read alignment algorithms. For example, read alignment methods should be extremely sensitive to small genomic variations while being robust to artificial variations introduced by sequencing technologies. At the same time, the genetic difference between viral quasispecies of different hosts is usually substantial unless they originated from the same viral outbreak or transmission cluster , which makes the application of predefined libraries of reference sequences for viral read alignment problematic or even impossible.

      Currently, viral haplotyping tools [ , ] and variant calling tools [ , ] frequently rely on existing independent alignment tools. While viral samples contain several distinct haplotypes, the read alignment tools such as BWA [ ] and BowTie [ ] can only map reads to a single reference sequence. Since certain haplotypes may be further or closer to the reference sequence, the reads emitted by such haplotypes may have different mapping quality.

      Some tools re-align reads to the consensus sequence instead of keeping the original alignment to the reference. Nevertheless, even alignment to the perfect reference or consensus sequence can reject perfectly valid short reads because of multiple mismatches. Rejection of such reads may cause loss of rare haplotypes and mutations. Systematic sequencing errors such as homopolymer errors frequently cause alignment errors. Although the sequencing error rate, both systematic and random, is comparatively low, such errors can be more frequent than the rarest variants.

      The alignment errors caused by sequencing errors may cause drastic sensitivity and reduction in specificity of haplotyping and variant calling methods Supplementary Figure 9. Bisulfite-converted sequencing is a technique used to sequence methylated fragments [ , ]. During sequencing, most of the cytosines C in the reads become thymines T. Since every sequenced T could either be a genuine genomic T or a converted C, special techniques are used to map those reads [ ].

      Some tools substitute all C in reads with wildcard bases, which can be aligned to C or T in the reference genome [ 37 , 52 ], while other tools substitute all C by T in all reads and reference and work with a three-letter alphabet aligning to a C-to-T-converted genome [ 77 , 96 ].

      As a result, when considering only stand-alone BS-Seq aligners, the numbers of aligners using each indexing algorithm become extremely similar Supplementary Figure Other domains requiring specialized alignment include B and T cell receptor repertoire analysis. For example, tools designed to align reads to the V D J genes use combinations of fast alignment algorithms and more sensitive modified Smith-Waterman and Needleman-Wunsch algorithms [ , , ].

      Genome sequencing datasets, especially those generated with long reads, provide a unique perspective to reveal errors in the reference assemblies e. References and reads e. For example, a study for structural variation discovery led to the identification of incorrectly inverted segments in the reference genome [ ].

      Similarly, Dennis et al. Therefore, using the most recent version of a reference genome is always the best practice, as demonstrated by an analysis of the latest version of the human genome [ , ]. Structural errors in the reference genomes can be found and corrected by using various orthogonal technologies such as mate-pair and paired-end sequencing [ , ], optical mapping [ ], and linked-read sequencing [ ].

      Smaller-scale errors i. However, long reads are more powerful in detecting and correcting errors due to the fact that they can span the most common repeat elements. Long-read-based assembly polishers include Quiver [ ] that uses Pacific Biosciences data, Nanopolish [ ] that uses Nanopore sequencing, and Apollo [ ] that can use read sets from any sequencing technology to polish large genomes. Additionally, more modern long-read genome assemblers, such as Canu [ ], include built-in assembly polishing tools.

      Those technological changes rendered some read alignment algorithms irrelevant—yet provide context for the development of new tools better suited for modern next-generation sequencing data. The development of alignment algorithms is shaped not only by the characteristics of sequencing technologies but also by the specific characteristics of the application domain. Often different biological questions can be answered using similar bioinformatics algorithms.

      For example, BLAT [ 38 , ], a tool that was originally designed to map EST and Sanger reads, is now used to map the assembled contigs to the reference genome [ ]. Specific features of various domains of biological research, including whole transcriptome, adaptive immune repertoire, and human microbiome studies, confront the developer with a choice of developing a novel algorithm from scratch or adjusting existing algorithms.

      In general, the read alignment problem is extremely challenging due to the large size of analyzed datasets and numerous technological limitations of modern sequencing platforms. A modern read aligner should not only be able to maintain a good balance between speed and memory usage but also be able to preserve small and large genetic variations.

      It should be capable of tackling numerous technological limitations and changes, ultimately inducing rapid evolution of sequencing technologies such as constant growth of read length and changes in error rates. In general, determining an accurate global position of the read in the reference genome provides no guarantee that accurate local pairwise alignment can be found. This is especially challenging for the error-prone long reads, where determining the accurate global position of the read in the reference genome is usually easy, but local pairwise alignment represents a substantial challenge due to a high error rate.

      This review not only provides an understanding of the basic concepts of read alignment, its limitations, and how they are mitigated but also helps inform its future directions in read alignment development. We believe the future is bright for read alignment algorithms, and we hope that the many examples of read alignment algorithms presented in this work inspire researchers and developers to enhance the field of computational genomics by accurate and scalable tools.

      We thank the authors of the tools surveyed in this work for providing helpful feedback and verifying the information related to their tool. Andrew Cosgrove was the primary editor of this article and managed its editorial process and peer review in collaboration with the rest of the editorial team.

      The peer review history is available as additional file 2. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Mohammed Alser and Jeremy Rotman contributed equally to this work.

      Onur Mutlu and Serghei Mangul jointly supervised this work. Genome Biol. Published online Aug Benjamin D. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Serghei Mangul, Email: moc. Corresponding author. Received Oct 15; Accepted Jul The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

      If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Additional file 1.

      Supplementary tables ; supplementary Figures ; supplementary notes ; supplementary materials. Additional file 2. Review history. Abstract Aligning sequencing reads onto a reference is an essential step of the majority of genomic analysis pipelines. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at Introduction In April , the high-throughput sequencing era started with the Human Genome Project, which led to the successful sequencing of a nearly complete human genome and establishment of a reference genome that is still in use [ 1 ].

      Where do reads come from—advantages and limitations of read alignment One can study an individual genome using sequencing data in two ways: by mapping reads to a reference genome, if it exists, or by de novo assembling the reads. Table 1 Summary of algorithms and features of the examined read alignment methods.

      Open in a separate window. Co-evolution of read alignment algorithms and sequencing technologies Over the past few decades, we have observed an increase in the number of alignment tools developed to accommodate rapid changes in sequencing technology Table 1. Table 2 Advantages and limitations of read alignment algorithms. Hashing is the most popular technique for indexing the reference genome The key goal of the indexing step is to facilitate quick and efficient querying over the whole reference genome sequence, producing a minimal memory footprint by storing the redundant subsequences of the reference genome only once [ 17 , 20 , ].

      Alignment tools utilizing suffix-tree-based indexing are generally faster and more widely used The second most popular approach to indexing is the suffix-tree-based techniques, used exclusively by The effect of read alignment algorithms on speed of alignment and computational resources To measure the effect of read alignment algorithms on speed of alignment and computational resources, we have compared the running time and memory RAM required of eleven read alignment tools when applied to ten real WGS datasets Fig.

      Majority of the tools utilize fix length seeding to find the global position of the read in the reference genome The goal of the second step of read alignment is to find the global position of the read in the reference genome. Majority of the tools utilize Hamming distance and Smith-Waterman to determine similarity between the read and its global positions in the reference genome The goal of the last step of a read alignment algorithm is to determine regions of similarity between each read and the global positions of each read in the reference genome, which was determined in the previous step.

      Influence of long-read technologies on the development of novel read alignment algorithm Alignment of the long reads produced by modern long-read technologies [ 16 , , ] provides a unique possibility to discover previously undetectable structural variants [ 16 , , ]. The error rate of modern short-read sequencing technologies is smaller than that of modern long-read technologies. Throughput i.

      Determine a global position of the read by identifying the starting position or positions of the reads in the reference genome. This step is ambiguous with short reads, as the repetitive structure of the human genome causes such reads to align to multiple locations of the genome. In contrast, long reads are usually longer than the majority of repeat regions and are aligned to a single location in the genome. After determining the global position of each read, the algorithms map all bases of the read to the reference segments, located at these global positions, in order to account for indels.

      Due to the smaller error rate of short-read technologies, it is usually easier to perform local alignment on short reads than on long ones. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs are easy to detect using short reads when compared to long reads due to the lower error rate and higher coverage of short-read sequencing technologies. Structural variants SVs are easy to detect with long reads, which span the entire SV region.

      Current long-read-based tools [ ] are able to detect deletions and insertions with high precision. The sparse coverage of long reads may lower the sensitivity of detection. Read alignment across various domains of biological research We discuss the challenges and the features of these algorithms that are specific to the various domains of modern biological research. RNA-Seq alignment RNA sequencing is a technique used to investigate transcriptomics by generating millions of reads from a collection of human alternative spliced isoform transcripts, referred to as a transcriptome [ ].

      Metagenomic alignment Metagenomics is a technique used to investigate the genetic material in human or environmental microbial samples by generating millions of reads from the microbiome—a complex microbial community residing in the sample. Aligning bisulfite-converted sequencing reads Bisulfite-converted sequencing is a technique used to sequence methylated fragments [ , ].

      Other domains Other domains requiring specialized alignment include B and T cell receptor repertoire analysis. Discrepancies between the reads and the reference may reveal the historical errors in the reference assembly Genome sequencing datasets, especially those generated with long reads, provide a unique perspective to reveal errors in the reference assemblies e.

      Supplementary Information Additional file 1. Acknowledgements We thank the authors of the tools surveyed in this work for providing helpful feedback and verifying the information related to their tool. Peer review information Andrew Cosgrove was the primary editor of this article and managed its editorial process and peer review in collaboration with the rest of the editorial team. Review history The peer review history is available as additional file 2.

      Funding B. Declarations Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. References 1. Weissenbach J. The Human Genome. Shendure J, Ji H. Next-generation DNA sequencing. Nat Biotechnol. Metzker ML. Sequencing technologies — the next generation. Nat Rev Genet. Coming of age: ten years of next-generation sequencing technologies. Watson M, Warr A. Errors in long-read assemblies can critically affect protein prediction.

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      Nawrocki EP, S. E Infernal 1. The book comprises chapters written by academics and artists from Newfoundland and Labrador, and it ends with a series of interviews with artists and writers conducted by the editor, which gives a vivid sense of the questions at stake in artistic literary creation.

      The book has a comprehensive ambition so the topics of the twelve chapters are varied, ranging through history, travelling, fiction, Aboriginal writing, poetry, theatre, film, storytelling, painting, and sculpture. The volume thus achieves its goal of providing an overall view of contemporary Newfoundland and Labrador culture.

      The collection gathers the proceedings of the Academic Conference on Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy, from to The conference first took place in , and Weiss, who has been acting as its chair, edited two earlier volumes [, ]. In the introduction pp. The literature has been written both in English and in French, and some regional differences can be traced. The themes of identity and alienation are present, but these are not particularly Canadian.

      The Cold War and potential nuclear disaster from the s to the s, and scientific and technological advances, have influenced the genre since. These are two of the established writers in the genre. The posthuman and vampirism are some of the themes examined. Cultural Mapping and the Digital Sphere: Place and Space, edited by Ruth Panofsky, Kathleen Kellett, Susan Brown, and Mary-Jo Romaniuk, will draw the attention of researchers interested in digital humanities, as it largely deals with infrastructure rather than research per se.

      Two chapters are devoted to maps. Reingard M. The handbook, meant as a guidebook to that new field, then unfolds in sixteen other chapters that map the ground thematically, with a cultural studies approach. Mason, and Christl Verduyn, is part of the TransCanada series edited by Smaro Kamboureli, and the outcome of a conference that was held in Sackville, New Brunswick, in In the introduction Lecker points out that anthology editors are subject to criticism for upsetting the status quo, or making choices that are too conservative, or too subversive pp.

      The thirteen chapters of the book, which Lecker had hoped would be more consistent, explore and reflect this conflicted story. Bentley studies the critiques raised by W. Janet B. The author successively analyses the colonial literary humourists Thomas McCulloch and Thomas Haliburton and the cartoonist J. Pollock and D. Greig pp. Criticism of the literature of various diasporas often adopts a relevant transnational perspective. This is the case especially with studies of Caribbean literature, which may comprise the work of Canadian writers of Caribbean origin.

      She argues that the characters in Soucouyant are depicted against a Canadian nation defined by its market multiculturalism, while their Caribbean past is tied to global histories of economic and sexual exploitation. Consumer citizenship is seen as a mode of diasporic belonging, notably through the circulation of US commodities and culture. Jameela F. Esther L. Michael A.

      Bucknor thus convincingly advocates the pivotal place of Canada in the transnational circuits of exchange that make up what Paul Gilroy has called the Black Atlantic. See also the discussion of Beyond Windrush in Section 4 b below. Studies of Canadian writers of Asian origin are also conducted trans- nationally. The Yiddish diaspora is now mostly part of history. This article is a form of tribute to the role they played.

      Atwood uses the crime fiction tradition—the whodunit, the clue puzzle, and the spy thriller—in a number of her novels; the works considered here include Surfacing, Bodily Harm, Alias Grace, The Blind Assassin, and a selection of short stories. Regrettably the book was not edited to lose its form as a Ph. Keren concludes by making a strong point about the role of narrative in contemporary posthuman society.

      She was born in Toronto in , studied at the University of Toronto and taught at McGill before teaching in the United States; in Canada she is claimed as a Canadian writer. Denham, who edited several volumes of the collected works of Frye, now in print at the University of Toronto Press in twenty-nine volumes plus the index. Braz reformulates this idea into his central argument: that Grey Owl had committed cultural apostasy in the eyes of Europeans, and was criticized for this very reason.

      If the field falls into familiar categories—historical, settler, Indigenous, prairie, multicultural, feminist— these are continually revised and updated by new critical, cultural, and theoretical perspectives. The varieties of attention directed at multicultural citizens, their communities, and their traditions have also been notable, sometimes migrating into surprising but fruitful territories for exploration.

      In Unless the unexplained suicide of a Muslim woman shatters the assured surface of literate, liberal, middle-class life. No longer quite Ukrainian but not quite Canadian either. Literary multiculturalism and its critical exponents are not universally celebrated in the critical writing surveyed here.

      Ganz finds a connection between her work and other Canadian literature, not in her migrant status, but in the Buddhism Thammavongsa shares with Phyllis Webb, for example. Literary study of race and religion requires critical distance from, as well as familiarity with, the contemporary contexts of cultural discussion, notably those shaped by multiculturalism and its discontents. Scholarship on nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Canadian literature in tends to avoid the harsher binaries of postcolonial criticism, without exculpating settler culture or sanitizing its writing.

      Other critics find new or particular approaches to the study of colonial writing. Jessica Langston sets out to liberate the criticism of historical fiction by moving attention to the peripheries of the texts so as to destabilize relations between narrative and history. In articles on late twentieth-century and contemporary Canadian literature we also find critics seeking to avoid over-explanatory systems of thought or to rejuvenate familiar ones.

      We also find adventurously synthetic interpretative contexts in which to read familiar writers. Geopoetry here is part of a project of forcing reconsideration of how we attend to nature without recourse to the tropes of sublime experience. The authors adroitly survey large fields with admirable precision. Certainly, the prospect of mutual cross-fertilization by such opposing ends of the spectrum of literary taste is enticing, although it is questionable whether it would produce more readers of contemporary poetry.

      Two special issues of journals in indicate the resilience of both culturalist interpretation and of a more specifically literary kind. The secrecy. To read Munro properly tuned one must attend closely to the grammatical sleights cunningly worked into these openings. Special issues of these journals are particularly important in continually directing attention not only to major authors like Munro, but also to neglected areas in the field or to finding new ways of looking at familiar ones.

      The turning back in memory and critical conscience becomes a multiply faceted point of entry not just into white racism years ago but also into the unresolved condition of Asians in contemporary Canada. Indeed, the brief period since the collection appeared has made more urgent the multiple implications represented by the act of rejection of the imperial citizens aboard the Japanese ship for our own time in which race, migration, and refuge have become, again, fearful existential issues for countries as well as communities and individuals.

      By examining its shifting representations, Bhati endorses the national and cultural value of works that memorialize history, notably in this case a moment that involves a negative model for the present. James W. Martel is an apt example of the Canadian author as a global citizen, born in Spain, and not confined as a writer by nationality. It might seem, then, inappropriate to approach his work, which deals in universal themes, by way of a national literature.

      Yet he is a Canadian literary intellectual actively committed to the progressive politics associated with Canada, and Canadian writing has long been able to combine a global view with local, regional, and national modes of attention. An Austrian novelist, Bernhard inserts the Canadian pianist into his novel, while scarcely noticing his Canadianness.

      This provides Blake with an unusually detached but effective point from which to view the debates about Canadianness and its responsibilities or lack thereof for the author or the critic. Margaret Atwood receives her deserved share of interpretation in , extending a richly varied background of study that ranges across the modes of her writing from speculative fiction to political critique.

      Thus the trilogy responds to the threats posed by an unholy intersection of technology, synthetic biology, and capitalism in reducing humans to tools. Two examples of ethically turned criticism, one on MaddAddam, are found in Studies in Canadian Literature. This is an important essay for the study of literature and narrative within the field of the medical humanities that enriches each of the seemingly distant disciplines it joins—ethically, critically, and product- ively—by looking both ways.

      Carol L. The critical exercise is supported by the analogies drawn between D. The editors, Christopher Kirkey and Tony McCulloch, chose to focus on younger scholars and collected a strong body of essays offering a fresh sense of critical enterprise. Not focused on the fiction itself, the article does much more than simply register the contexts of reception. Critical articles, while less ambitious in scope, continued to contest white literary representations of Indigenous history and culture.

      Julia A. Scott directly contributed to the educational system that savagely impacted on Indigenous children, who also figure in his poems and stories. Scott is thus a fascinating subject as an administrator and poet in whose life and work the two fields of activity are entangled. Where the nation state, ignoring the habitation, history, and cultural being of First Nation peoples remains so problematic for the Indigenous writer, one welcomes such engagement with Indigenous studies as a transnational phenomenon comple- menting a contemporary emphasis in, for example, the Pacific.

      Thomas King invests border-crossing in the late twentieth century with his caustic satirical humour in Green Grass, Running Water, a novel still deservedly attracting strong critical attention for its testing of the intersection between popular culture and the political, and especially the image-making that imprisons whole peoples for generations. While Hellegers is keen that history told from a colonial perspective must give way to Indigenous perspectives and world views, this is not to be effected merely by way of vague generalities about culture and belief structures.

      The Hudson Bay Company is given special attention here, from its fur-trading posts to modern consumerism. Critical attention here is a means of casting back to forms of memory deeper than those preserved by and predicated on literature. As Braz points out, Findlay does not much engage with either literature or Indigenous literature, so is an odd model to be adopted by the humanities or by Indigenous scholars.

      Moreover, to reform literary studies by concentrating its attention on the rejection of colonization is to overlook the broader frame of scholarly and critical activity. And he might have looked more broadly at Indigenous studies. In the s British expatriate novelist Malcolm Lowry was inducted into the Canadian literary canon largely on the basis of his habitation of a beach near Vancouver.

      In fact, his sense of affiliation to place as an author was multiple, and Canada had as demonstrable a claim as Mexico or the Wirral peninsula. Contemporary Canadian multicultural writing prefers to accom- modate rather than eliminate the variety of nationalities or ethnicities that might claim its authors. Lebanese women, however, have no capacity in a patriarchal society to discover and express identity. This is a rewarding essay, attending closely to literary language and readerly involvement in a text that uses a specific literary form and a technique of stylistic antithesis both to oppose savage legality and to re-establish battered humanity.

      This suggests a promising linguistic approach to comparative Indigenous literatures involving what we might call subversive code-switching that would also speak to Alexis Wright in Australia and Patricia Grace in New Zealand. Aesthetic practice in this dark vision of contemporary reality indicates modes of resistance even if one wonders how effectively dystopian novels or poems might mobilize fundamental change when contemporary politics have them- selves appropriated the techniques of fantasy and exaggeration.

      In her fictional Vancouver, Lai depicts a divided society threatened by ecological disaster and misused technology. Her study focuses on E. Victoria J. The map of the Caribbean has to be expanded. She focuses on the post-war wave of migration to the metropolis, on the Brixton and Tottenham uprisings of that signalled a change in black politics in London, and on second- and third-generation West Indians. The immigrant novel is also the subject of Alicia E.

      The influence of the British canon on Caribbean literature was also the focus of two essays in Small Axe i[] devotes a section to Stuart Hall. A significant amount of critical attention was directed at Caribbean women writers in Chansky examines this text apropos of A Small Place to make fuller observations about Caribbean diasporic subjectivities. Katherine C.

      Thornfield Hall, the English country house, allows for an examination of the ways in which race functions in a post- imperial context. Family history becomes a means of interrogating identity and colonial history in her texts. Beyond Windrush both revisits and looks beyond the terms in which these foundational writers have been regarded and canonized to focus on aspects of the Windrush era previously overlooked or under-investigated.

      Genres besides the novel, such as the short story, memoir, and journalistic writing, are reconsidered. Strenuous subjects such as non-heterosexuality and environmental urgencies are given promin- ence. And a generous range of geographical locations other than London, all pertinent to the period and its writing, are visited and explored: the anglophone and francophone Caribbean, Canada, and the United States.

      The aim is to do more than simply rehearse familiar themes and assumptions of Caribbean literary foundations. Angelique V. Nixon examines how writers such as Derek Walcott, Kamau Brathwaite, and Sylvia Wynter have confronted the master-narratives of Caribbean history.

      Nixon also considers in these terms V. Poetic, prose, and dramatic forms are examined throughout Caribbean Irish Connections. Lee M. In this perhaps unexpected, but certainly rich, comparison of peoples and literary traditions connected by histories of colonization and dispersion, the chapters find points of contact, exchange, and commonalities in the ways in which writers express histories of suffering, persistence, and discovery.

      By shifting away from the United States as the focus of both Irish and Caribbean migration—by looking sideways, in a sense—this book deepens the ways in which we think about diasporas and their complicated networks of connection and encounter. Traditional materials such as vampire narratives have been turned to exciting literary use and cultural revision by writers from Caribbean and African backgrounds. South Asia a Books Few single-author studies came out this year; edited volumes were also scarce, and not all were available for review, while the number of monographs went up.

      Salman Rushdie again emerged as a figure of concern in all but two books, while, thematically speaking, cosmopolitan connections and the question of Islamic identities, especially as articulated by writers from Pakistan, dominated critical attention.

      On Postcolonial Literature as World Literature makes a powerful intervention in current debates on world literature, arguing for the literary text to be seen as an ethico-political force in the world rather than just a commodity whose global trajectory is best understood in terms of existing networks of influence and exchange. Part of the value of trying to understand world literature as a world-making activity, Cheah contends, lies in the way it clarifies the connections between literature and cosmopolitanism, paving the way for recognition of the salience of literature to the formulation of normative cosmopolitan principles for regulating the operations of institutional players on the global stage and for the study of the associations and networks that are proliferating across the globe p.

      The novel, it is argued, is predicated on the hope that global recognition of the threat facing the subalterns of the Sundarbans from the combined forces of an international interest in world heritage preservation, environmental and ecological move- ments, global capitalist interests, and economic development, will give the ordinary people of the Sundarbans a voice that in turn will enable them to renew their world.

      Regardless of its literary complexity, however, he argues that the novel subscribes to a rather simplistic view of translation as the perfect transference of meaning between minds and cultures, rendering them completely transpar- ent to each other. While the novel strives to read the blankness that lies at the heart of its narrative—the lost diary and the storm that leads to its loss—as something meaningfully destined by divine forces, Cheah contends that they are both completely devoid of meaning: there is no reason for the storm to take place.

      The storm, in other words, becomes the very condition of possibility for the novel to emerge. The important point, as Cheah warns, is not that translation or mediation has the potential to distort meaning but that the possibility of distortion is structural to the creation of meaning because the unity that constitutes meaningfulness is finally impossible to explain.

      The book comprises individual studies on their gesture and oeuvre to show how all five artists strive to create a space for politics within their work at the same time as they attempt to speak to the political context in which this work is produced. While the book attempts to initiate an important debate on the meaning and function of contemporary art, it perhaps ends up sounding too much in awe of its subject, preventing the kind of critical engagement that would do it full justice.

      Arundhati Roy is also a subject of Kelly A. Why the novel offers incestuous sex as the only means for the twins, Estha and Rahel, to reach out to each other, and why readers are left with this image without any indication of its aftermath, are questions that cannot be answered without reference to the submerged plot.

      These contradictory views of the multitude are further complicated by glimpses of minor collectives that exist on the fringes of the primary stereotype, undermining its stability over time. A critical engagement with stereotypes also underwrites the concerns and preoccupations of a series of books focused on the question of Islamic identity published in the year under review.

      And were the Muslims who opposed them right to have read these texts as offensive? Rather, the task is to establish how Rushdie reworks the material he draws upon and to what purpose p. In a penetrating critique, Mondal charges The Satanic Verses with approach- ing its Islamic material as an Other in a manner reminiscent of medieval Christian and nineteenth-century orientalist discourses. To the extent that The Enchantress of Florence [] gives greater credit to non-spiritual forms of enchantment, it may be seen as an altogether more philosophical work than Shalimar the Clown [].

      Ultimately, however, both novels seem unable to engage seriously with feelings of affiliation and affinity that are experienced from within the spaces of religious faith. Although Aslam appears to invite readers to consider how greater access to the secular, expressive, and faith-inflected arts—particularly local ones—could have helped troubled Muslims get back in touch with their humanity, his fiction finally shows these efforts to have failed to achieve their aim.

      Thus the attempts of characters like Marcus and Dunia to refine Casa using Sufi practices and Buddhist artefacts are shown to fail to make any impression on the unmovable Islamic subject p. Kanwal is particularly interested in the ways in which three second-generation writers, Kamila Shamsie, Nadeem Aslam, and Uzma Aslam Khan, negotiate the identity crises resulting from current antagonisms towards Muslims and Islam, paying special attention to the struggles of Pakistani migrants with hyphenated identities p.

      Authorial ignorance is clearly an issue for Kanwal, who holds Aslam to account for a form of ignorance that enables the author to cross the line between a critique of radical Islamists and a critique of Islamic faith. As a figure that traditionally represents communal rather than individual truths, the storyteller emerges defiantly as one who is capable of wearing all narrative masks and assuming all authorial positions: narrator, novelist, author.

      This capacity to shape-shift into various figures, all of whom insist on telling stories as opposed to truths , invests the storyteller with the ability to bypass the authority and responsibility for the text that are normally viewed as being synonymous with the author p. The first two chapters of the book lay the theoretical grounds for reconceptualizing the storyteller in contemporary fiction, while the following six chapters explore how the figure of the storyteller makes a reappearance in the work of contemporary writers, including Jim Crace, Mario Vargas Llosa, John Barth, A.

      Byatt, J. All three texts juxtapose the grand narratives of science, history, divine history revelation , and religion against little narratives or stories. Khanna adopts a postcolonial approach to examine a series of important themes that figure in the work of the two writers, including the status of the nation, nationalism, diaspora, conflicts over class, race, and ethnicity, and, not least, the meaning of art and the role of the artist in turbulent times.

      The city in the work of both Joyce and Rushdie functions importantly, she argues, as a critique of nationalist and neo-nationalist standpoints that valorize certain versions of tradition, the past, and by extension the rural as constituting the essential spirit of the nation p.

      Rushdie, she argues, deploys a particular linguistic register almost invariably throughout the landscape of his novels, especially the later ones. A real-life Aurora Zogoiby, for instance, would speak in one register with her servants, in quite another with her family, and in yet another with her socialite crowd.

      From Hannerz to Harvey, Malreddy wheels in all the big guns of postcolonial and cosmopolitan theory, completely overwhelming the fictional world of Narayan that he purportedly sets out to examine. Questions of linguistic experimentation and aesthetic innovation form the focus of another two chapters, while the remaining three are given over to elaborating variously on the violence of neoliberalism, the complicity between human rights discourse and the violence it is meant to condemn, and finally the question of caste in relation to the contemporary.

      Together these essays draw attention to how traditions not only develop but also intersect and interact and gain richness and meaning from contemporaneous trends and transhistorical forms, rather than only as revisions of their own past. The three novels discussed by Carbajal, namely E. The bond between the two men, however, is finally undone by the pressures brought to bear upon it by the claims of the community, and their friendship is deferred until the end of the colonial subjugation of India.

      In English studies focused on Indian and Sri Lankan literatures in international journals the preoccupying issues were the uneasy relations between democracy and resistance, the failures of neoliberalism, the multiple negotiations of gender, the poetics of urban spaces, the role and relevancy of aesthetics, speculative fiction, and a renewed interest in literary cultures. As well, respectful and fond tributes were recorded in memory of two eminent scholars in the field who died in , Stuart Hall and Chelva Kanaganayakam.

      She locates her argument in the space between the categories of the postcolonial and the transnational, that is, between the Spivakian linking of representation and speech which points to the impossibility of the subaltern speaking due to the irretrievable loss of subject position, and the process of dialogue and solidarity enabled by the transnational. Roger McNamara directs attention to discussions of the Anglo-Indians, another peripheral community within the Indian postcolonial nation state.

      Bakshi notes that Selvadurai transfigures the overtly masculinist discourse that has come to be accepted in the genre of the school story, and infuses his narrative with the concerns of not just ethnic marginalization but sexual minoritization as well. These concerns about gender were taken up through rich textual readings in numerous journals. The city and the idea of urbanity were decidedly of concern to literary scholarship in Interventions devoted a special issue to the idea of the postcolonial city—the taking apart, refashioning, and perpetuation of colo- nialism in urban spaces across the world.

      Postcolonial Text devotes a special issue to the memory of the esteemed Tamil Canadian author, academic, and translator. Following the formu- lation suggested by Kanaganayakam, Kailasam thinks through the ways in which the literary history of Sri Lankan Tamil literature created out of the civil conflict may be illuminated by literary form.

      In their introduction to the speculative, fiction-focused issue of Sanglap, Sourit Bhattacharya and Arka Chattopadhyay home in on the conjectural aspects of speculation in fiction, an area of scholarship within English studies that is gaining currency Sanglap 2:i[] 1— Orsini meticulously maps the trajectory of this project in relation to an early twentieth-century religious-devotional north Indian public.

      In a nuanced reading of O. Nambiar examines nomadic consciousness as a way in which resistance may take place, in both the political as well as the literary sense, in the work of Vijayan. New Zealand and Pacific There were fewer works in New Zealand and Pacific studies in than in previous years, although critics have covered a wider range of modern and contemporary writers in their articles.

      The discussion tends towards summary and description over analysis, but there are insights stacked in the essay for its careful readers. Other contributions for this year have been more uneven. Continuing biographical approaches of earlier critical periods, Annette M. There have been two great waves of Katherine Mansfield textual scholarship. Plumridge and Edinburgh have done scholars in New Zealand literary studies a great service with this fine new edition.

      Plumridge provides thorough general-contextual pp. Gordon, and Margaret Scott. After all this, the Notebook itself pp. After years of condescension and neglect, Mansfield is now seen—as evidenced by the frequent scholarly publications on her work, the existence of the Mansfield Yearbook and Society, and the presence of her work in discussions of others writers—as a significant figure in global anglophone modernism.

      This section provides details on criticism with a specifically New Zealand application. The results are satisfyingly provocative. Three chapters in particular stand out. Writing becomes, in new ways, an ancestral house of its own. Impatient with the classificatory divisions of Eurocentric aesthetic theory, Huihui illustrates its own claims by including poetry, fiction, and creative writing, from Albert Wendt, Michael Puleloa, and Steven Winduo among others, as well as these literary-critical chapters.

      Tracing his revisions, then, tells us much, and not only about his own aesthetics. The varied offerings around nineteenth-century and colonial literatures reinforce my sense from previous years that this remains the site of the most adventurous scholarship in New Zealand literary studies. Eileen Duggan, despite never leaving New Zealand, enjoyed a decades- long and very successful literary career. What might this tell us, Bones wonders, about some of the myths of cultural nationalism about the colonial period?

      The centenary years of the First World War continue their lumbering roll, publishing programmes, books, and features spilling from each one along the way. The results, for literary studies, have so far been disappointing. Poetry is not a competition. Rediscovering Lea and Clark as British migrants writing comfortably in a range of registers, including Scots and Cockney, adds nuance to our accounts of twentieth-century literature produced in New Zealand. Ricketts, although he does not pursue these arguments himself, sets up further readings to come.

      This gives his work a refreshingly formalist focus but also, perhaps, drains it of some critical-contextual juices. Religious thought has long been important to New Zealand literature, from James K. She then, in collaboration with Hotere, interspersed these fragments with lines from the biblical Song of Songs. Osborne provides a thorough account of the visual work and of the process of composition, and then details the ways in which the Song of Songs has been deployed by poet and painter.

      Finally, two book-length single-author surveys will provide useful resources for scholars, particularly those based outside New Zealand, seeking informa- tion about sources and publications in drama. Poet and academic Dennis Haskell blends both personal and scholarly perspectives in his account of the difficulties and the promises of spearheading the ongoing creation of an anthology of Southeast Asian writing, a project that was started in and has seen several editors and contributors come and go.

      Yet Haskell also observes the common ties that bind the different countries in the region, together with Australia, where Haskell is based. Haskell also observes the difficulty of recruiting editors to write introductions for and find primary materials from particular national literatures such as that of Laos and Brunei, and the challenges of translating poetry and fiction from their original languages into English when no qualified translators are available. However, Haskell remains optimistic that the anthology will highlight certain common concerns among Southeast Asian writers, such as the vexed relationship between literature and sociopolitical authority and the difficulties of maintaining a sense of tradition and history in the face of a rapidly modernizing present.

      Devadas begins by tracing the productive connections between postcolonial critique and Southeast Asian literary criticism from the s to the present day, presenting an overview of several scholarly texts as well as creative works in different languages that are informed or inspired by postcolonial thinking. The limits of postcolonialism are then broached: it tends to homogenize diverse literatures and cultures and is institutionally too focused on anglophone writing.

      Devadas ends by proposing a politics of border crossing the transgression of national, linguistic, and disciplinary borders as a more suitable paradigm by which to study Southeast Asian literature today. Such a visceral represen- tation of Southeast Asia is non-dialectical and requires a fluid or flowing logic for comprehension. The literary process of re-worlding Asia in these novels problematizes a singular version of Asia and instead produces multiple and competing feminist visions of Asia rather than a normative ideal of it.

      This in turn made the plays ripe material for adaptation, particularly through the bangsawan or Malay opera, which dramatically reworked the original plays to suit local tastes. Examining the poetry of Agnes Lam Hong Kong , Kirpal Singh Singapore , and Isabela Banzon the Philippines , Haskell argues that English, no longer seen as just a colonial legacy, has become part of the literary culture of these societies and is a suitable language for authentic creative expression.

      Furthermore, the English language allows these poets to write in a committed yet critical manner about their respective societies. Although providing educational instruction in the mother tongue or first language of a particular ethnic group is an admirable ideal, this is often hampered in various Southeast Asian societies because of a process of nation formation that did not incorporate the mother-tongue language, a hierarchy of languages corresponding with divisive social inequalities, and authoritarian or draconian measures of cultural and hence linguistic assimilation.

      Epifanio San Juan Jr. Two of the chapters in this book are concerned with literature. Chronologically, Cruz and Suzuki trace moments of political resistance, cultural nationalism, and transnational community formation in the works of Filipino and Filipino American writers. Tapas argues that these different names arose as part of a nation-building effort on the one hand against American colonialism, and the hegemony of English on the other hand against other local languages.

      Tagalog first emerged as the national language in the s because it was the language that dominated in the capital of metro Manila. The history of American influence in the Philippines and the sustained migration of Filipinos to the United States form the backdrop of two other essays concerned with national institutions and transnational communities.

      Although this centre was meant to promote a populist national culture, it gradually became more of a tourist attraction over time. Another important topic that emerged this year is the problem of literary form. Jose Dalisay Jr. Dalisay Jr. Abad makes a case for a more sensitive and meticulous approach to the connection between language, land, and culture when reading poetry from the Philippines. A sense of being Filipino and of a national and cultural identity is created and shared through the poetic imagination rather than through state policies and slogans.

      One particularly famous modernist poem by T. Almario, Rogelio Mangahas, and Lamberto E. Although Eileen R. Ancheta argues that the period from the s to the present has seen the emergence of a crucial but often neglected strand of Filipino poetry employing humour in reflective and critical ways. She focuses on the poems of Paolo Manalo and Isabela Banzon; the former uses lively wordplay and language mixing to depict the underside of Filipino society while the latter represents the plight of Filipinos working overseas in a comic but poignant light.

      Another cluster of critical studies takes up the problem of literary form and representations of things past. Canlas takes issue with scholars such as E. San Juan Jr. Chen reads the novel as departing from conventional ways of representing the past in other postcolonial historical novels. A different kind of marginalization is of primary concern for Cristina Pantoja Hidalgo, whose book To Remember, to Remember: Reflections on the Literary Memoirs of Filipino Women argues that memoirs by women authors in the Philippines have been relatively neglected in critical scholarship.

      Reading the memoirs of seven women writers, Hidalgo proposes that, despite their differences, all are pioneering exponents of the literary memoir because earlier women authors described their self-writing simply as essays or non-fiction prose. Hidalgo argues that travel writing is not only a descriptive rendition of another place and time but also an elaborate self-portrait of the writer, who is inevitably rootless.

      Two essays explore the links between literature from the Philippines and the growing fields of literary ecocriticism and environmental studies. In her discussion of the poetry of Merlie Alunan and Abercio V. Chua argues that ecopoetry in the Philippines can be both a witness to the tragedies wrought by natural disasters and a call for sustainable action to prevent future disasters. Wahiza observes that unsupportive secondary school teachers, a weak English foundation at the secondary education level, peer pressure against the use of English in conversation, a family environment where English is seldom spoken, and a general attitude that perceives English as a foreign language are challenges faced by Malaysian undergraduates.

      The inclusion of literature in English as a compulsory part of the Malaysian secondary school English- language syllabus has created a demand for teachers trained to teach such literature and also placed a strain on existing teachers to be retrained to perform such teaching often in an ESL English as a Second Language context. Florence G. Kayad concludes with apt propositions to help improve teacher training in this area, such as strengthen- ing the connections between teaching programmes at the university and teaching practices in secondary schools and fostering a greater awareness of a culturally and linguistically diverse milieu in Malaysia.

      Through their fieldwork done in a Malaysian company with transnational business connections, Lee and Koo argue that an idealized version of Standard English might not be best suited for multilingual and globally connected workplaces in Malaysia. Harrison and J. Humphreys, whose translations are not widely known compared to those of Sir R. Focusing mainly on novels and short fiction written in Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil since national independence in , the author stresses the portrayal of strong female characters as a way of challenging the stereotype of the submissive Asian woman propagated during the colonial era and also by male nationalist writers.

      The popular novels of these two writers are examined in terms of their formal characteristics, such as the use of flashbacks, detailed descriptions, and presentation of factual informa- tion. The author concludes with the perhaps obvious point that, because of their personal backgrounds, Ramlee is concerned about Islamic culture and religious beliefs while Sheldon focuses more on the role of women and creates stronger female characters.

      Fateha argues that the grotesque aesthetic in both short stories has a critical function that goes beyond unsettling readers through feelings of fear and horror. A number of essays this year focused on the works of a single poet or author. The plot of The Flame Tree concerns an ambitious project to build a new university along a mountain range that will adversely affect the biodiversity of the area as well as the environmental integrity of two neighbouring towns.

      Ecocriticism is combined with critical race analysis in Agnes S. An ecocritical perspective problematizes and expands the politics of racial identity that are unmistakably evident in his poetry. Ee, who wrote in English, emigrated to Australia after anglophone literature was officially designated a sectional or secondary literature in Malaysia, whereas Muhammad advocated a Malay-language poetics and eschewed English. Multiple cultural identities are also important in the fiction of Indian Malaysian writer K.

      Singapore English, or Singlish, should be considered a type of New English rather than a pidgin or creole because its grammatical structure is constantly being informed and modified by other languages in its linguistic substratum. Although Singapore puts a lot of emphasis on primary and secondary education, the place of literature and the space for reading literary texts in schools is a troubled one, especially since literature is now an optional subject at the secondary level.

      Dass offers four propositions that might help make literature more popular among Singaporean students. Choo is mindful that English literature was one vector for the transmission of colonial values when Singapore was a British colony. Ue focuses on Sherlock Sam, a Singapore- based and -set series of books for young readers, and talks to Adam Jimenez and Felicia Low-Jimenez, the husband-and-wife creative team behind it.

      On the one hand, the compact physical environment of Singapore lends itself to depiction in short fiction of extreme brevity. Although Teo was born in Malaysia and lives in Australia, one of the main characters in her novel is Justin, the gay, Australian-born son of Chinese Singaporean immigrants. He asserts his identity and sexuality while negotiating the attractive but sometimes hostile neighbourhoods and streets of Sydney.

      There are also essays dealing with multiple cultural and national identities. Webster also uses the number eleven, which features prominently in the poem, to make connections with the I Ching or Book of Changes and other features of Chinese cosmology. What emerges is not so much an explication of the poem as a catalogue of its multiple allusions and references. Carlotta L. Turning from literature to theatre and performance, four essays discuss the significance of performance spaces in Singapore, the productions of plays by well-known dramatists.

      Dance battles become a space through which conflict and anger can be expressed and national identities negotiated in fluid and protean ways. The play also suggests that an emphasis on English in both Singaporean theatre and society at large marginalizes non-English speakers and other hybrid forms of linguistic expression. Adeoti, Gbemisola, ed.

      African Literature and the Future. Ailwood, Sarah, and Melinda Harvey, eds. Katherine Mansfield and Literary Influence. Anatol, Giselle Liza. Anjaria, Ulka, ed. A History of the Indian Novel in English. Ashton, Gail, ed. Medieval Afterlives in Contemporary Culture. Attwell, David. Bao, Zhiming. Bigot, Corinne, and Catherine Lanone.

      E21 ISBN 9 Bigot, Corinne, and Catherine Lanone, eds. Presses Universitaires de Paris Ouest. E12 ISBN 9 Birns, Nicholas. Blaber, Ron, ed. Whaddya Know? Writings for Syd Harrex. Branach-Kallas, Anna, and Nelly Strehlau, eds. Braz, Albert. Brown, J. Dillon, and Leah Reade Rosenberg, eds.

      Buchholtz, Miroslawa, and Eugenia Sojka, eds. Cardell, Kylie, and Kate Douglas, eds. Telling Tales: Autobiographies of Childhood and Youth. Huihui: Navigating Art and Literature in the Pacific. Shanghai JiaotongUP. Y48 ISBN 9 English Studies: New Perspectives. Chakravorty, Mrinalini. Chan, Kenneth. Cheah, Pheng. What Is a World? On Postcolonial Literature as World Literature. Chiu, Monica, ed. Clark, Timothy. Clements, Madeline. Cojocaru, Daniel.

      Collins, Walter P. Cox, Ailsa, and Christine Lorre-Johnston. E19 ISBN 9 Cox, Emma. Meyer, eds. Daymond, M. R ISBN 9 Denham, Robert D. Diala-Ogamba, Blessing, and Elaine Sykes, eds. Dillet, Benoit, and Tara Puri, eds. Caribbean Irish Connections: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Dragas, Areti. The Return of the Storyteller in Contemporary Fiction. Edmonds, Phillip. Ekotto, Frieda, and Kenneth W. Harrow, eds. Rethinking African Cultural Production.

      Evan, Robert C. Evans, David, ed. Language and Identity: Discourse in the World. Farrell, Michael. Fee, Margery. Gabrielle, Cindy. Galloway, Francis, ed. Garman, Anthea. Aesthetics and Ideology in Contemporary Literature and Drama. Gorovitz, Sabine, and Isabella Mozzillo, eds. Language Contact: Mobility, Borders and Urbanization. Gounder, Farzana, ed. Narrative and Identity Construction in the Pacific Islands.

      Studies in Narrative Guignery, Vanessa, ed. Hammill, Faye, and Michelle Smith. Hartley, Andre James, ed. Shakespeare on the University Stage. Healy-Clancy, Meghan, and Jason Hickel, eds. Heiss, Anita. The BlackWords Essays, ed. Worby Gus and Kerry Kilner. Helgesson, Stefan, and Pieter Vermeulen, eds. Henderson, Ian, and Anouk Lang, eds. Hidalgo, Cristina Pantoja. Hill, Colin. Modern Realism in English-Canadian Fiction. Horowitz, Rosemary, ed.

      Jones, Esther L. Kamboureli, Smaro, and Robert Zakarias, eds. Shifting the Ground of Canadian Literary Studies. Kanwal, Aroosa. Karpova, Olga M. Kartashkova, Vladimir Egorov, and Paolo del Bianco, eds. Life Beyond Dictionaries. Keren, Michael. Politics and Literature at the Turn of the Millennium. Khanna, Stuti.

      Travel Writing and the Transnational Author. E50 ISBN 9 Authority and Displacement in the English-Speaking World, vol. ISBN 9 Le Fustec, Claude. Northrop Frye and American Fiction. Lecker, Robert, ed. Pathways of Creativity in Contemporary Newfoundland and Labrador. Maisier, Veronique. Malreddy, Pavan Kumar. Marsh, Kelly A. Mbembe, Achille. On the Postcolony. McCann, Andrew. Mistry, Jyoti, and Antje Schuhmann, eds.

      Mondal, Anshuman. Moore, Nicole, ed. Ni, Zhange. Nischik, Reingard M. Nixon, Angelique V. Osofisan, Femi. N ISBN 9 Panny, Judith Dell. Steele Roberts. Parikh, Crystal, and Daniel Y. Kim, eds. Plumridge, Anna, ed. The Urewera Notebook by Katherine Mansfield.

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