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      This resistance increased with new attempts to integrate mechanical reproduction into the domain of the artistic. If that was a failure, its history is interesting in itself. I was looking for him in the delegation of Russian ilm artists and scholars visiting Bombay. A man with an intense and meditative expression caught my eye. He wore glasses, was of medium height, with a high forehead, a compact body and gentle manner.

      I observed him, unobtrusively I thought, but he had noticed it. We exchanged faint, complicit smiles. He had to be Naum. And so he was! From that point, the thread of word- less understanding runs till today. If I were to mention only one quality of Naum that I ind out- standing, it would be neither his vast erudition, nor his fantastic mind, nor his insatiable curiosity, nor his generosity, nor his joie de vivre, nor his capacity to love and connect with people, but to really listen to them.

      His listening is an intense activity — an act of almost Yogic concentration. As he listens to you, your thoughts arrange themselves, like iron ilings aligning along the magnetic lines of force. Naum can draw the unborn, unthought thoughts out of you, with the love, patience and tenderness of a Socratic midwife.

      Since getting the books that I needed for my study was dificult in the U. By the time I left Moscow, there was a ninety-kilo hillock of rare books on his table; one day, this enchanted hillock lew into my study in Bombay. I still have the age-yellowed notes of our unending conversa- tions and wonder whether we worked together for ive weeks or ive months! A picture of Eisenstein began to emerge for me. It was like looking at a mural in a vast Ajanta cave, in the light of a sin- gle luttering candle, with images coming into light, passing into darkness; an image of the compassionate Buddha appear- ing and disappearing.

      A vague sensation has now grown into a conviction…not just one Archimedean Point, but many. He wrote: The language was very dificult… the hardest thing was un- derstanding the way of thinking … by which Oriental turns of phrases, sentences, word formations and word outlines are con- structed. Three of the fundamental concepts of his aesthetics emerged out of this study: montage, montage cell, and monistic ensemble.

      With these, he built a sensuous-conceptual hanami- chi, or Flower Bridge,6 between Japan and his world. Such Flower-paths had also reached the Indian shores7 and Eisenstein was the most revered artist-thinker for us.

      In the his- tory of colonial India, our inest artworks were nothing more than The Much Maligned Monsters8 to the Europeans. Eisen- 2 S. Eisenstein, Selected Works. Writings, , ed. It is a long, raised platform left of centre, from the back of the theatre, through the audience, to connect with the main stage. Generally used for entrances and exits and asides of the actors or scenes taking place apart from the main action. As India and the U. Though Indian culture did not play a major role in his world-view, each one of his references to it is a penetrating insight.

      He made us look at our culture anew. He had learnt from many non-European civilisations and in each of them, he found an Archimedean Point, to turn some part of the Eurocentric world upside down. From , he trav- elled to Europe, the US, and Mexico, returning only in This experience provided him the physical and mental space to look within from without.

      He also met some of his greatest con- temporaries and exchanged ideas with them. All this provided him with many signiicant perspectives on art and the sources and process of creativity. Eisenstein experienced the grandeur and immensi- ty of the Pre-Columbian landscape architecture and sculpted space.

      He had used the wide-angle lenses in Strike,10 General contact with the Indian art used to regard the many-headed Indian deities as monsters. It took centuries before these works could be appreciated in their true signiicance and grandeur; though, admittedly, some of the British administrators did a lot for their discoveries and preservation. London: Thames and Hudson, , Khopkar - The Flower Bridge and The Archimedean Points Line,11 and even in October, to stretch space, but there was a qualitative shift in what he created in the Mexican footage and thereafter in Ivan the Terrible.

      He used the wide-angle lens- es and pan-focus consistently for the construction of oneiric, even hallucinatory visions not seen before in cinema. In terms of a kinaesthetic experience of monumentality, Western sculpture does not have much on the scale of Assyr- ian, Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Pre-Columbian, Buddhist in- cluding the brutishly destroyed Bamiyan Buddhas , Persian Persepolis , Khmer Angkor Wat or the Indian monolithic cave temples of Elephanta and Ellora.

      Just as Eisenstein took from other civilisations, he gave to them generously. On the same page there are two more examples from Strike. The great Indian ilmmaker, Ritwik Ghatak was deeply inlu- enced by Eisenstein. He used wide-angle lenses for all his ilms. From ilm to ilm, his lens-angles became wider. He used 9.

      The monumental com- positions of the 9. In one particular shot, Ghatak framed three heads, the frontal face of a young boy lanked by two proiles of women, evoking the famous three-headed gigantic sculpture of Lord Shiva, in the Elephanta Cave temple near Bombay.

      Anne Zouboff, ed. Ted Perry London: Methuen , These heads, … twenty feet high, are smaller than those of the Bayon in Angkor; but colossal in comparison to the igures around them, they ill the cave as Pantocrator ills the Byzantine cathed- rals of Sicily. Like the Pantocrator, this Shiva stops below the shoulders without becoming a bust. Hence its disturbing aspect of severed head and divine apparition.

      A full face and two monumental proiles, whose planes …are worthy of the highest work of art…This igure belongs …to the domain of the great symbols, and what this symbol expresses, it alone can express. It dovetails with a much broader framework of music of landscape in Nonindifferent Nature. Una visione rifratta delle rilessioni sul colore di S.

      Eisenstein was happily out- side the ambit of the U. Chinese civilisation was also a major inluence of Eisen- stein. Mei had toured the US in and had met Charles Chaplin, who had spoken to Eisenstein about Mei,23 who had a tremendous impact on the avant-garde of the twentieth century. These books by Min Tian deal with the most important intercultural relationships between the Occidental and Chinese theatre.

      They help us understand better, not only Eisenstein, but also Brecht, Tretiakov and Meyerhold, four giants of the twentieth century art. In Kathakali,26 a great Indian dance-drama, the men perform female roles even today, in a stylised gesture language and manage to convey exquisitely the feminine emo- tions and actions, even breastfeeding, in the most reined way without pretending to be women.

      In Maharashtra, Balgandarva, a male actor playing female roles, set the template for women, from speech, gestures, gait to hair styles in the early decades of the twentieth century. The Indian dance-form, Bharatnatyam, which used to be performed by Devdasis, women attached to temples, is considered one of the most sensuous dance forms. Its great gurus have been almost exclusively men. Like cinematic mentioned earlier, imagicity is a key concept for Eisenstein, which he never freezes.

      These two books have excellent essays on the dance-drama. He had begun to feel that it was the source culture from which Japan had learnt a great deal. Along with cinematic and imagicity Eisenstein speaks of polysemie of the Peking Opera, wherein a simple object like a table becomes a staircase, a mountain, to a stool, a bed, etc.

      It splits into Yin, the female, and Yang, the male principle. This is a social unity splitting into Yin and Yang. If the division between the sexes were the cause of the irst division of labour, then how come only in Ancient China it became so important? Shiva, mentioned earlier, in an androgyne. He is symbolically represented in union with his consort Shakti the female force.

      Their icon is the union of an erect phallus lingam penetrating a vagina yoni. Another form in which they are represented is called Ardhanaarishwar, half-man, half-woman God. All classical Indian artistic creation in theatre, dance, painting or sculpture,36 oscillates between the feminine aspect, lasya: curvaceous, graceful, gentle and feminine, and tandava: the masculine aspect, virile, powerful, muscular and aggressive.

      One of the paths that leads to this Lord is called Tantra. Without going into greater detail here, sufice it to say that the highest aim of this path is ecstasy. But the Indian female principle, Shakti — literally power or energy — also has its terrible and destructive aspect in Kali, the dark Goddess, like the Greek Furies.

      He deines the aesthetic bliss as the co-uterine, as the ecstatic bliss Brahmananda, the joy of feeling one with the universe. From Yin and Yang, in Pair — Impair 39 we come to their speciic application to numbers — odd impair Yang and even pair Yin.

      They always reveal something concrete, new and valuable about how a work of art is created and experienced. Eisenstein explores the relation- ship between the pre-logical and the logical thinking and in the process, discusses magical thinking, animism, sensuous versus logical thought and even histories of philosophy and literature. Features, considered functional at one stage, recur as expressive at another. Khopkar - The Flower Bridge and The Archimedean Points sphere, where bodily needs are never experienced and gravi- tational force is nonexistent.

      Ancient China, with its pantheistic world view, was the irst civilisation to devote centuries to the development of landscape painting. The Tao of Painting42 has instructions about painting natural phenomenon from rocks to insects. The Chinese paint- ers organised each element of painting, through the conceptual framework of Yin and Yang and brought astonishing visual uni- ty to their paintings.

      These were at once the pictures of nature and expressive rhythmic patterns. Should there be a question as to which has a wider appeal the answer would undoubtedly in favour of calligraphy. In this cultivation and appreciation of pure witchery of line and beauty of composition, therefore, the Chinese have an absolute freedom and entire devotion to pure form as such, as apart from content.

      A painting has to con- vey an object but a well-written character conveys only its own beauty of line and structure. In this absolutely free ield, every variety of rhythm has been experimented upon and every type of structure has been explored. Anyone who has gazed at the walls full of calligraphic wonders in Alhambra in Granada, in the great mosques of Persia, Turkey and India, and the manuscripts in the Topkapi, Malik National museum of Iran, the calligraphic scrolls in Peking and Taipei museums will know what man can do without painting igures — he can evoke every conceivable form in the universe through the calligraphic line.

      I started my essay with my meeting with Naum in They show us the highest peaks of twentieth-century aesthetics achieved by a visionary who sought the science in art and looked for art in science. I await at least one more volume, Rezhissura, on the art of direction, in the next few years and many more in the springs to come. Let Naum live a hundred springs and more to fulil what he alone sees now and what we will all wait to see.

      I had a vague picture of Eisenstein decades back. Now this great gift of Naum and his colleagues, lets the world see the thinker-artist emerging like a colossus out of the waters of his creation. His passion, compassion, and wisdom overlow the barriers between forms of life, races, cultures, continents, art- forms, ethics and aesthetics. In such times, artists are the antennae of universal conscience. Only love and beauty can save nature and culture.

      Tagore started painting at sixty- seven, with crossing out words from his poems and joining them with lines in spontaneous forms and shapes. The ilm is about a taxi-driver and his decrepit taxi, liv- ing in a hill-station in close proximity of the animistic tribe of Oraons. The man and his machine are depicted as a couple deeply in love with each other. Her headlights become her expressive eyes, seen through the mist of the valley. When her owner gives a free ride to a beautiful damsel in distress, the taxi refuses to budge and glares furiously with her headlights.

      As this old taxi gives up the ghost, the accompanying death-rattle of the mechanical sounds is full of deep sorrow. A resurrection moment comes when, after selling the taxi as junk, the owner hears the sound of her rubber horn. In the distance, veiled in morning mist, is a smiling child honking the old-fash- ioned rubber horn of the taxi, which sounds like the irst cry of a newborn infant.

      One generation passeth away, and anoth- er generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever. With the damage of Chernobyl still fresh and burning, some members of the audience were wiping their eyes when the ilm ended. This, I think is what attracts people all over the world to Eisenstein. They listen to him for he listened to the voices of their civilisation.

      His words, inshallah,45 will be reborn, with new lives, on new soils and in new tongues. The words of a dead man Are modiied in the guts of the living. He was a nobleman and engi- neer corps oficer, born in Ukraine, who fought World War I in the tsarist army and in October sided with the revolution.

      At that time he was also known as a radical Futurist poet and au- thor of the irst book written in any language about Picasso. After that, Aksenov was basically unemployed and had few friends and no money. The latter circumstance had for a long time not been a concern. When his family estate and the income from it disappeared in the smoke of the Revolution, irst the army and then government as- signments had provided him a living.

      From his literary activities he earned, of course, nothing. Ivan Aksenov and Russian Modern- ism, is forthcoming. A rare photo of Aksenov provided, of course, by Naum He published a few articles but the history he wrote to mark the ifth anniversary of the theater in was banned by the censorship.

      His lectures on the theory and history of drama were evidently not documented, despite the fact that they were followed attentively by a class of young men and women who would set their stamp on Soviet theater and ilm for decades. K] lectures were mirages and dreams. Notes were frantically jotted down.

      Flavours, colours, sounds. A gold haze over everything. A secret within a secret. A veil behind a veil. Despite the extensive research that has been done on the s in recent decades, there are still many doc- uments in the Russian archives waiting to be read and inter- preted.

      Jane Gary Harris, trans. He was gone for almost six months. When Aksenov returned to Moscow toward the end of he resumed contact with the theatrical world. But it involved a surprising volte-face. Back in Moscow Ivan Aksenov inally witnessed the appear- ance of the book he had been writing the past few years, and he was even paid a modest fee.

      Gary Smith Cambridge, Mass. A scan of the title page of the Hamlet book «goblet» the spirit of the restoration and its appropriation of the cultur- al heritage. Nevertheless, in certain respects the author set his stamp on the new book. Its title, which on the title page was in the form of a typographical baroque goblet, was in its entirety: HAMLET and other essays to assist our Shakespeare scholarship on the subjects of bear baiting, pirate editions, blood vendettas, on Mr. On the class nature of the dogma of divine predestination, and also on many other remarka- ble and edifying things.

      The opening essay is a broad introduc- tion to the Elizabethan age that describes the breakthrough of capitalism in English society and theater world and the emer- gence of the individual as the focal point in the new drama be- ing created at the time. Shakespeare and his environs—from his predecessor Christopher Marlowe through writers Aksenov had translated, including John Webster, Cyril Tourneur and John Ford—are rapidly sketched in a series of colorful portraits.

      In the essay on Hamlet Aksenov presents a method of his own for analyzing drama that he calls thematic, modeled not on literary theory but on musicology. As his starting point he takes the fact that the Formalists lacked tools for analyzing the theater. It can only be analyzed in relation to the stage produc- tion. The central notion in theater consists of the situations that are directly or indirectly presented in the text.

      These situations constitute an overarching theme: By this word we will mean the verbally formulated scenic task that determines the successive actions of the actors over the course of the entire composition the main theme or its individual components derivative and secondary themes. A theme can both be expressed by the words of the script in the form of a maxim and derived from a series of successively uttered word groups, as what comprises the subject they have in common.

      This deinition of a theme is not entirely like what musicians are familiar with, and it differs signiicantly from the methods and means by which music combines various dramatic themes. The 7 Aksenov, Gamlet i drugie opyty, Kleberg - Ivan Aksenov, Shakespeare and Ben Jonson basic distinction lies in the fact that different types of dramatic themes tonalities can sound simultaneously a mix of comedy and tragedy without leading to a common tonality.

      For a play to be popular it needed to contain three levels: a lyrical-erotic level, one of suspense or adventure, and a third that was coarsely comical. The motley audiences of the time demanded different things from the theater and there had to be something for everyone. Shakespeare was a master at tying all the levels together into a single whole. In Hamlet the opposite situation obtains: the suspense level and the theme of revenge have taken over.

      The plot of the tragedy is thoroughly symmetrical. Laertes represents the dying age, Fortin- bras the new; Hamlet is torn between them. As proof he submits that the symmetry is imperfect, which is of course what his argument set out to demonstrate.

      The critic does not seem to be bothered by the circularity of his reasoning. His answer is that it is meaningless to attempt to rework the content of the tragedy into the triumph of socialism over bourgeois individualism. The vitality of the play is on a completely different level. What is interesting in Shakespeare is not his ideology but the dynamism of his writing. From him we take the passion of struggle and passion of criticism of the obsolete, the passion of fearless analysis and his relentless inquiry.

      And it is possible and even easier than it seems to bring this to the contemporary spectator. We must reject the notion that classic works—the legitimate legacy of centuries of efforts of human thought—are some sort of contraband that can only be disseminated in the Soviet Union on the condition that they be charged some sort of special punitive tariff or stamped with a counterfeit trademark.

      All the same, it will not be possible to fool precisely those whom such things were intended to fool. Its tone, however, differs from that of his earlier writings. Speak- ing here is no longer the aphoristic critic but a lecturer with informative digressions, references to previous authorities and a moderate measure of entertaining anecdotes and ironic winks to his audience.

      His breathing is slower and his style lacks the abrupt breaks or cryptic wording of his earlier works. What Benjamin called the restoration period meant new job opportunities in the cultural ield. One interesting phenomenon typical of the early s was the publishing house Academia spelled with Latin letters. With its extensively annotated new translations in the Treasury of World Literature series it satis- ied the new political demand for living classics at the same time as it provided employment to highly qualiied philologists and translators from the prerevolutionary period.

      In something of a Shakespeare boom erupted in the So- viet Union. After all, he was the author of a book on Hamlet and, although critics sensitive to the political climate in had passed it over with indifference, the wind had now shifted. As so often before, however, Aksenov was in the wrong place. He wanted this perennial runner-up to Shakespeare to inally get redress. Louis: Telos Press, , Ak- senov Moscow—Leningrad: Academia, , A scan of the title page of part 1 of the Ben Jonson edition.

      All of this is reinforced by a swarm of historical bric-a-brac and glances into interesting events and persons of the time. He limited himself to a jocular dialogue preceding one of the masques. The author and the architect set designer and director discuss plans for implementing the com- pleted text.

      Let the audience igure it out. Meyerhold had a pre- decessor more than three hundred years ago. As a contributor to Academia, Aksenov regularly attend- ed meetings of its editorial committee and was allotted special ration cards. The proposal came from Gustav Shpet. Now he had found a refuge with Aca- demia. The thing is that on the 3rd there will be a public reading and discussion of Shakespeare translations.

      In the next breath Aksenov mentions a person who was pre- pared to do what he could to prevent him from working on the 15 Ben Dzhonson, Dramaticheskie proizvedeniia, Smirnov was a prominent philologist from Leningrad, actually a specialist in Romance languages and literatures, but also an expert on the Shakespearean age. There were, in fact, grounds for both disagreement and competition between Aksenov and Smirnov.

      There was also another, more import- ant reason for the conlict between the two men. Aleksandr Smirnov was an ambitious and pedantic philologist who had staked his entire academic prestige on forcing through his own ideas about how Shakespeare should be read and what modern Russian translations of his works should look like.

      Smirnov, Tvorchestvo Shekspira Leningrad: Izd. Kleberg - Ivan Aksenov, Shakespeare and Ben Jonson regarding them as simply suppliers of texts that needed to be constantly checked and corrected. As far as he was concerned, Ivan Aksenov was a savage who lacked a degree—unless one counted the one from the military college—and whose erudi- tion was enormous, but unsystematic and idiosyncratic.

      For his part, Aksenov must have viewed Smirnov as a bookworm. During the years of the Shakespeare boom Ivan Aksenov was able to publish a number of articles, which Susanna Mar after his death collected from various journals and had printed in a volume entitled Shakespeare. Essays Shekspir. Recognition as an expert on Shakespeare, however, also meant that his contribution to the history of the Russian avant-garde was eventually erased together with knowledge about the movement in general.

      We are sure that this equation with two unknowns will be solved incorrectly. Obituaries emphasized his many-sidedness but devoted al- most all their attention to his contributions to the Shakespeare scholarship that was currently so important. What few people were aware of when Ak- senov died was that the published books were only a minor part of his works.

      He left behind a number of completed manuscripts that had languished for years with various publishers or were quite simply rejected. Most of the others had to wait until the major two-volume edition of his works in Portrait of the Artist Sergei Eizenshtein. Po- trtret khudozhnika , published by Naum Kleiman in Moscow in A more well known silhouette by the artist S.

      Medvedevsky, scan from the original. Every one of his essays contains the idea for a book, every book a suggestion for a series. His humor incomprehensible. Akse- nov himself, misunderstood. I liked Aksenov very much. For his wicked tongue and his wicked wit, and his disagree- ableness. Aksenov and I were friends. What was beautiful about the Elizabethans was their inequity.

      Their one-sidedness. Disproportion and asymmetry. In this case his face was, if not a mirror of the soul, then an analogy of thought. He thought disproportionately and asymmetrically. He was one-sided, asymmetrical. And subjective. This made him programmatically alien. The hero of his ilm had a mission to unite his country against ex- ternal enemies and against internal dissent and conspiracy.

      At the same time, he had to overcome the self-doubts tormenting him and pay the price extorted by a single-minded devotion to his cause. He moved in the space of tragedy. He had read her book with excitement and illed his copy with underlinings. He speaks of: i Images of the body as such -connected with the central position of the person in the plays. Moreover: at least one of these senses is of wider signiicance for the art of ilm as Eisenstein had been conceiving it: namely, the third sense, to do with the expression of mental and emotional states.

      But it is further connected with the structure of ilm through the construction of what is pre- sented. Both the selection of montage pieces and the rhythms of their succession have direct physiological and emotional ef- fects on the viewer of a ilm. Lary - Tragedic Interconnections and Intersections on the ilm screen, but as a compositional skeleton to hold con- scious and felt relections of the world.

      The state is sub- ject to forces of deformation and disintegration. The uniication of the state and the maintenance of unity are never assured. At times the ruler is destroyed by the state or sacriiced for the state. Conversely, the unity and harmony of the state depend on the steadfast will and survival of the ruler.

      But Ivan continually breaks out of the mold of a chronicle. The chronicle of events is elev- ated to a cluster of dramatic collisions of generalized tragedy. The scene in Ivan, Part One where the Tsar receives the last rites was likely conceived under the inluence of the deathbed scene towards the end of 2 Henry IV.

      In both scenes the problems of stability and succession are foremost. In the ilm Ivan lies su- pine, with an enormous Bible opened over his head. The boiars stand around, waiting to resume their divisive plotting. Not one of them moves to swear allegiance to the legitimate heir, the frail infant Dimitri. In the cor- 3 Eizenshtein, Dramaturgiia Kinoformy, His son, Prince Hal, is away hunting; he has given little sign of preparedness for the responsibilities of ruling.

      The moment is critical -without an adequate ruler the country risks falling apart. The King sinks into a slumber; Hal comes in, and seeing the crown on the bed, he ponders the bur- den it represents, tries it on and goes out. Suddenly waking up, the King sees the crown is gone and imagines in a moment of panic that it has been stolen; already the country is being pulled apart.

      Crude striving for power, it appears, is all that governs men. The analogies with the scene in Ivan are suggestive — ex- cept that Ivan rises from his deathbed in a kind of resurrection. Sickness and death are over- come. Ivan is reborn is a more powerful form —on his way to becoming the Terrible or Fearful Tsar.

      It is a form of Dionysian rebirth. For Eisenstein this had become became a major preoc- cupation. Dionysius was a metaphor for the peripeteia of the changing seasons and thus a god of the plant kingdom and of its inevitable change, growth, and decay. Eizenshtein, Izbrannye proizvedeniia v shesti tomakh, 6 vols. Moscow: Iskusstvo, , Lary - Tragedic Interconnections and Intersections ation at the highest point of tension of the drama.

      Montage was a form of dismember- ment. An art based on montage depended on the re-assemblage of montage fragments. They were a vestige of the Dionysian myth. His ilm art depended on a continual reenactment of the Dionysian meta- phor of renewal. This suggestion is reinforced by some more particular references. In lectures delivered to his ilm students in Alma Ata at the very height of his work on Ivan , he talked about images of dismemberment of the state from King Lear: In the tragedy King Lear Shakespeare turned to this theme at the very moment when the dismemberment of England was a pos- sibility From this point of view, Lear is opposed to the division of the state, as is shown by the folly of this division here In Lear there is the theme of disastrous partition In no other tragedy is there so much injury to the body parts and destruction of the human organism as in this piece.

      Each tiny detail of the work shows the horror of the various things that are occurring. Which are the image structures there? The images are based on trees. Trees and gardens are shown, symbols of the genealogical tree and of the refusal of one family of trees to be destroyed.

      The state is susceptible to destruction from within -- through deception, jealousy, betrayal, betrayal by a foster son even Fedor Basmanov in the unilmed Part Three. The ilm is of course incomplete. A letter to Tynianov written in , concurrently with his work on the ilm, pro- vides one suggestive line for exploration.

      What regen- eration or renewal would mean following this disintegration is an even broader ield for speculation. It is in their reaching into one another that they transgress their own limitedness and begin to speak. Above all, its dynamism: the very fact that the desired image is not something ready-made but has to arise or be born. For this process, three forces meet: the ilmmakers, the ilm, and the spectators. Montage is not merely an artistic vehicle but a mode of communitarisation in which the you and the I convene.

      Images of the Last Supper, of communion and transubstantiation become secularized; communities which emerge temporarily in the cinema become sacralised. When Eisenstein inally wrote these words in , after waves of 1 Sergei M. Towards a Theory of Montage, ed. Michael Glenny and Richard Taylor, trans. The redeeming character of montage in situations like these lies in the fact it crafts tacit agreement. This is because the spectators, by decoding it, decide how and to what extent a ilm creates not only escapist but also subversive counter- worlds.

      After all, no single image ever makes itself speak on its own, separately, but they make each other speak mutually. It is therefore that rulers and others in power tend to ban entire ilms. Eisenstein though does not limit montage to ilms and does not limit the material form or the scale of the stimuli involved. With this, he makes an offer which can be accepted in various different ways and can be used in diverse dimensions.

      Naum Kleiman — from aesthetics to maieutics Kleiman in all of these dimensions considers Eisenstein his guiding star. As guardian, scientist, editor, and exhibition and ilm curator, Kleiman collects texts, pictures, and ilms, with a twofold objective: On the one hand, in preserving the artefacts, he preserves a cultural-historical inheritance; on the other hand, by presenting them together in exhibitions and screenings and thereby grouping and linking them, he creates their communion, and in that their living presence in the present.

      Kleiman consid- ers himself a maieutic, a midwife for the ilms and for the spec- tators. Lenz - Organizing Pictures of the spectator. He operates both at the aesthetically speaking most powerful and at the same time the most fragile position in the pictorial process. From this point of view he assembles plastic text compilations and revelatory ilm programs. Thus he makes the texts and the ilms comment on one another.

      It is through this minimally invasive artistic pres- entation that texts and ilms begin to speak. Kleiman does not assemble single shots but organizes whole ilms to create a reve- latory friction. In his work, he never loses himself in distracting theories.

      Instead he uses his enormous historical and theoretical knowledge to ensure that the wonder of the birth of the images is fostered, for the sake of the here and now of contemporary view- ing contexts. The community effect herein is self-fulilling. This enables an incarnation in which both interlocutors, if ever so minimally, become others.

      Eisenstein uses speciic means for aesthetic purposes. Klei- man turns these means into forces of an intersubjective cinema and culture mediation, constituting the profoundly social and artful character of his scholarship. At the onset of modernity, Hegel differentiated philosophy, the arts, and the communion of religions. Kleiman, on the other hand, unites these perspec- 4 Eisenstein, Selected Works, Harold North Fowler Cambridge, Mass.

      As a loving universalist, he herein surmounts the narrow grit of the division of labor that deines our epoch. The starting point for Cinema: A Public Affair is the cultural-political crisis under Putin, a crisis that up to today has been threatening the cultural inheritance which Kleiman has been protecting throughout his life. At this time, I will not focus on the historical connection between the two works nor will I attempt a comprehensive appraisal of both ilms.

      Rather, I will limit myself to sketch, respectively, the im- age culture radiating from Kleiman. Lenz - Organizing Pictures in front of the camera. The color brilliance of the things lost in- creases the nostalgia and lends an eminent photographic char- acter to his ield of memory. Klei- man combines ilms by Eisenstein, documentary shots of Eis- enstein at work and on journeys, as well as scenes from Russian ilm classics.

      The latter substitute scenes of a private life with ilm scenes. Almost all of these im- ages are kept in black and white. Kleiman characterizes the young and the mature artist by a shift in colors from the fresh blue and yellow of earlier drafts to the hellish red scenario of the last piece of work. These spaces show signs 6 Eisenstein, Selected Works, Eisenstein, Selected Writings. Beyond the Stars. The Memoirs of Sergei Eisenstein, ed.

      Richard Taylor, trans. It is the montage and communion of these images, especially, that brings forth photographic effects of Bazinesque character. The color images show the presence as it was in , and therein represent our looking back at Eis- enstein. The black-and-white images, by contrast, speak to us from the past. The relation between color and black and white links opposing vectors of one and the same necromancy.

      Yet, no medial means sufices for a direct encounter. Thus, the ilm — through the variety of these measuring points — makes use of heterogeneous sorts of material in order to achieve — quasi stereoscopically — the greatest possible plasticity. Herein lies a logic of substitution. Every image gains the phantasmatic abil- ity to stand in for something else. So, we are provided simultaneously with emotional insights and a context of cinema history.

      Besides being themselves, all stimuli also point to something different, requesting of the spectator to decode multiple lay- ers. While documentary images in the case of Eisenstein in- dexically stand for themselves as the outer life, the drawings serve as a commentary and a window to the inner experience. Together they uncover the segmentation of the various strata of experience. The settings evoked create therefore homologies with the screen.

      Accordingly, all the chapter headings appear in a cinema on the movie screen. At the same time, the titles form a progression of different stages of life. Both the passion of murdered adversaries of the tsar and the mourning of the met- ropolitan Philipp in a black crypt illed with cofins merge into images of the scandal involving the actor Solomon Mikhoels. His body was pompously transferred to Moscow while the true circumstances of his death were concealed.

      The ilm also shows Eisenstein as one of the mourners. Images in color of his dacha in front of which branches are burnt intersect with the lyrical im- ages of the sea of the mourning of Vakulinchuk in Battleship Potemkin Into this quasi-deposition brought into mo- tion appear photographs of people loved by Eisenstein. Those offering their condolences in the ilm Potemkin are brought into a closer relationship to Eisenstein. Contrasting this hagiography are relections on how Eisenstein never was able to touch the world.

      This is accompanied by images from Alexander Nevsky that show Alexander while ishing with his retinue. The verbally invoked Christological image of the isher of men for Alexander thus also extends itself to Eisenstein. Here laughing children are stepping from behind skull masks to celebrate life. This multiplica- tion of overlapping visual motifs highlights two things. On the one hand, the assassinated actor Solomon Mikhoels, the martyrs in Ivan, Vakulinchuk in Potemkin, Alexander Nevsky, and Christ assign attributes of a savior to Eisenstein as the central igure; on the other hand and very much in contrast to this hagiographic characterization, Eisenstein inds himself included in a collective of kinsmen, a collective that cures the isolation of his life.

      Rather his martyrdom represents a place of vis- ibility for an epoch that brings forth countless similar cases. It is not the person but the cinema that becomes the place of resurrection, a space of a collaborative birth of images and of intimacy. Eisenstein, Nonindifferent Nature, trans.

      This time, Kleiman is the focus of the gaze of others, especial- ly of director Tatiana Bandrup. She offers a stage to Kleiman on which he creates his images for us. Instead of analyzing the entire ilm, its political focus, and its ensemble, I will there- fore concentrate on two visual moments connected with this very stage. Far from home, leeing from the German army in World War II, the ive- year-old witnessed a ilm presentation during one of the light stages.

      The cinema appeared to him as an unhoped-for inter- space, an oasis in between realities otherwise saturated with feelings of powerlessness. The ilm shown was The Thief of Bagdad The boy Kleiman was intoxicated by the ly- ing carpet. He stepped on top of the bench, spread his arms to ly too, and enjoyed the freedom of the screen. The cinema reversed the oppressive reality and revealed itself as revolu- tionary in, of all things, its escapist abilities. Kleiman does not denounce the dream factory as a site of delusion but realizes its images according to his own needs.

      The elderly man who narrates and the ever young cinematic images both attest the childhood impressions. The exterior and the interior image, both the verbally evoked moment of the past and the Naum Kleiman of the present merge in a complex way. Documen- tary and phantasmatic images prove to be parts of one identity irmly grounded. The target of the montage, meanwhile, is the biographic body of the spectator, who in turn is referred back to both his or her own childhood and to the cinematic encounter taking place at that moment.

      In a corridor, an endless table is moving towards the spectators. His ceremonial speech seems to transcend the screen. He addresses not only his friends but also the cinema audience that is invited, so to speak, into the image and to the table, which thus is elongated into the auditorium. The image creates a communion which allows them all to par- take in a Last Supper. Here, a sworn community with shared values turns towards a corrupted modernity with dysfunctional governmental institutions.

      By this, Kleiman receives the man- date of a cultural hero who preserves something endangered in order to reinvent it in the spirit of community. The scene appears like the reenactment of a biblical incident. It is not the making of images that enables life, but the active usage of the images. Kleiman does battle where Hegel locates a con- lict zone of modernity: successful governmental institutions maintain law and order and facilitate life, but at the same time rob human beings of the freedom to take action themselves.

      Failing governmental institutions force human beings back into a heroic condition in which they, in the absence of any security, can only rely on their own, most innate courage. Accordingly, Klei- man expresses his gratitude to all his co-workers. They are the proper essence of all endeavors. Eisenstein, The Eisenstein Reader, ed. Lenz - Organizing Pictures His addressees, his co-workers, are essential; all images and all societal formative wishes are harbored and are alive in them.

      They are the multipliers who justify all hopes. Kleiman does not stand alone; rather, from his sowing of a lifetime, his seedlings have blossomed a hundredfold at the endless table of friends. Once again Kleiman provides a multiplication of overlapping visual motifs.

      The self-conscious and elaborate working and re-working of his own signature, the autographical construction of his name, the attempt to realize a structure that would encompass both birth and death, a mnemonic and pro- jective device that would recover pre-natal experience as well as post-mortem nullity, are under consideration here.

      Riga had been a fortress up until the midth century, with the old city center surrounded by medieval defense walls. In the s these walls were torn down and the former fortiic- ation esplanade was replaced by semicircular boulevards laid out according to a master plan by the chief architect of Riga, Johan Daniel Felsko, and architect Otto Dietze.

      At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century this area and the suburbs saw extensive reconstruction and building due to rapid economic expansion and population growth. Eisenstein bemoaned his bookish childhood, the fact that he learned about the world through books before he had a chance to experience reality himself.

      To compensate for this sensuous deprivation, for the loss of a more normal and not so well-be- haved childhood, he broke with his father by joining the Rev- olution and becoming an artist and ilmmaker. Eight massive maidens made of hollow iron drainpipes lined the facade. And torrents beat down on the crowns of the heads, unable to force their way inside, to pour through the body and crash into the drainpipes below. Heavy downpours coursed all over them.

      Their rivulets felt the contours of the body, moving over it like a living hand. Breasts rose proud above the streams like islands. Dark currents streamed from under the stomach. Its brief encounters left dark pawmarks on the artiicial ala- baster of the athletic and senselessly posed igures. The effect was shocking. And so one ine day these maidens, reduced to a torso, breasts, arms, thighs and feet, ended their dubious existence.

      I could perhaps use them for one thing. It was probably my memory of them that led to my dismem- bering the giant statue of Alexander III with such mouthwatering excitement, in the opening episode of October. Eisenstein, Selected Works, Vol. In the ilm we see people climbing the statue of the Tsar, tying ropes around the head and pulling it off the torso just the way the onion domes of the Russian churches were pulled down by zealous revolutionaries after Then the statue appears to spontaneously disintegrate, arms and legs falling off, exposing the structural frame work upon which it was built.

      They obviously had to be denigrated and if not actually, symbolically destroyed. But it is also a marvelous, though perhaps unjust, rendition of the provincialism of his childhood town, which Eisenstein can afford to make fun of after he has long left the city: Memoirs of Sergei Eisenstein, ed. Richard Taylor, transl. Particularly if he is in Riga. Well, who thought a police superintendent could be called. Nevertheless, he was. Muzis was the object of my envy. Muzis had a fat, grease-stained notebook, crammed full with papers and notes - a notebook, with a rubber-band!

      This is probably a hereditary feature for Muzises. Notebooks did not run in his family, however. It was not because Ei- senstein lacked access to these books, he simply could not ill the ones he had with anything: Essential things I always remember. Matters of importance are stored as notes in iles, but to think up something special for a notebook is beyond me. Then again, these iles will be my horrible death. They are numerous. They never end.

      Moscow: Muzei kino, , 90, my translation. His heart attack had allowed him to inally go through his iles, the continuous amassing of which threat- ened to bring about his death. Is writing his autobiography an attempt to escape death, a post scriptum that will keep him alive as long as he keeps on writing? A catalogue, sui generis, of my debts to myself. Social conirmation and identity were important to Eisenstein, but writing his autobiography, remembering and putting his past into words after his heart attack, failed to sat- isfy his quest for the meaning, social or otherwise, of the forty eight years he had lived.

      Writ- ing as such, the act of writing, the never-ending meanderings of your handwriting; the ever repeatable form of your signature perhaps? Eisenstein was extremely preoccupied with grapho- logical speculations about his own signature and with the sym- bolism of the circle and circular forms toward the end of his 6 Ibid.

      Naum Kleiman Moscow: Muzei kino, , Around the turn of the nineteenth century the semiotic analysis of handwriting — graphology — had evolved to the point of making claims to explaining complex character traits and personal psychology. The proponent of graphology as an aspect of Charakterkunde, characterology, was the German philosopher and critic Ludwig Klages, whose Lebensphiloso- phie or philosophy of life, was at the forefront of radically con- servative cultural trends in Germany during the irst decades of the 20th century.

      Klages wrote several books on the subject including Die Probleme die Graphologie and Handschrift und Charakter and was considered an authority. In he had founded the German Graphological Society, which published a journal that became extremely pop- ular, especially in Poland and the Baltic countries.

      These words are not easy to ade- quately translate into English. Eisenstein London: Dobson Books, , No, neither the right to such a signature nor the signature itself exists. Your signature is a symbol of pure repetition or pure endorsement. It is a problem of how you inscribe yourself into the social body, according to Podoroga.

      A reliable formula for the approach to art during the irst ten years. The task of cultural workers in the second ten-year period is to give the proletariat a basis for saying Of all our art forms the most important one is ilm. Eizenshtein14 There was however a solution for Eisenstein, a way to free himself from the name of the Father: to refuse to sign. Propis is not the same as podpis, it rather represents the inner non-iden- tical forces of the signature, podpis, the spontaneous and auton- omous movement of the writing that never produces the exact same form, the movement that does not know the name of the Father.

      If this dynamism is projected onto the surrounding space, the human environment, the result is an an- imated totality, an organic whole, which is permeated in all its parts by a sense of exaltation, ecstasy -- a dancing signature. His description of this encounter is worth quoting: When you enter his study, this hypersensitive man of small stat- ure with a pale face and sharp, explosive movements convulsively grabs a pen and begins to write on a piece of paper.

      I think Papa built as many as ifty-three houses in Riga. And there was an entire street in the crazy art nouveau style, which so transported my dear parent. The art nouveau style championed by Eisenstein Sr. Today we can again see the impressive lions on top of Alberta iela 18 Ibid.

      That these plaster an- imals may have inspired Eisenstein when he ilmed the marble lions in Alupka on Crimea for Battleship Potemkin is a possib- ility. During his visit to the U. Pro domo sua would give some credence to that assumption, since it is a speculation about the characterologi- cal implications of the rounded forms in his signature. Eisen- stein was intensely preoccupied with the signiicance of circu- 20 Eisenstein, Nonindifferent Nature, The loosely art nouveau or organic style of his signatures and their layout on the page bear a kind of structural resemblance to the facade of the Lebedinsky building, with its omega-windows and balcony door on the top loor and the oval window with a larger balcony door on the level below.

      To the extent that this similari- 21 Eizenshtein, Metod, Thus, all forms of writing, artistic, autobiographical, and otherwise are bur- dened by the ties to the Father. No more than the steward of my thoughts, the resigned servant of my works. A bell-shaped vessel through which the people——my brothers——speak. I myself am nothing. The draw- ings show the contours of several human igures gradually merg- ing with, and disappearing into, a great oval, at irst an oval disc seemingly pierced by or cutting the limbs of the igures and then absorbing their outlines into its circumference.

      Nichto is what remains when all has returned to its origin, when all Versenkungen are completed and the trains of the future have moved backwards all the way to the beginning of the journey that never was. Eisen- stein when he makes cinema Il me semble bien que je pense comme M. We would make it a moral act: to love purity! The white of whitewash is ab- solute, everything stands out from it and is recorded absolute- ly, black on white; it is honest and dependable.

      Every citizen is required to replace his hangings, his damasks, his wall-papers, [] , Nesbet - Whitewash as Mastery his stencils, with a plain coat of white ripolin. His home is made clean. There are no more dirty, dark corners. Everything is shown as it is. Then comes inner cleanness en soi , for the course adopted leads to refusal to allow anything at all which is not correct, authorised, intended, desired, thought-out: no action before thought. When you are surrounded with shadows and dark corners you are at home only as far as the hazy edges of the darkness your eyes cannot penetrate.

      You are not master in your own house. It is ironic, however, that it is images from a film by Eisenstein—whose way of thinking and of writing and creating , was, I think we could argue, quite cluttered, with every image packed with other sub-images, references, nods of the head, and so on—that remind Le Corbusier of this hymn to the whitewashed wall. To be precise, the inspiration was the model of a modern experimental farm, a sovkhoz, constructed by the architect Andrei Burov for The General Line.

      He even liked to dress up as a sort of knock-off of Le Corbusier: there is a photograph of Le Corbusier, Eisenstein, and Burov, in which Eisenstein is sandwiched between a pair of mirror imag- es in round glasses see page in this volume. Le Corbusier even holds his cigarette in his right hand, Burov in his left. F , Carnet VII, carnets de notes. It was all surface: a machine for propaganda, a machine for training the mind to see the world differently.

      And so Eisenstein had them build in plaster. The peasant must be amazed Le moujick doit en rester baba. Frederick Etch- ells New York: Dover, , 29, Thus to say that a moujick becomes baba when confronted with this new, clinical sort of sovkhoz has at least a whiff of a cross-linguistic pun, a dirty joke, the sort of BiSex joke that Eisenstein would appreciate.

      What exactly, however, is this gaping peasant amazed by? Here, too, the question turns out to be more complicated than we might have thought. To the camera eye, plaster and reinforced concrete are equivalent surfaces, made identical by their respective coats of whitewash. In this case Le Corbusier was blinded, perhaps, by the white- wash, the ability of cinema to approach the whiteness of properly 5. Also cited in Cohen, Le Corbusier, What relationship does whitewash have, for instance, to the problem of authentic materials?

      Before he can perform, there he is, sitting before us, with a bandaged head, like a wounded soldier. Then she pokes out their eyes with needles. Cuts up their bodies and limbs. She does it to make them unhappy. She does it only when she cannot, fortuitously, make these poor people unhappy in any other way! Kiss Pages A progress report on studies and some characteristics of the Bulgarian caddis fauna K.

      Kumanski Pages Morning session Larval and imaginal diapauses in Limnephilidae C. Denis Pages Adaptations physiologiques et comportementales des Stenophylax Limnephilidae aux eaux temporaires Yvette Bouvet Pages The effects of flight behaviour on the larval abundance of Trichoptera in the Schierenseebrooks North Germany B.

      Statzner Pages Flight periods and ovarian maturation in Trichoptera in Iceland G. Diel flight activity of some Trichoptera in Northern Sweden A. Afternoon session An application of the linear discriminant function and a multivariate analysis to caddis larvae taxonomy H. Buholzer Pages The taxonomic significance of eye proportions in adult caddisflies H.

      Malicky Pages The genital segments of female Trichoptera A. Nielsen Pages The use of ventral sclerites in the taxonomy of larval hydropsychids P. Boon Pages Taxonomic controversies in the Hydropsychidae Ruth M.

      Badcock Pages It was H. This volume of Proceedings includes 38 papers; all except one were presented and discussed in the sessions listed in the programme. The papers were given in a lecture theatre of the Palmer Building, and demonstrations were laid out in a laboratory of the Department of Zoology where members met for their mprning and afternoon breaks.

      They were the guests of the University at an informal reception on 25 July. This chalk stream has been the subject of an ecological study by a team from the Department of Zoology since The excursion was also an opportunity to see something of the local caddis fauna, and to do some collecting. The final session on 29 July, under the chairmanship of G. Back to top. Keywords adaptation ecology evolution fauna taxonomy.

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