2 Окт 2012 Gor 1
Muller Matthieu 17 December But I actually was aware of #1 quite a long time ago maybe say in already? The observation Read more. IRAMIS est un institut du CEA/Saclay. The story of a dysfunctional family in Northern France. Dad is a mean abusive drunk pharmacist, mom is addicted to pills and has incestuous desire for her. VER PELICULA LA NOVICA REBELDE ONLINE SUBTITULADA TORRENT Now repeat the to display license still doable. If you're talking is selected small the background and corresponding to the scans automatically and. This will be the hostname of the client side similar to video.
Once Catherine Breillat called me to come to her aid. She had told her editor to edit the first sequence between two characters. She said the editor had sabotaged the sequence. When I came I saw why it did not work. We saw the characters later on - we discover their tempo - their dialogue. Whereas it was two characters that took their time to speak; the editor must see the whole of the film. In French films music is used as an illustration - not a good use of music and sounds.
He wanted to show the sound level. We are not conscious of the sound level we hear. In 'Le Petit Soldat, at the beginning, a car arrives silently, one does not hear the brakes, sound of a match, car goes, one hears nothing - then music. By the way, I did not know Godard before I worked with him.
He had asked one of my former pupils in IDHEC if she knew somebody who was not deformed by traditional films who could edit his film. In 'Ume Femme est ume femme' Anna Karina gets up, goes to the bistro. She is inside, asks for a 'green' creme - goes out in the street, lots of noise, the shot after - no more noise.
It was to make us hear the sound level that you normally do not hear, like abstract music. With the Italians we sent them an International copy sound mix without dialogue with the cut. They thought there was a mistake and they reintroduced the sound everywhere - put sound in the 'hole'. He sees it as his rhythm that he adds to the music. He always said that he is not a musician himself and discovered music later on. He had a tremendous ear- he did not want to use music to illustrate things, to accompany.
He wanted music that would talk with the other sounds in the film - a dialogue - not music to make things smoother, easier to understand, to create false emotions. Some- times I hear people say here it is not too good, let us put some music. He did not cut it. In the scene in the music hall, normally you would lower the music when people talk - here he cuts it: no half-measures.
We got on well with 'Baisers Voles', the way one got on with Truffaut. Truffaut was not bothered by how one makes a film, how one puts things together. He is the spectator - he wants to see the result, not the know-how. I was completely puzzled. Godard never shot a scene from different angles saying we will choose, butTruffaut did it. Naively I thought he was going to say I want this or that in closeup on such characters. He said nothing, do what you like, disconcerting but exciting.
In principle one puts a wide shot then one gets nearer, then closeup. Looking at the film I thought this is ridiculous - why do this? Lonsdale was fantastic in medium closeup and closeup. I went from one to the other to take the best. Truffaut asked why did you do this? I said I do not want the best things to stay in the rushes, discarded. He accepted the principle of the thing after we projected it. When it was alright he would not say much but when it did not work he would say so.
He was jealous of Godard. I suffered from having worked with Godard but I was proud of it. Truffaut did not use me without letting me know - it was his way. He said we should not edit it this way. I said I had tried everything - can you come to the editing room. Then he was mad. He did not know what to say - he hated it. Truffaut was very susceptible. Jealousy and his unfaithfulness were his worst defects. He needed to love and be loved.
His films went by fours. When I was on the dole I went to see a director - a lover of film - Pierre Tchernia. Later on when somebody said that to me I would reply 'it is a shame you don't'. There is a very poignant article by Godard inTelerama.
After his accident he tried to start again. Truffaut shot in a more traditional way. His trademark is his sensitiv- ity. There is a charm that isTruffaut - it comes from the way he learnt about the cinema when he was very young - he likes cliche. With Godard it was the opposite so for me it was sometimes difficult. The cliche which may cost me my work with him was in 'Domicile Conjuga!. Claude Jade has a child. Truffaut shot two ver- sions: one where the in-laws said, 'Be nice to her, she had a lot of 15 2 Agnes Guillemot pain, she went through a lot' the other 'You have a lovely little boy, be happy and nice with her'.
Earlier in the film we had been told that she was listening to a record about childbirth without pain - automatically I chose the second version. Truffaut said to me 'why did you choose this one? It was bad faith. In the scene where Claude Jade and Leaud meet again she says 'now you are proud of your son, but before, you dropped me'. He betrayed her with the Japanese girl - it was bad faith. Godard says 'the cinema is a question of morality'.
It was contrary to my belief to put the first version. For Truffaut it was better to put the more hackneyed idea. Women suffer and to hide the fact she was putting on a face because her partner had betrayed her. He took my version but he was not a moralist. I was nearer to Godard. WithTruffaut there was no joy in the cutting room. Once I had a big bouquet and a telegram for 'Baisers Voles': 'make the film how you like, I shot it thinking of other things it was I trust you com- pletely, do as if I were dead' I found this note afterTruffaut's death.
In June all the technicians were on strike. He had asked me if we could go and do one projection without saying anything to any- body. I said no. I did not like it, it was contrary to my principles. I do not see why I should have given in. I am very severe on 'La Nuit americaine'. This is why I share Godard's view who wrote to him: 'From a cineaste who is such a film buff you should have been more faithful'.
One could have done better on a film about film. When I saw it, it annoyed me. I did not like this line in 'Baisers Voles': 'politeness is better than being sincere' - I do not think so. The frame when he is clowning in his bed - it was not very well directed - and hard to find some reactions. She is superb - I love the scene when he is on top of the ladder in the shoe shop and sings. In 'Le Sirene du Mississipi' there were lots of aphorisms: 'I love you because you are loveable'l One could not discuss with him.
She understood Truffaut. She had worked with Godard too. When they split it was very painful. I do not like to speak too much of my work with Truffaut. It is good to admire and I do not admire him that much. At first it was possible when he was in love with Catherine Deneuve. Then when he broke with Deneuve - I knew he would not take me again. He had an extraordinary wife, Madeleine Morgenstern. I never did - or I went out of politeness.
Truffaut liked people to go. When I see a film being shot it has not the same mystery for me as when I discover it in the projection room. It is fantastic, the editor seeing it for the first time. This does not happen in video - everybody has seen everything as it happens. One's eyes are polluted by so many shots. Anna Karina says in an article 'to make films one has to take every- thing seriously' - 1 add to this 'except oneself. One has to be modest: Shall we drink a coffee now?
Selon Matthieu - Xavler Beauvois, Edited by Christophe Nowak. Memoires d'un jeune con - Patrick Aurignac, Cinematheque Francaise -This refers to the institution established by Henri Langlois where many of the French New Wave gained their cine- matic education by full immersion in screenings and discussions of films from all places and eras. Langlois became a cause celebre when the gov- ernment closed the Cinematheque, provoking violent demonstrations which were a precursor to the unrest of , only in France!
Raoul Coutard - Along with Henri Decae the leading cinematographer of Le Nouvelle Vague, to whom much credit must be given for the visual style developed during that period. Vivre sa Vie: film en douze tableau - Jean-Luc Godard, Godard by Godard - Fascinating book where Jean-Luc Godard chron- icles his career including many examples of his working documents. Partial version available as Godard on Godard translated by Tom Milne.
Nicole Garcia - Brilliant actress, born in Algeria, who in recent years has successfully turned to direction. Romance - Catherine Breillat, , a frank and, for some, disturbing examination of female sexuality, which this director has further explored in other films.
Bandeapart- Jean-Luc Godard, Masculin-Feminin: 15 faits precis - Jean-Luc Godard, Georges Delerue - Eminent music composer for well over films including many forTruffaut. Claudine Bouche - Editor who cut forTruffaut and is still active. Mich a el Lonsdale - Prolific actor, including for Luis Bunuel. She rephsed the role of girl friend and then wife to Antoine Doinel in two subsequent Truffaut films, 'Domicile Conjugal' and ' L'Amour en fuite'. L'Enfant sauvage - Frangois Truffaut, 1 Martlne Barraque - Editor for FrangoisTruffaut on his last eight films.
Pierre Tchernia - Actor, writer, director Le Wager-Tchernia, there are three editing credits. Also acted for Godard. La Nuit americaine - Frangois Truffaut, 1 Truffaut's tribute to the magic of filmmaking. Cinemonde - A popular film magazine. Delphine Seyrig - Born in Beirut, became an eminent actress in French films and theatre. Worked with, amongst others, Truffaut, Resnais, Bunuel and Akerman. Suzanne Schiffman - Frangois Truffaut's right hand woman, from script girl to co-writer.
Also worked with Godard. Madeleine Morgenstern - Ran Truffaut's company, Les Films du Carrosse, after his death, having been his wife at the start of his directing career. A remarkable woman. Yann Dedet - Film editor - see interview next. He subse- quently became the editor for amongst others, Maurice Pialat and later Cedric Kahn.
He has recently directed his first feature length film, 'The Land of the Singing Dog'. We talked in his Paris apartment and at a nearby cafe. I was born in Paris in My father was a publisher, including for instance the last three books by Antonin Artaud J My mother was an 'antiquaire' antique dealer. I was very 'moyen' average at school, but I developed an early interest in the theatre Shakespeare, Strindberg. My father took me to see my first film when I was eight. It was 'Lhomme des vallees perdues' Shane by George Stevens.
But at the time the pleasure of holding my little camera and the fact of choosing what was to be filmed was stronger than the idea of editing, less instinctive for the moment than framing. But studies went worse and worse because of the awakening of ado- lescent 'pulsions' urges which pushed me to make with my Paillard-Bolex a very destructive and auto-destructive little movie in the mood of 'Erostrate' by Sartre.
Happily there were a lot of bad sequences reshot and, coming in at around six in the morning, I tried all sorts of stupid cuts, and even splicing the film upside down, drawing on the film, etc. At the time it was only a game and now it is real work but happily the pleasure of playing is still there. The editor I saw working on this first stage was so bad that I could begin by learning, what not to do, a very important step. Then Agnes Guillemot, edited the next fourTruffaut movies, and he asked her to keep me as assistant.
Agnes has two enormous qualities; firstly, she tries nearly every solution, even the ones which look logically bad, and secondly, she lets the movie breathe, almost by itself, waiting very often for the solutions to become obvious. She puts shots, not cuts, next to each other to try to see what is the effect between the two shots, but not the splice, the interior of each shot, what it says, the meaning, the colour, the pace of the shot. Then she cuts entire shots out and suddenly there is something obvi- ous between the shots that remain and then she makes the raccord match between the shots but not before.
It's like you don't take the skin off the chicken until you know it is a good piece. So Agnes has a good way of attacking the work, which is waiting-looking-thinking- hearing the music then tout a coup this piece can be out because its not the mood of the whole thing.
It's very delicate work. For me it is different. I replaced this method by being very presse, always a guy in a hurry. So very quickly I focus on a centre - the shot from the rushes which speaks to me - and little by little I extend, maybe too fast but sometimes it has good results because it pro- vokes interest in the rest of the rushes.
Frangois Truffaut hated the cut on action, like the Americans always do. Rather the rhythm should dictate the moment. Also I don't like champ-contre-champ matching two-shots , with a piece of somebody on the edge of frame. It's like a stupid proof, just for what? It wastes the energy of the image; putting technique before art. I think it is the demand of sound, suppressing the character of ancient cinema.
At the wall of the editing room on the list of the sequences, each sequence is characterised by a little coded sign which means: 'something violent', 'something sweet', 'something sexual', 'something animal', 'something horrify- ing', 'something tender', 'something historical', 'something childish', etc. The way he chooses the pieces to edit is very special too; totally un-narrative at first, just putting cut - cut the pieces he likes without any apparent idea of construction.
I like imperfection; things should be seen and heard that are defaut. Films need arrhyth- mic things, too long or too short. Stevenin's movies are full of ellipses. He has a certain pleasure, and talent too, for breaking the logic of a scene, and mixing the ups and downs of an actor in so complete a disorder that he amplifies the trouble - that the actor was trying to express - ten times more than expected.
In all this mess editing is the moment when he really writes, cutting one shot to another so that the movie looks like one long sweet movement Stevenin on the contrary shoots very controlled plan-sequences and editing is the moment of put- ting everything in 'living-disorder'. With these four directors, Truffaut, Makavejev, Stevenin and Grandperret, I must say that this period was my school time, I was learning and learning.
Maurice Pialat was the second director to choose me 'against Truffaut the first was Makavejev having respect but no approba- tion forTruffaut's style. In fact, as often as not, opposition was the game, the idea being to compare and oppose one idea of cinema to another, for the purpose of refining his style. Or by using methods from other styles, or not using them, by discovering something which improves and goes further in his own style. Very drastic, very radical solutions are found this way, often by leaving the problem without solution.
Only listening to the film counts. The important thing about Claire is that she never wants to say what she wants; she is suspicious of words. So our dialogue is always going around the subject. Like Stevenin, they both don't want the words to come before the act of building the film.
It is the opposite with Pialat; the talk is nourishing the film; a way of liking life. He believes you will never have a good movie if you don't have fun with it. He is suffering because you have to cut, so is trying to cut by playing with cutting. It is a magical moment when 24 Yann Dedet 3 the ' realisateur danser devant son film' the director dances in front of his film.
For me this kind of thing is impossible to replace by another figure de style stylistic device. The American ideal of cinema is an infinite continuity of pleonasmes emphasising the obvious. In European cinema you can sometimes see un plan pour rien lit- erally a shot for nothing different, elsewhere, out of the movie, but which is in fact the movie.
Sometimes when I'm very glad for a movie I say, 'un film pour rien' it was just like a part of life, or a good dream. There is no story, no thesis to defend, there is no purpose, just doing music, letting time flow. Show it how it flows, marvel- lously. This is un film pour rien. In the storytelling process European editors have to work like musi- cians, like rowers in rapids, trying to listen to the sound of the falls, not to be pulled towards them by the flow.
Maybe the biggest utility of an editor is to be like a mirror, but one who gives back another image to the director. Often, just listening 25 3 Yann Dedet to what someone says makes the 'sayer' aware of the fact that he just said something wrong or incomplete or stupid or. For the editor, arriving first at work is very important, to take posses- sion of the film as much as working alone on it sometimes.
The edi- tor is coming late to the film: he didn't dream, didn't write, didn't direct the film and he has to take the film, to touch it, break it and splice it to understand how the film is thought and how it reacts. The ideal editor is a humble director. The difficulty in everything is not to be perfect. An editor must be half- intelligent-half-instinctive, half-romantic-half-logical, half-imaginative- haif-ferre a terre down to earth , half-here-half-dreaming This makes a lot of halves and I would say that such a mess is more a gift of nature than something that can be worked and built.
The first reason for choosing to work on a movie is the director, and most of all how he speaks about cinema - or about life. All those who are very aware about techniques or about the business world of cinema are very repulsive to me. The best is, as Pialat does, to speak music, sex, painting, mountains, sculpture, love.
Although the most revealing thing for me was when he asked me ten years before we worked together: 'Do you like films in which the guy says "lets go to the sea',' and the next scene is on the seashore? My best editing machine was the Moritone, something like a Moviola but a little bigger, on which I edited standing up, thus improving the physical pleasure of editing. Flat-bed machines give less pleasure. What is very difficult in actual editing rooms - not conceived by editors - is the totally stupid place of windows even on the ceiling!
I often have to bring curtains from home and the horrible noise of air-conditioning as in movie theatres nowadays it is quite impos- sible to listen to tenu weak sound or to really see a night scene because of the exit or toilet lights. I always need a big board on which I can change the place of the sequences, written in several different coded colours, depending on the kind of narration: a colour by character, place or period or any essential point of view regarding the nature of the particular movie.
And like a real cowboy, I can't have a door at my back in the editing room. I try to be very near to what I think the film must be when I am edit- ing, as if the mix would be the day after, except for very enormous errors: much too long or too short shots, bad takes, holes in the narration storytelling , objectionable repetitions, which I think are necessary to the deep thinking about the film. Sometimes the ques- tion asked by the film is so huge that you have I have to make the proof by the contrary, and it can happen that one or several of these mistakes leads to an idea which fits the film.
Or that this attempt to be like the opposite of the film, it leads to express by opposition that the direction of the rest of the film is confirmed by the obvious contradiction of this solution. I can spend, like everybody I guess, between one second and one hour on one cut, but I'm very confident on instinct; a first instinct- ive ra ccord Wnk tells something precious. The interaction between image and sound is essential in cinema. The sound must lead half of the film; it must be the guide alterna- tively with image.
It is very interesting to check how the image can be forced to get synchronised or de-synchronised on purpose into 27 3 Yann Dedet a sound cut, even if the image cut is inard, brutal and tine sound cut imperceptible. In fact, I am sure the film itself forces you to think for and with it. You are not the one who decides, and if you let yourself go in this esclavage slavery it is pure delice delight to be half-master, half-slave of the film.
The new technology can be very efficient to try immediately sound ideas, but I keep a certain nostalgia for sound on one track, because it forced you to try and find the good cut. The good idea of cutting in regard to what this cut should mean and bring as emotion.
To begin with, I must say I don't much like music in movies. It is too often used as a means of underlining, or is pleonastic or heavy or complaisant indulgent. But we sometimes have to dare to make this fault. For instance, when music is obviously something completely different than the scene, in complete decalage separation , but I must say I nearly always have this feeling of decalage when there is music, even when it seems to be in the same mood as the scene.
Music always says: 'I'm here! I have a few good sou- venirs of adequate music. One is on Pialat's 'Under Satan's Sun'? Another good souvenir is the opposite dennarche process. Tine first time I placed 'a la volee', Dutilleux's music on the sequence where Depardieu gets lost in the countryside, Maurice told me to make a synch-mark very fast on the sound with a white pencil and never touch it again; it was good and he didn't want to risk losing it. Very often I will choose the music against the sense of the director.
I think the music brings more sense than the sense itself, and I was fighting, I remember, a lot of times with directors. Although never with Stevenin for instance whose films are pure music, for him the base, everything comes after, if it can, because it doesn't always fit with the pace. This is the difficult work with Stevenin, learning what not to do: not to listen only to the sense; not to listen only to the hor- rible logic; not to listen only to the story as it was written, because the physical shooting has changed all that - in time and space - in that I mean time and space have to be reconsidered within a the frame.
It is difficult to analyse the relationship between rhythm and mean- ing. Take for instance the idea of suppressing dialogue. Very often when you cut out dialogue and put a look which is after or before you have the 'music' which is not entirely explanative but which is comme un piste, as a track, as a direction in which you can ask the spectator to go.
Something like an aspiration or inspiration of something; the feeling rather than the explanation. I think here the 'music' stands, and here, maybe, the more profound sense stands. The sense unexplained. With the great directors this comes very simply. With Truffaut for instance, he did it himself. Just cut out the last phrase and put a plan muet mute shot , just a face. With Pialat too, a long held look is easy between the sentences, but with others I have to struggle, I have to be a traitor, not to say its cut but just let them see it in a screening.
I try to keep these things on a human scale. The machine is not the editor, as producers tend to believe and I have to decide how I want to be organised and not let the machine usurp my control. It's very painful for me to be obliged to use a code that I didn't invent, which I find very stupid, very badly named. There is a very beautiful sen- tence by a famous French author which is 'Naming things badly adds to the unhappiness misfortune of the world', because it doesn't fit with the emotions.
I am very impulsive and I think I wouldn't dare do foolish, insane or even stupid things if I was more wise, more careful. This can serve the picture by pushing the search for solutions very far. Also I can't bear being beaten by a failure and up to the last day of editing I will try and try again to look for solutions, going back to the dailies, and trying to invent another point of view to overturn the problem which made us fail.
Definitely, variety is the gas for my engine. Documentaries to enrich the capacity of fictioning reality; fiction to enrich the capacity to documentarise fiction; short films to breathe and meet new blood. TV things to know what not to do. Yann's comments add weight to his analysis of the special qualities that he admired in the work of Pialat. The common link between all the great directors that I have known is the total freedom which they allow the people that work with them, actors as well as technicians.
With Pialat, this is particularly true. I already had a tendency to build a sequence around a central point, on a basic fact and this was developed even more with him. What first appears is not necessarily how the sequence will start nor how it will finish. It is this that frees you from the emphasis and the specifics of the film, which differentiates between pure narra- tive and emotional narrative. The thing about Pialat is that he didn't hesitate to throw away scenes essential to the narrative, if they were not good enough.
Whatever he was not satisfied with would be thrown out. In all the 30 Yann Dedet 3 Maurice Pialat on right when shooting 'Van Gogh' Courtesy of Artificial Eye films that I edited, I think there is only one single scene which he kept in - forced and constrained by the narrative - because what followed would have been incomprehensible without it. It was the scene in the parlour between Marceau and his lover in ' Police' P He did it voluntar- ily but he didn't like doing it.
When the film was finished, he said 'Next time, I'm going to take on a real director, or I'm going to learn how to direct properly. I'm fed up with films full of holes! For the five minutes of the lunch in ' Van Gogh', there are six hours of rushes. That makes for a very long editing process. For two months we had a special room reserved for editing this sequence of the lunch.
There were some sequences which we edited entirely together, like the cabaret in 'Van Gogh' some when he was never there at all, some sequences where we spent hours together talking about other things. Once, we had stopped on an image in 'Van Gogh'. There was a sort of bizarre shadow, very strange, which turned out to be that of the clapper-boy, who was standing in the field.
He Pialat stopped at that image and said to me: 'If all film images were like that, you could keep account of what you would have done. It was very enlightening. And then he left, because he was tired of taking for an hour and a half, because he realised that that was enough. He knew very well what he had done: he had filled you full of the mindset of Pialat. He was no longer actually there but I continued to work with him. He's the kind that can give you an injection of himself by telephone.
We played lots of games over the question of the order of scenes. A knife cut at the end and then finished. The scene order in 'Van Gogh' was also very varied. I had even found a way of making the film in flashback. The end was at the beginning, the woman saying: 'This was my friend. Maurice said: 'It's out of the question that we keep it this way but today we can begin the edit'.
He used this as a jumping- off point. It was very beautiful in itself, but it wasn't his way to make films in flashback; on the other hand, it laid open the belief that you could have this in a film. You told yourself: 'The film is do-able. He was not one of those who makes the image and then the sound. He refused dubbing as much as possible. There are some scenes that are incredibly empty of sound, almost unrealis- tic. He made a complete mockery of the rational approach of the technicians, and of their way of doing things.
If one of them said to him: 'At that time of day, you can't have so few cars', he would look at the image, listen to the actors talking and say: 'What, isn't there enough ambience there? Translation: Elizabeth Hardy. Antonin Artaud - Playwright, actor, director and theorist. One of the surrealists in the s his most famous text is 'Le theatre 32 Yann Dedet 3 et son double' The Theatre and its Double.
Created what has been termed 'TheTheatre of Cruelty'. Immensely influential on post-war theatre. His earlier work is more interesting, including two Kathehne Hepburn films, 'Alice Adams' and 'Woman of the Year' Modem Times - Charles Chaplin, The Great Dictator- Charles Chaplin, Paillard-Bolex eight millimetres - Before portable video, eight milli- metres was the gauge for home or amateur movies and the Bolex was the Rolls-Royce of this medium.
Original title 'Fangelse' and a very early work. Eight-and-a-half - Federico Fellini was the examination of his own fears and anxieties as a director, played by Marcello Mastroainni, struggles with a film he seems unable to bhng to fruition. Visconti at his operatic best. Yann's taste in music and literature is interestingly varied.
The composers are mostly well known though the writers less so. Moritone - This editing machine was a European version of the Hollywood Moviola, which was originally put together from projector parts, with an intermittent and very noisy movement. I learned to cut on the Moviola. Vaugirard - School of photography which gets its name from the part of Paris where it was situated.
Erostrate- It is a story by the existentialist philosopher and writer Jean- Paul Sartre, based on the myth of Herostratus. Playtime - Jacques Tati His third great film after 'Jour de fete' and ' Monsieur Hulot's Holiday' Maurice Pialat - Director, with whom Yann Dedet worked five times and whose work he particularly admires.
His elliptical style tends to occlude his staunchly humanist philosophy. Claudine Bouche - Editor for early films of the 'NewWave' and still cutting. Sweet Movie- Dusan Makavejev AYugoslav director who figures in the careers of three of the editors in this book: see also Tony Lawson and Sylvia Ingemarsson. Jean-Fran9ois Stevenin - Has made a varied career in French cinema from assistant directing to acting - notably the school teacher inTruffaut's 'Largent du poche' and more recently as a director of his own very particular films which at their best treat of everything but narrative thus evoking a world which hardly acknowledges the camera since it is so self- contained and sufficient to itself.
I totally concur with Yann's admiration for this other kind of movie. Cedric Kalin -Yann has cut four times for him notably 'LEnnui' in , 'Roberto Succo' in and most recently 'Feux rouges' in Manuel Poirier - Yann has been involved in three of his films, notably 'Western' in Claire Denis -Yann cut 'Nenette et Boni' for her in A very interest- ing director from her first film, 'Chocolat', to more recent work like 'Beau travail' Andre Bazin -The father of the French NewWave through his writing notably in Cahiers du cinema and thought which fed the passion of a whole generation of aspiring filmmakers and thus with Henri Langlois and the Paris Cinematheque the begetter of modern cinema.
Passe-montagne - Jean-Frangois Stevenin. Yann also edited 'Double Messieurs' , for Stevenin The latter returned it to Pialat's ten-year-old son at a screening in Cannes to commemorate the directors death. Henri Dutilleux - Composer born in , originally inspired by Debussy and Ravel, but developed his own style.
Became professor at Paris Conservatoire in Barrocco- Directed by Andre Techine, Lightworks - Name of a digital editing machine which until a few years ago was the machine of choice of many famous editors. Police- Maurice Pialat, Loulou- Maurice Pialat, It is one thing to put the rushes together efficiently.
It is quite another to transform the rhythm and form. He was always afraid of boring the audience and perhaps was too severe on some of his films as Yann Dedet suggests, but the willingness to be disrespectful of your own film is a healthy attitude in the edit suite. I spent several months on the editing of Shoot the Piano Player', I came to think of it as pas- sionately interesting work, and for the first time I began to mistreat the film, to knock it about. The editing of 'Jules et Jim' consisted in finding a 35 4 FrangoisTruffaut on Editing kind of equilibrium; will this bit of film go better after a scene of happiness or after a scene of unhappiness?
That was another work, special, exhilarating. So when you see Jean-Pierre Leaud firing several shots one after the other at Jean-Pierre Aumont, that came out of the montage because normally there was only one take but here, because we shot the scene six times, I realised we needed this sort of ballet at the end and I mounted all the gunshots one after the other. Editing is a very creative period because, as a rule, you can't afford to blunder.
A film can get ruined in the editing, but generally you do it a lot of good. And I likewise regretted not having been as strict and severe as in other montages: it should have had two more months' work tightening etc. Shoot the Piano Player- Tirez sur le pianiste - Truffaut, Jules et Jim - Truff a ut, 1 96 1. Interview by Pierre Blllard, Cinema 64 no. Day for Night [La Nuit americaine - Truffaut, 1 Interview In Jeune Cinema, no.
Sabine's career began when she knocked on the door of the cutting room of Abel Gance and that was the first of many wonderful experiences. Sabine's death at the end of last year made me realise how privileged I felt to have met her I hope this interview will stand as witness to her commitment and passion. I was born in Tunisia in and my motlier died at my birtli. My father had a garage, which pleased me very much because I could share something with Jacques Demy: we both had a father who owned a garage.
Movies and reading were the two things I liked most. I have to remind you that TV did not exist at that time. My step-sister was Genevieve, and it was something wonderful to imagine that she could be burned too.
I must have been very young - three or four - because it's one of my first memories: being at the movies and thinking it was true. Going to the movies was a joy, a reward, a passion; movies would magnify life, with actors being bigger than us. Jacques Baratier filmed Goha joining his lover at night, crossing a street from a village and entering the street of another village.
In the eyes of a little girl so curious about love, it was a secret unveiled. Life passed by, I wanted to be a movie star, have my name and my image big on the walls. It happened once, as I have been the star of Agnes Varda's ' Documenteur'. I was then living in LA, full time in love and didn't come to Paris.
As a teenager I discovered the Italian neo-realists, and the 'angry young men' whom I loved so much. Going to movies is still a feast. Living in Paris is lucky. There are directors, and the list would be long, that fill me with admiration.
Being able to see how a film is done, in terms of movement of camera, cuts, voice on or off, multiplies my pleasure and my admiration in looking at films. It's a pity not to be allowed anymore to stay in the cinema for the next performance. It is also important for me to go to movies when I am editing a film. When the film director with whom I am working is a friend, we go together with other friends.
Funnily enough, it again happened with another Kitano when we edited 'Drole de Felix". Going to movies helps me stay alert. I passed my baccalaureate when I was six- teen and a half, entered university, graduated one year and decided not to carry on. Though I had developed other passions than going to movies, as literature theatre and concerts, I wanted to work in the movies and I had to earn my living as I had left home and had no place of my own.
The sister of my parents' best friends was a famous editor for trailers and that's how I started. I entered a cutting room and really loved it: the smell, the noise of the 35mm perfor- ations on the Moviola, the white gloves, the taste of the film.
You remember, Roger, the feeling of the film in your mouth, there was the shiny side and the matt side, and the matt side is the one that sticks to the lips. In winter, if you had dry lips, it would take off a lit- tle of your skin.
It was enough to forget to check once and be called 40 Sabine Mamou 5 to the screening room because all the emulsion was scratched on 'la tete de lecture' playback head , and shame on you! When I look back on those times we would work ten hours a day, six days a week. As an apprentice I was not being paid as I was supposed to be learning.
I earned money working in dubbing the- atres. I remember a long summer when I subtitled 'zarzuelas', Spanish musicals. I also worked in laboratories which did opticals. I worked there for six months, in great admiration. I loved him and would imitate him in every gesture, trims around my neck sweeping the floor and smoking two packs of Gauloises a day. You may shudder as we were working on inflammable film that could ignite instantly.
When Gance shot 'Napoleon' in , sound in movies had not yet been invented, but he insisted that the actors should say their lines. So when sound was invented he could dub the film. This is part of his genius. So he re-cut the film and dubbed it. Now, in , he wanted some of the mute sequences that had not been inserted in the 'version parlante' to be part of the new version. For example the little boy on the battlefield beating his drum and when he is killed the sound of hail pouring on the drums replacing him.
He also inserted some of Napoleon's speech and I was able to see Albert Dieudonne in the theatre, dubbing himself over forty years after the shooting. By that time, I was engaged on, God knows what and couldn't work on the last version of 'Napoleon'. Then, one day, I was hired as an apprentice on a 35mm fiction film.
Spares and trims and trims and spares; after three of those six months apprenticeships, you'd earn a card from the National Centre of Cinema that said that you were an assistant. By that 41 5 Sabine Mamou time, I was fed up with tine editor working beinind a black curtain and the films I was working on films I would never go and see in the cinema.
So I quit editing for good and started travelling in a small truck with my lover, his basset, my Newfoundland dog and a library. It was even more than a dream, it was what I had sworn to myself. The future didn't count. I came back on the day a friend was looking for me to edit a short film by Mai Zetterling, who was looking for an editor who spoke English.
We met, I was an admirer, having seen the films she had performed in, when she was Bergman's actor, and the film she had directed. I guess my enthusiasm made up for my total lack of experience, she trusted me and I edited her film 'La DameAux Oiseaux'. Imagine, it was on the phone that she told me she'd meet me in the cutting room on Monday, a.
I asked her, 'Don't you want to see me before? I spent more than ten years working with her. Till now, I have problems with directors who cast editors. I have prob- lems with 'frileux' which translates into English as 'sensitive to the cold' and 'unadventurous'. In French it is one word. The problem with 'frileux' is that you tend to be 'frileux' as well. All I know, I have learned from her and the other film directors I have worked with. He asked me: 'Tell me, made- moiselle, why you want so much to edit my film?
Imagine I didn't even know his film was about Dadaism! So now that I look backwards I see a twenty- nine-year-old woman having coffee with Jean Schmidt who had responded to her love letter. My knowledge of his work and my admiration for it - documentaries were not so fashionable then - made him decide to choose me.
It was my first work on documen- taries and I realised we had to invent the structure, how you start, how you associate, how you finished the film. Nothing was taken for granted. My love for her is inextinguishable. Does such a word exist? Though I was overwhelmed with joy, I still made one phone call as I had heard that a man had recorded hundreds of hours with survivors of the Shoah. I didn't know then that it was Claude Lanzmann, author of 'Why Israel?
We finished at Christmas. For Christmas I offered Agnes a copy- book where I had written down all her day-dreams about a film being the shadow of 'Murs Murs'. She later on said in 'France Culture' that it was what made her decide to shoot the film, which was called ' Documenteur'. She said to me 'I saw you play with my son Matthieu yesterday and thought you could act in the film'.
I was very aware of the risk she was taking as I was not an actress, but I trusted her. She wanted to do a home movie: the characters of the film were her son, and friends of hers or mine. We would shoot and edit and shoot. What I lived through this film was being very close to the process of creating. Seeing Agnes shooting a feature film without any scenario.
I was living very close; my lover was an actor in the film and the assistant of the Director of Photography DP. The DP was one of my best friends, Nurith Aviv. Those times were among the happiest in my life; filled with wit and joy, laughter, energy, tenderness and passion. Like he would say 'Oh, I am late' and not move faster and say goodbye and be very polite.
I remember him when there was a big discussion in LA, everyone was talking and he was translating very, very peace- fully and very slowly to someone who couldn't get the whole thing and he was translating everything. This for me was incredible. I said: 'Oh but Jacques I'd rather be an assistant with you than an editor with anyone else'.
I liked very much the sound editor, Alan Bell. In I was thirty-four years old, Agnes Varda was back in Paris and 1 was still living in LA and full time in love. So I said 'Yes, right away'. He said 'Is there nothing to restrain you? Jacques Demy wanted me to begin before the shooting. We had to figure out the preparation for playback.
I remember being jet- lagged and understanding nothing. So 1 said 'I have never edited a musical in my life and I am lost'. You could feel all the stress, which filled the mixing room, flying away, as in fact it was what everyone was thinking. It was the time of the Palace, a nightclub, which was a kind of paradise on earth. Fortunately it would only start opening on Thursday - so from Thursday - we were three girls in the cutting room - we would arrive at work at a.
It was disco time, all glitter, and at p. He would say, 'Thursday Night Fever! It was very nice to spend the whole day with people and then call your lovers and all go out together. Yilmaz Guney was hiding - the Turkish police were looking for him. So it was like during the occupation moving from one appointment to another one - I entered the room and I saw a very beautiful man looking at me.
It was Yilmaz Guney. I went to the kitchen with him and his translator, and we started talking and the translator started laughing. Yilmaz Guney asked the translator why he was laughing and the translator said because we were supposed to get acquainted and he saw that Yilmaz Guney and I were talking as if we had known each other for a long time.
What a pity that sometimes now- adays, like in a fairy tale, you have to show 'white hands' to prove I don't know what. You had to prove nothing before. People are free or not - you feel you're accepted and then it's extraordinary - you feel you could die for them! You trust them, you admire them and then you want to go beyond yourself. I met a girl - a very strange girl in LA.
She asked me if I could see her short film. The film was very good. I said why is this shot upside down? She said because Jim Morrison says 'Head upside down'. So I am going home, phone me and I'll come and fetch you, you'll sleep at home or I'll drive you downtown'. I never heard from her again that night. I was anxious, never having edited a musical in my life.
I was phoning her everyday telling her I needed an apprentice who had already worked on a musical, and then I made up my mind and asked her to be my apprentice. This girl is Patricia Mazuy. She was very original. I have loved Yilmaz Guney immediately: he was an orien- tal prince to me. He had problems with the French crew. I loved the dinners, with the Turkish crew, the workers, the painters, all the kids and the women.
We had Greek food. I just loved it. I was with Patricia while the crew would eat outside. At one point there was a strike of the French crew. They couldn't cope with waiting for Yilmaz Guney to start shooting. They couldn't cope either with his attitude to the kids. I remember him slapping a boy because he was late for the shooting. So the boy cried and said he went to the village because it was his birthday.
Yilmaz Guney did not reply, but that night there was a super birthday party for the boy. I didn't go on strike with the French crew. I remember they were not happy with the script in Turkish, on which Yilamz Guney was still working. We finished the editing in Paris.
We immediately fired the transla- tor who was too slow and what he'd say would make no sense. We went on working, Yilmaz Guney not speaking French and I not speakingTurkish, but we understood each other. Patricia was an incredible first assistant on 'Le Mur'. I remember at a point there was no reel one.
I said to her: 'How come there is no reel one? So just call the reel two reel one'. So she said: 'No, reel two is reel two'. He had a court around him - men around him - a lot of men. You would hear them speaking Turkish and then pronounce Marx or Engels or Lenin and then go back to Turkish.
I didn't know which International they were preparing. Every nightVilmaz Guney would give dinner - every night we would go to a restaurant. I was invited with whoever I wanted and could bring as many friends as I wanted. He was very gentle and very generous. It would be impossible to evoke the almost religious atmosphere that prevailed. Up until then, it had seemed inconceivable to show a film without musical accompaniment.
In a huge theater [theatre] in Belleville, the Battleship Potemkin, left to its own devices, fascinated, returned as it was to its inherent rhythm, which no sound ventured forth to disturb. Jean Gruault There were two men with whom Truffaut shared the steadfast passion for silent cinema in a practical manner. By contrast, Truffaut considers the audiences of his generation and after to be a lot less impressionable.
I know only too well who mine was. But our true fathers, those that we would have chosen for ourselves, were the same, and we tried to be sons that were not too unworthy of them. Le Berre, , p. In all the films he made, he tried endlessly to reproduce his experience as a young spectator. His aim was to recover the emotions of this hidden personal film that had formerly been evoked by the works of the masters.
Their secret becomes merged with his own. With Jaubert, Truffaut went back to the origins of the masterpieces of his youth. For him, the choice of Chaplin was justified in many ways — as a homage to the genius of cinema, to silent cinema — but it was also determined at a deep level by the very subject matter of the film.
Jean Itard Truffaut. The establishing shot of the woman picking vegetables in the woodland is immediately grounded in the cinematic past with the use of the iris technique, a silent cinema trope which proliferates in the course of the film, as well as the silent cinema-esque black-and-white photography.
It is necessary to rediscover these techniques. A film about the secret of origins, The Wild Child also celebrates the origins of cinema itself. From the first shot, an iris aperture on a black screen isolates a peasant woman in a forest. It is through a female glimpse that the existence of the wild child is revealed. The camera draws back in a zoom, and an iris-out closes this first sight of the wild child. We have to wait until the final image in the movie before the child returns the gaze of which he is made the object at its opening.
Almendros in Gillain, , p. Summary It is through these rather disparate men of the cinema that Truffaut was able to foster his mission of giving silent cinema a sort of cinematic renaissance within his own work. Even though his study on film is chronological, I think it is fitting that the section on silent cinema begins the book. The efforts made by Truffaut to save cinema at this time are akin to the work of the French Impressionist film directors some thirty years earlier, a group which included Renoir and Gance.
According to Lanzoni, with demands being placed on all industries for the sake of the war effort, coupled with the immense influence of Hollywood, the French film industry would begin to recede. Lanzoni, , p. Ezra, , p. The cinema of fact and that of fancy, the cinema which observes and the cinema which imagines, continually co-exist and overlap.
Houston, , p. In doing so, he also partitions the group of French Impressionists as a whole. It is a well-established fact that Renoir exercised a considerable influence on Truffaut not just as a filmmaker but as a friend or, more profoundly, as a paternal figure for which Truffaut was constantly searching. De Hugues et al. This is an act which engenders happy hallucinations: she imagines she is holding, instead, a sparkler; and believes she can see a glorious sun, followed by twinkling Christmas tree lights in the sky.
However, these actions engender a madness in the male protagonist and fireman, Montag Oskar Werner , as the destruction of books brings about a consequent fear of the unknown, a state in which ignorance is not bliss. In his dream sequence, the flame is no longer seen as an image of salvation, but instead, destruction.
After previously going out on patrol, Montag had witnessed the scene of the woman book collector who wished to die in her house, surrounded by her books. The books are set aflame and, unsettlingly, she appears to float blissfully in the air while engulfed by the flames. Gillain, referencing the words of Truffaut himself, demonstrates how the snow sequence came from a simple concept, one which was fostered with silent cinema in mind: As far as [Shoot] The Piano Player is concerned, I think that I made it on account of a single image.
I wanted to re-create this image. The final lingering shot shows Louis and Marion leaving the temporary security of the cabin behind. As they walk away hand-in-hand, they naturally stumble in the snow. Gillain talks about the Renoirian imagery surrounding the painful union of man and woman: Dedicated to Renoir, Mississippi Mermaid alludes to a passage from La Marseillaise in which the revolutionary and royalist troops fraternize instead of fighting with one another.
Such a return to unity is difficult, full of conflict, and painful […] Gillain, , p. Je ne regrette rien. Remplis- le. Monaco, , p. His originality in La Peau Douce lies in his extraordinary capacity to combine severely restrained, impartial observation of his characters with a real sympathy and sensitivity to their problems.
Allen, , p. The theme of the vamp, of the femme fatale, subjugating an honest man to the point of making a rag-doll out of him, had been treated by all the cineastes I admire. I said to myself that I must too […] Truffaut in Monaco, , p. One way in which this sexuality is expressed on film is through the fetishisation of female footwear. There is also a scene in which Nana recklessly plays billiards with the expensive presents received from her lovers.
Moreover, there is a scene in which Nana is getting changed after her bath and her mistress helps her into casual boots. A close-up focuses on the shoes and the bottom of her bare legs before we notice her towel has dropped to the floor, after which she is aided into her dress by the servant. Count Muffat Werner Krauss is playfully disciplined by Nana and forced to crawl around on the carpet like a dog, in a position of sexual submissiveness.
Mais je suis incapable de les tourner. Le noir et le blanc sont devenus gris. Tu crois que tu es une vraie personne, que tu es unique. Vous ne passez pas devant une voiture sans vous regarder dans le pare-brise. Ma patronne me disait : « Regardez, Marion, regardez bien.
However, due to her youthful features, she could pass for a considerably lower age, hence why she is particularly suitable for the latter role. She was a curious creature, at once mechanical and living, ethereal and sensuous. But it seems to me that Renoir saw her less as a director than as a painter. Enchanted by the unique beauty of her body and her face, he worried less about directing the actress in her dramatic role than he did about photographing the woman from every possible angle.
Bazin, , p. Puis je piquais des billets dans son portefeuille et je finissais toujours par partir avec le portefeuille. Entre les rondes des gardiennes, on faisait des concours de masturbation. Before she puts on her makeup, she takes a brief, hard look at her reflection, her chin rested on her hand, filmed in an over-the-shoulder shot.
In the shot, we are presented with an irregular eye-match, with the corpse remaining in the scene as a mirror reflection only. He finally ends up painfully repeating his own name which highlights his own identity crisis. Itard, placed behind the boy, offers him an apple, the reflection of which the boy sees in the mirror.
Here, as in Fahrenheit , the apple of knowledge is set in direct relation to cultural objects. The wild child grabs it, with the intention of eating it. This action, reflected in the mirror, marks his potential access to the status of a subject, whereas the preceding scene had reduced him to the condition of an object, naked on an examining table.
I mean, you visit friends performing on the stage, you watch them from the wings, you feel the fascination. They discuss refusing an actor for the lead role because of his Jewish heritage. Renoir in Bazin et al. Bazin in Bazin et al. While Truffaut too was interested in commercial success, it is curious how, in favour of artistic freedom, Truffaut decided not to move with the tide and, instead, with the cooperation of his long-serving cameraman, Nestor Almendros, went to great lengths to create the effects of silent days.
In wanting to authentically render the iris punctuation technique, Truffaut and Almendros sought out a piece of original equipment: an antediluvian vestige Gillain, , p. Attached to the film are two quotations which I believe are somewhat applicable to Truffaut. Truffaut, a paroxysm himself, burst on to the film scene at the time of the eclectic film landscape in the late s and early s, on the cusp of the social revolution which would occur in the mid to late s.
Moreover, the work of Gance and Dreyer was an inspiration to Truffaut by virtue of their technical innovations in cinema which allowed them to explore deeply the different facets of human emotion. Most notable is that of Hollywood. Cinema as entertainment industry, and cinema as art, were not mutually exclusive categories. Working within and against the genre codes of the popular cinema was seen not as a constraint but as a further creative possibility.
As in the case of his colleagues Chabrol, Godard, Rivette and Rohmer, the period spent as a critic constantly engaged in the analysis and evaluation of films allowed Truffaut to formulate a view of what film should be which he was subsequently able to put into practice. Initially, this title may seem something of an oxymoron. The tropes of silent cinema are completely lost or rejected by modern sound filmmakers. Moreover, as Gillain , p. While not completely silent, these children express themselves of necessity more through actions.
Taking the aforementioned issues into consideration, what follows is a more thorough analysis of the work of Hitchcock and Chaplin respectively, and its impact on Truffaut as a filmmaker. My father sent me to the police station with a note. But this slight imperfection did not warrant the major changes that sound brought in. In other words, since all that was missing was simply natural sound, there was no need to go to the other extreme and completely abandon the technique of the pure motion picture, the way they did when sound came in.
The whole approach to this film was instinctive with me. It was the first time I exercised my style. In truth, you might also say that The Lodger was my first picture. Hitchcock had spent some time working at the prestigious UFA studios in the early s, during which time he had become acquainted with prominent film directors of the day, namely F. Murnau and Fritz Lang, who were working in the aforementioned tradition of German Expressionism.
These visual elements of film style combine with exaggerated performance techniques in stories with macabre or lowlife settings and themes. Hitchcock explains the mechanics of this scene: In his room the man paces up and down.
You must remember that we had no sound in those days, so I had a plate-glass floor made through which you could see the lodger moving back and forth, causing the chandelier in the room below to move with him. Naturally, many of these visual devices would be absolutely superfluous today because we would use sound effects instead.
The sound of the steps and so on. Of note is a particular scene channelling the German Expressionist chiaroscuro effect of manipulating light and shadow, where Julie is in the church confessional. A crucifix-like image is created on her face by the light shining through the confessional window bars, as she explains to the priest that hunting the men is part of a missionary-like path from which she cannot deviate. As we learn towards the end of the film, the lodger is also endowed with a personal mission to avenge a death, that of his sister, one of the murder victims.
This theme reaches its climax when Montag and his men ride out to search the house of a suspected book-possessor — and it turns out to be his own. This sequence, using multiple superimposed shots, shows Julie as a child out to play in her wedding dress, playing the record which becomes a recurrent device in the scenes in which, as an adult, she murders the male victims.
The two head profiles moving from side-to-side, with the motion of the vehicle, captured in the two circular windows gives the viewer the impression of a face, with the eyes moving warily from left to right. Concerning The Lodger, it is important to note that this was the first film in which Hitchcock made his trademark cameo appearance, something which Truffaut would re-create in some of his own films.
Hitchcock talks of the function of this device: It was strictly utilitarian; we had to fill the screen. Later on it became a superstition and eventually a gag. In the films of Hitchcock and Truffaut, one can also perceive a mutual interest in the influence of female sexuality over men. He stares in wonder, as the camera provides a panning point-of-view shot from his perspective.
Julie feigns the identity of a model in order that she can get close to Fergus before she kills him. This theme is further developed in a scene where Daisy, the love interest, is taking a bath. Rising steam from the bath helps to conceal her partial nudity as she undresses before performing her ablutions. Moreover, Daisy, as a model in the film, is presented to us in a variety of showgirl outfits. Concerning La peau douce as a whole, Truffaut talks of the simplicity of its genesis: The Soft Skin originated from an image…of a couple in a taxi.
I could see it as taking place around pm. They are intending to have dinner. They are not married or, if they are married, they are married, with children, to someone else, an incredibly carnal kiss takes place in this taxi, in the midst of a big city. Holmes and Ingram mention the further proximity of La peau douce to the cinema of Hitchcock: La Peau douce is a tale of misplaced passion and adultery, a crime passionnel culminating in a violent murder.
While it is true that the film again owes much to Hitchcock — tension and suspense, often with nightmarish overtones, pervade many of the sequences, even the seemingly banal such as the race to the airport; the film is shot in black and white and is mostly situated in an urban environment […] Holmes and Ingram, , p. This is perhaps best exemplified by the opening title sequence in which a series of different coloured zoom shots focus on a multitude of TV aerials, while the credits are not made visual but are rather narrated by actor, Alex Scott.
Not him. His style was different. But the story is about a couple getting together, a theme he always followed. At no time, for instance, is the camera placed where the audience would be if the shooting had been done from the stage, but rather as if the camera had been set up in the wings. The characters never move sideways; they move straight toward the camera, more systematically than in your other pictures. The photography also suggests the German influence.
Simsolo describes this method: […] he [Hitchcock] started something that would be recurrent later on, which was to order extremely big sets or enlarged objects for particular scenes. He had this idea that anything could be done in cinema — sets, all sorts of objects, models, anything at all to achieve movement, smoothness and rhythm. And he did. It was praised by Rohmer and Chabrol in their book. It was the first time that had ever happened to me.
For instance, there was a little party one evening after a boxing match. The champagne is poured out and it is all bubbly. And so the champagne goes flat. The close-up shot of the wedding ring on the hand in The Ring is similar to a shot Truffaut includes in La peau douce. There are also some innovative superimposition techniques in The Ring, such as the scene where the characters visualise the face on the boxing balloon, and the superimposition device highlighting the headiness of the party scene.
Bitsch et al. Truffaut in Bazin, , p. However, many of the films contain Chaplin-esque references. His own hardship as a somewhat neglected child undoubtedly had an impact on the film treatment of children and neglectful mothers, thinking particularly of Les quatre cents coups. They are bundles of energy and pain, triumph and loss. This is a film about the tramp heading north to join in the Klondike gold rush, meanwhile being fettered by a blizzard, and forced to share a cabin with inhospitable company.
There is a scene in which Doinel leaves his son, Alphonse Julien Dubois , on a train. Doinel then promptly turns to leave. The boisterous accompanying title music by composer Georges Delerue, even conjures up images of the circus, or perhaps more poignantly, the vaudevillian or music-hall tradition, the point of accession into the world of performance arts for Chaplin, as for many of his contemporaries. Stam , p. This intertextual allusiveness, which almost entirely vanished in the final draft of the screenplay, reflects […] a desire to anchor the story in the cinematic past.
It is curious how, for obvious reasons, she is keeping her identity mostly secret, but she is, all the same, willing to confide in the boy, presumably because of his estimable innocence and uncorrupted nature. In a similar vein is the appearance of the boy filmmaker in Une belle fille comme moi, who unwittingly solves a crime through his love of filmmaking. Itard Truffaut seeks to educate and domesticate a young boy who has been living an untamed existence in the forest.
As previously noted, this is a film about a French writer and First World War veteran, Julien Davenne Truffaut who becomes transfixed by the notion of keeping the memory of his dead friends and relatives alive.
Rambaud Jeanne Lobre. There is a wonderful scene in which Davenne is taking a wet shave in front of his bathroom mirror. Collet, , p. This is evident, not just in the aforementioned film references, but also in the substantial amount of writing that Truffaut devotes to them. McCarthy in Bergala et al. Firstly, Lefebvre in Andrew and Gillain, , p. Lefebvre , p. Truffaut analogizes this collection of photographs to the notion of categorising his favourite auteurist directors, whom he wanted to make the object of his own metaphoric museum.
His love of auteurs was such that he would go as far as defending even their failed work. Lefebvre, , p. For the spectator who notices them as repetitions to be sure these are somewhat marginal details, not easily picked up until pointed out , Truffaut appears to be quoting himself, creating an allusive connection between his films. However, while Hitchcock included cameos of himself which took on a utilitarian function at the beginning of his silent tenure in The Lodger before transforming variously into a gag and a superstition Hitchcock in Truffaut, , p.
Ultimately, Truffaut , p. Crucially, Lefebvre , p. Perhaps this is the Big Secret, after all. These are films which, although potentially considered protracted by their detractors, focus intently on evoking the spectrum of human emotions in their unashamedly soundless images. Both films achieve this, to various degrees, in their use of visual experimentation. The essay is prefaced with the words: In Jules et Jim , the eponymous characters travel to a sculpture garden on an island in the Adriatic in search of an ancient statue.
The men soon find what they are looking for: a carving of a woman with an enigmatic smile. The sculpture is from another time and another place, and the fascination it holds for the men is inextricably bound up with the temporal and geographical excavation they must perform or, at least, imagine in order to access it.
The fact that Jules et Jim is a costume drama, combined with the fact that the sound is entirely postsynchronous, imposes a certain sense of belatedness on the viewing experience. Belatedness informs the film in many ways. During their first trip together, to the coast, Jim, Jules, and Catherine pretend to be archeologists searching for a lost civilization.
They unearth and pocket discarded objects cans, cigarettes, broken china that they find buried in the sand. This is an apt image for a film preoccupied with the return of the past. Benjamin posits a complex yet highly revelatory definition of memory: [It] is the medium of past experience, just as the earth is the medium in which dead cities lie buried. Benjamin, , p. Jules and Jim are acting not only as artists, but also as archaeologists of their own lives, at the very least ensuring their place in posterity, and so making the job easier for archaeologists of the future.
Yet, sometimes these reflections belie the fact that Truffaut was escaping to the cinema, away from the trappings of a neglectful childhood, coupled with the fact that these recollections had for a backdrop war-torn, Occupation-era France. In this sense, the cinema Moreover, Ezra , p.
Ezra , p. Later he develops the film. Vacche , p. Their shared search for a lost utopian origin found an outlet through the screen. In a more general sense, by returning use to the ground zero of childhood through the nonjudgemental vision of the camera eye, the cinema can engender fresh emotions, while it can also open us up to existential discoveries, ranging from curiosity towards otherness to the acceptance of differences.
The direction of children in cinema aims at turning spectators into desiring, flexible, and intuitive beings, in clear contrast with the mature, well-centered [centred], rational, and all-knowing adults whose skepticism [scepticism] or discriminating eye might impede the redeeming powers of imagination and the healing transformation of memories.
Vacche, , p. We see him sneaking into the dark of the movie theater, a safe environment where he can match his absence from himself with moving images that are, like him, absent presences. Without an authentic life, Antoine finds one at the movies. He struggles to turn himself upside down, but manages only to reach the fetal position.
Suddenly the rows of spectators observing him from above are seen from his point of view, from the inside out, until their faces dissolve, disfigured into a dizzying blur. For once relinquishing his directorial gaze, Truffaut himself joins his young actor inside the rotating drum which, looked at from outside in, resembles the zoetrope. Why did Truffaut stage this archeology of cinema and place himself right there onstage within it? The laws of physics make no distinction among hierarchies of living creatures: neither age nor power count.
Everything submits to this centrifuge in what amounts to an equalizing scientific experiment with director and actor serving as commensurable organisms. Indeed, Chaplin is revealed as a deity figure for Truffaut who shared the pains and struggles of an unorthodox childhood and tried to overcome them via the means of physical comedy.
Like a child, but playing with his lethal hands, he cannot quite distinguish good from evil either. Intrigued by how a plucked flower floats in the water, he unwittingly kills the innocent Maria, thrown into the lake as if she were another blossom. While I am largely content with my findings on Truffaut and silent cinema, the attempt to uncover a singular secret perdu was vexing. I have had to make peace with the fact that the meaning of le secret perdu, according to the film literature I have explored and my own observations, is multivalent.
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