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Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle. We cannot process tax exempt orders online. If you wish to place a tax exempt order please contact us. Part I. Introduction to Social Media and Social Networks 2. Social Media: New Technologies of Collaboration 3. Part II.
Installation, Orientation, and Layout 5. Labeling and Visual Attributes 6. Calculating and Visualizing Network Metrics 7. Grouping and Filtering 8. Semantic Networks. Part III. Email: The Lifeblood of Modern Communication YouTube: Exploring Video Networks Wiki Networks: Connections of Culture and Collaboration. Add to cart. This architecture is based on a philosophy of business organization to improve the integration and development of multi-agent systems, where it is improved the distribution of the agents involved in the system and the services they implement.
For this reason, is introduced the concept of community of agents as an organizational unit, and the concept of specialization applied thereto in order to obtain an optimization in the management and implementation of the system to be developed.
The article is structured as follows: Section 2 introduce several concepts, important for this work. Finally, some experimental results and conclusions are given in Section 4 and 5. The main properties to characterize the internal behavior of the agents are: the type of reasoning and how they act, for example, reactive, model- based, based on goals.
Its adaptability, its perception and characterization the environment in which they are situated, including its computer infrastructure and their relationships with other agents, and the degree of autonomy in the actions they take . The organization is used to describe this group of agents that are coordinated through a series of patterns and the establishment of some roles to achieve the objectives of the system. There are various approaches that exist in this area , depending on the structure and internal organization of the organizational structure.
The behavioral, the objectives and the interaction of the agents are features that mark its global behavior and the aims. Distributed and Specialized Agent Communities 35 The concept of community differs from concept of organization that is more spontaneous and natural. The community relies on the common interests of those who work in a facility, and to carry out its regulation requires a system of co- management contract   In the work of  the term community is used to define a group of heterogeneous agents.
Another agent community approach is given in , which defines the structure of the Cougaar agents. This paper presents the definition of Intelligent Communities CI. These communities, adopt features defined in other organizations of agents besides the features defined in Cougaar. Intelligent Communities are composed of a small number of agents, so that the communication between the agents is multidirectional, and not entail added computational effort.
Decision making is centralized in decisions relative of whole community and will be independent for each agent in the work they perform individually, always to the benefit of the community. For this there is a formalization of the tasks thus providing a tool for agents for individual decision making.
In an Intelligent Community there will be a two-level hierarchy as to the work of community control. One agent will be involved in the control over the work of other members having account as based a series of community rules that ensure the proper functioning of the same. This is because, although the members of the community are presupposed benevolent, in a community of agents, we have to take into account individual goals and deviations that may occur on the overall goals of the community.
Something remarkable is that, the Intelligent Communities must possess the ability to function in a distributed way at the community level and the services they provide should not be embedded in the members of it, but is necessary they are implemented in a distributed way, with the propose to free the community structure, and the member agents, of computationally load. Specialization is a feature that gives to an individual belonging to a group, a peculiarity within that group.
This specialization is observed within organizations as a means to achieve greater efficiency in the objectives pursued by it. The specialization, in the field of agents has been discussed in depth by  among others. This specialization aims to provide a multi-agent system more efficient, so that there is an improvement in the achievement of its overall objectives. One aspect to consider is the type of specialization needed that adapts to a group or organization.
This typology must implement improvements in processes and objectives. We define the specialization of tasks as the number of different tasks to develop in a working place, and how often they are repeated, and the power of decision exercised by the working place over the design of itself. The specialization of tasks, in turn, is divided into horizontal and vertical specialization of tasks .
The relationship between these two types of specialization is too narrow, since, a job in which there is a high horizontal specialization also requires a high vertical specialization, because the person performing a given task can lose the overview of objectives, and therefore it is necessary that another person, who has the vision, plan, organize and control the work .
Corchado The organizative specialization approach can be seen as a unit, across enterprise networks. In literature, the concept of enterprise network is found in the works of authors cited in , for which, a set of groups, institutions or organizations can interact with each other, getting favorable results, as much individual units in the network, as a whole. Thus, a corporate network can be considered as an association of companies working together so that there is a specialized complementation between them, with the aim of resolving situations which could not resolve individually, in the most efficient way possible.
It is based on five principles: standard, specialization, ease of implementation, reuse and distributed computing. These CIE have the ability to function as an multi-agent system, independent and specialized, where the services offered are implemented in a distributed way, so as to pursue a global goal. This structure allows to different CIE collaborate in achieving objectives, that individually they cannot reach.
This philosophy is based on the "Enterprise Networks"  through which a set of groups, institutions, or organizations interact, to obtain good results as much individual units in the network as a whole. It is precisely this approach that makes SCODA is based on the concept of Intelligent Community, as an organizational unit, with the features needed to carry out their development in these terms.
Table 1 Principles of SCODA Principle Description Different Specialized Smart Communities have the same structure, Standard that is independent of the purpose to be achieved in the multi-agent system to implement This principle is based on human specialization, and in the Enterprise Specialization Networks, so that there is cooperation between Specialized Intelligent Communities.
This is achieved because the structure of Facility of Implementation the Specialized Intelligent Communities is standard, being the services they offer, which they have to be programmed. The required services are not provided directly by agents of Specialized Intelligent Communities. They are running in a Distributed Computation distributed way so that the computational load associated with agents, decreases, and structure of the architecture has no variations.
To carry out the development and implementation of this architecture is selected JADEX  because it is considered a reasoning engine and can be executed independently. SCODA architecture is based on five principles, through which seek greater efficiency of multi-agent systems developed with it.
SCODA is structured in a modular way, so that the agents, who compose it, can manage and coordinate the architecture and its functionality. The communication protocol is responsible for meeting the demands of external applications and request a response to the Specialized Intelligent Communities. The Control Module realises the follow-up of the coordination and functionality of the architecture, taking in account a fault tolerance policy in operation.
Through by them are effective requests and responses, deliberately and of optimized form. The Community Services that running in a distributed way, is where find, the ability to processing each Specialized Intelligent Community. Finally, the agent platform, represents the environment where SCODA runs, and is composed of the agents that make up the architecture, and of the Specialized Intelligent Communities.
Another feature that is applied to all agents that make SCODA, is that being deliberative BDI agents, they can make use of reasoning mechanisms and learning techniques to perform the manage functionalities and coordination of them, depending on the particularities of the context where they run. The services we have developed on SCODA, have been sales forecasting, inventory management and route optimization.
The assessment raises a number of issues that affect both the architecture and in the result of the execution of the services associated with each community and its integration from SCODA. Over these five months, the system shows an optimal performance, in terms of integration, since it has been found that there have been only sporadic errors that correspond to failures in services of the communities. Corchado produced by unexpected errors in the server hosting the services of CIE, because taking account on the principle of distributed computing, services are hosted on a different server to the CIE.
The specialization of the CIE, allows them to be functional individually, and by themselves solve simple problems, for which, its associated services are qualified. Also, the union of the specialization of each one of CIE, emulating an enterprise network, will obtain the benefit of solving more complex problems so that each contributes its capabilities, being SCODA binding common framework and orchestrating them.
This translates into the ability of the CIE implemented, to cooperate together and produce the result of the target system, taking account that these implementations can be used in other systems, independently of their targets. The benefits obtained are important, due to daily fuel saving, that multiplied by a large fleet of trucks, has a positive effect on the company. The subsystem of inventories management, and the prediction subsystem, they do not obtain a results as good as routes optimization.
Table 2 Results on Route Optimization Route Actual Km Optimized Km Improved Km Route A ,4 ,9 6,5 Route B ,8 ,7 46,1 Route C ,9 ,8 34,1 Route D 89,8 89,8 0 Route E ,1 ,2 76,9 5 Conclusions The concept of community as a type of organizational unit joined to the concept of specialization, applied to multi-agent systems, have allowed to develop an architecture, named SCODA , for developing, distributed multi-agent systems, regardless of the end that they pursue.
The implementation of a system that can resolve logistics problems, has allowed us to test the operation of the architecture in a live environment, yielding promising results as much in, its integration as in terms of solving the given problems. From these results it intends to continue working in this direction, and getting future developments in other areas. Distributed and Specialized Agent Communities 39 References 1.
Rashid, A. Kiczales, G. ECOOP Springer, Heidelberg 3. Zambonelli, F. In: Ciancarini, P. AOSE Ferber, J. In: Giorgini, P. Springer, Heidelberg 5. In: Boissier, O. Springer, Heidelberg 6. Springer, Heidelberg 8. In: Henderson-Sellers, B. Agent Oriented Methodologies, pp. Dignum, V. Technical Report CS Corchado, J.
Snyder, R. Nicklisch, H. Larsen, B. Scandinavian Journal of Management 19 , — Glinton, R. In: Hirsch, M. Dynamics of Information Systems: Theory and Applications. Springer, Berlin Parachuri, P. Corchado Theraulaz, G. Behaviour 1 , — Chai, L. In: Shi, Y. Springer, Heidelberg Okamoto, S. Mintzberg, H.
El Ateneo. Argentina Becerra, F. Bratman, M. Computational Intelligence 4, — Rao, A. Pokahr, A. Koster, A. Journal of Logic and Computation IVA Posland, S. Communication is one of the cornerstones of the intelligent agents paradigm. However, one of the problems we encountered when using the agent paradigm is the actual communication between platforms.
The following section describes the main features and capabilities of the system. Finally we will present the results and conclusions, including the future work. Ideally, MAS include the fol- lowing characteristics : i they are typically open with a non-centralized design; ii they contain agents that are autonomous, heterogeneous and dis- tributed each with its own personality cooperative, selfish, honest, etc.
They provide an infrastructure specifically for communication and interac- tion protocols. The development of open MAS is still a recent field of the multi-agent systems paradigm and its development will allow applying the agent technology in new and more complex application domains. This language marks a type of message, which contains the necessary fields for a good communica- tion between agents .
All these fields have been defined by FIPA for a complete agent communica- tion and any parameters will not be missed for the coherence of the message. There are previous studies that try to create middleware for heterogeneous communication such as . Other studies focus on a gateway platform with web services  not a middleware.
Since FIPA is the standard, the work presented in this paper, it also allows interaction between players who use this means of communication used in many other agents platforms. To this end, all services are implemented as Web Services . This makes it possible for the platform to include both a service provider agent and a consumer agent, thus emulating client-server architecture.
The provider agent a general agent that provides a service knows how to contact the web service, while the remaining agents know how to contact with the provider agent due to their communication with the ServiceAgent, which contains information about services. Once the client agents request has been received, the provider agent extracts the re- quired parameters and establishes contact.
Once received, the results are sent to the client agent. SOA is an archi- tectural style for building applications that use services available in a network such as the web. It promotes loose coupling between software components so that they can be reused. Applications in SOA are built based on services. It is responsible for verifying the entry and exit of agents, and for assigning roles.
To carry out these tasks, it works with the OrganizationAgent, which is a specialized version of this agent. The platform agents are implemented with Java, while the rest of the agents may be implemented in other programming languages.
Communication be- tween agents has been based on the IRC protocol. The IRC protocol was used to implement communication. Internet Relay Chat IRC is a real time internet protocol for sim-ultaneous text messaging or conferencing. It is designed primarily for group conversations in discussion forums and channel calls, but also allows private messaging for one on one communications, and data transfers, including file exchanges .
Users access the IRC networks by connecting a client to a server. The original protocol is based on flat text although it was subsequently expanded , and uses TCP port as its primary port, or other nearby ports for example TCP ports , . The standard structure for an IRC server network is a tree config- uration. The messages are routed only through those nodes that are strictly necessary; however, the network status is sent to all servers.
One of the most important features that characterizes the platform is the use of the IRC protocol for communication among agents. This allows for the use of a protocol that is easy to implement, flexible and robust. The open standard protocol enables its continuous evolution. There are also IRC clients for all operating systems, including mobile devices. The object must have all the necessary fields for a good communication. This is the case of the ontology, content, sender, etc.
In addition to this, it also makes the demanded opera- tions and it must return the results by an ACL object. At first, it takes cares of the operations based on the request, inform, subscription, and contract-net protocols. The subsections below shows these operations based on the pro- tocols. In Figure 1 it is possible to observe the workflow that is followed in this protocol. The OrganizationManager talks with the InformationAgent if there is a service with a specific name.
If there is not a service with the same description, the OrganizationManager ask to execute the service and get the result. Finally ACLAgent sends the response to the external agent. So, the external agent sends a message with the content right format and it will receive an answer refuse, failure, inform-done. In Figure 2, the inform workflow is shown. The external agent wants to register a new service to Pangea MAS. It sends an object to the ACLAgent with the service descrip- tion.
Finally, ACLAgent sends a response to the external agent. The ACLAgent will re- turn it every news or modifications made in that subscription. In Figure 3 we can see the subscribe workflow. For this purpose, sending multiple messages is needed. Firstly, the name of the service which will be executed, must be known, so, a CFP message Call for proposals is sent with a little description of the service needed in the content field.
Several answers will be sent to the external agent. The agent will choose one of them, and the chosen one will be executed. In Figure 4, we can see the contract net protocol workflow. The ACLAgent does not it in this way. It has a messaging queue, so that when a programmer gives the order to send a message, the message is automatically inserted in the scheduled queue and manages the input object via Java introspection.
Three computers are involved in this test; they are connected to the same LAN. These are the agents that are asked for the services. The external agents are deployed in the last computer. These agents are developed in JADE platform. ACLMessage object by port. In these tests, the workflow consists in question-answer.
There are one only input, and one only output. Both tests have been satis-factory, because, correct outputs have been obtained. In the first case, it is composed by one input and several outputs one per event done in the subscription. In the other hand, the other protocol consists on a communication between both parts, in which there are several input and output messages.
Both parts must have to be listening for possible answers of the other agent. On the other hand, if the external agent does not control the flow of the messages, some of these will be lost and the communication will be incomplete. The gateway allows several multi-agent sys- tems work jointly for a common target, and share all its knowledge.
Thanks to the use of the gateway, new communication ways are opened. The rests of the protocols will make a complete com-munication, and all kind of queries would be made to PANGEA platform. It is also though to port and develop this idea in mobile environments. Amor, M. Information and Software Technology, — 2. Bellifemine, F. Bordini, R. Briot, J. In: Bordini, R.
ProMAS Corchado, E. Gaud, N. In: Hindriks, K. Gutknecht, O. In: Wagner, T. AA-WS Howden, N. In: 5th International Conference on Autonomous Agents Huhns, M. In: Weiss, G. MIT Kalt, C. In: Schillo, M. MATES Oikarinen, J. Omair Shafiq, M. Ricci, A. In: Weyns, D. E4MAS Routier, J. Wilensky, U. Zato, C. In: Omatu, S. AISC, vol. Research in indoor location has acquired a growing importance during the recent years.
The main objective is to obtain functional systems able of provid- ing the most precise location, identification and guidance in real time. Currently, none of the existing indoor solutions have obtained location or navigation results as precise as the ones provided by the analog systems used outdoor, such as GPS.
This paper presents an indoor location system based on Wi-Fi technology which, from the use of intensity maps and classifiers, allows effective and precise indoor location. Keywords: indoor location system, classifiers, Wi-Fi. To obtain precise informa- tion about the location of objects or people inside building can provide very useful information to develop services. Some of the most relevant of these services are those oriented to identification-based access control, location-based security, loca- tion-aware computing, etc..
These services are deployed in indoor environments, such as hospitals, factories, shopping malls, or even as complementary systems to GPS Global Positioning System. The main challenge in current indoor location systems is to obtain precise measures with a reasonable cost in infrastructure. Villarubia et al. The main reason to explain why it is not possible to find effective indoor solu- tions is due to technical and financial reasons.
If we take into consideration a GPS system, we simply need a physical device that connects to a finite number of satel- lites in open spaces. However, in an open space, it is required to make use of a technological infrastructure with a considerable number of fixed devices that are used as beacons or readers, and notably improve the cost of the system.
Nowadays, some of the existing indoor location engines make use of Moreover, Wi-Fi provides a good number of advantages: easy dep- loyment and is integrated in most of the current electronic devices, wide range of existing networks installed in several buildings and locations.
This paper presents a study aimed at obtaining the design of an innovative Wi- Fi indoor location engine, able of providing location-aware Information of people or objects inside a building. The use of Wi-Fi technology for location systems is mainly based on intensity maps constructed from RSSI levels in different zones. The maps are used as a basis to obtain classifications. The classifiers use the data of the maps and the data obtained from the devices to determine the position of a person inside a building.
The system presented in this paper has been adapted to be installed in resource-constrained devices. In this way it is not necessary to con- nect to databases to obtain information for the classification, which notable im- prove the performance of the system and the fault tolerance. This article is divided as follows: section 2 describes the state of the art; section 3 presents the proposed model; section four describes the results obtained and the conclusions respectively.
Triangulation allows obtaining location coordinates by means of the calculus of the length of the sides of the triangle from the angles of the received signal in each of the antennas, which requires at least 3 reference points. Fingerprinting, also known as signpost or symbolic location, is based on the study of the characteristics of the each of the location zones, obtaining mea- surements of the radiofrequency characteristics and estimating the influence area of each tag.
Multilateration estimates the distances between readers and tags, taking into account parameters as RSSI Received Signal Strength Indication or TDOA Time Difference Of Arrival , in such way that the intersection of the estimated distances from each tag to three or more fixed nodes determines the point where the tags are identified. The reason is fluctuation of the RSSI levels in indoor environments due to the presence of different elements people, objects, animals. Besides, multilate- ration is based on the estimation of distances, and it is necessary a previous estimation of the RSSI values, which is difficult because the RSSI values change constantly.
Location techniques based on triangulation and multilateration cannot be consi- dered as efficient because the signals suffer several attenuations caused by the elements present in the rooms. In these cases, it is recommended to use heuristics for the classification process and perform training to obtain location algorithms that improve the precision.
The heuristics allow the collection of possible mea- surements in specific positions and to use these measurements to calculate the most probable position. The behavior of these algorithms is similar to the algorithms used for clustering, but they are too much simple in most of the cases.
Specifically, the proposed system has integrated a bayesian network to estimate the probabilities of belonging to the points previously scanned in the intensity maps. The intensity maps obtained indoors are created using the parameters shown in Table 1. Each of the rows in Table 1 contains the information of all the Wi-Fi networks scanned in that moment and identified by a coordinate x,y. The rows can contain more or less columns depending on the scanned intensities. In order to build Bayesian networks, it is first necessary to establish search mechanisms that can generate the DAG Di- rected Acyclic Graph using a set of heuristics that can reduce the number of com- binations and generate the final Bayesian network.
In this work, we have used conditional independence. This algorithm is based on the calculation of the conditional Independence test for the variables to generate a DAG that can obtain the probability estimates. If the variables being studied are independent, it will not be possible to generate a Bayesian network with good results, but in this work this is not a problem with the independence of the va- riables.
The attribute for the classification in the bayesian network is defined as the union of x and y. The first step was to calibrate the map for the first floor of the Physics building at the Faculty of Sciences. During the calibration process, we obtained different signal measurements in the corridors of the floor. The clas- sifier was constructed from these data. The total number of measurements was , as shown in Figure 1a. The area of the floor of the building was approximately m2.
The floor was equipped with 4 fixed access points spread across the floor of the building. Moreover, some signals emitted by access points that went out and lit corresponding to offices and laboratories were detected. The access points were the infrastructure nodes available in the university, and it was not necessary to introduce any additional access points to reduce the system error. Figure shows a screenshot obtained from the mobile device used for the experiment. B Mobile interface of the system.
Applying Classifiers in Indoor Location System 57 The system was evaluated obtaining measures in different points and estimating the position. We obtained new measurements and estimated the corresponding positions. The results obtained are shown in Table 2.
The absolute mean error obtained is shown in the first column and, as can be seen in Table 2, the bayesian network provides the best value for the error, 2,4 meters. The average time to estimate the position is 0,65 milliseconds, which is good enough to be used in a mobile device. It is necessary that the average time has been obtained in a laptop.
It has not been possible to measure the time in a mobile device, but the system perfectly worked in the mobile during the experiment. Table 2 Errors and time to estimate positions using different classifiers Error meters Time millisecond Classifier 2, 0, As a conclusion, it is possible to say that the work presented in this paper faci- litates a new technique to locate objects and people using Wi-Fi signals in indoor environment, making use of the existing infrastructure networks.
The system does not require the installation of additional access points or any other hardware to improve the system performance. Thus, the implementation cost is notably re- duced compared to most of the existing systems.
Our future work focuses on the incorporation of new measurements into the algorithm, such as GSM or 3G that can be combined with the Wi-Fi signals and improve the overall performance of the system. Bouckaert, R. Verma, T. In: Proc. Friedman, N. Machine Learning 29, — 4. Glassner, A. Morgan Kaufmann 5. De Paz, J.
Chen, Y. Razavi, R. In: Ishida, T. MMAS Springer, Heidelberg 9. Giunchiglia, F. Tapia, D. Duda, R. John, C. In: Advances in Kernel Methods, pp. As an instance, let us refer to the smartphone. This device is usually equipped with a GPS module which may be used as an orientation system, if it carries the right functionalities.
The problem is that these applications may be complex to operate and may not be within the bounds of everybody. Therefore, the main goal here is to develop an orientation system that may help people with cognitive disabilities in their day-to-day journeys, when the caregivers are absent. On the other hand, to keep paid helpers aware of the current location of the disable people, it will be also considered a localization system.
Knowing their current locations, caregivers may engage in others activities without neglecting their prime work, and, at the same time, turning people with cognitive disabilities more independent. Ramos et al. This type of services involves a significant loss of mobility by the patient. To prevent or minimize this independence loss there are smart houses , which are considered a good alternative, since they use embedded devices that control the patient health and enable remote access to such data by the physician or other caregiver [3, 12, 5].
Thereby the well-being of individuals and societies suffered a change, for the better. However, there are some diseases that still do not have a cure, such as the ones known as cognitive disabilities. To this type of people it is very complicated to go out alone, to whom orientation may become a very difficult task and help is needed. Since assisted technologies have gain attentiveness. Nevertheless, a set of devices have been developed, but the problem with such tools is that they were advanced to be embedded in the home environment e.
Like an ordinary person, people with cognitive disabilities may leave their premises and, once outside, this technology may not able to be used or obtained. However, there are researchers that have been developing new ways to use the available technology outside a premise, i. Such devices need to be easy-to-use, small, lightweight and resistant, otherwise they may not last for a long time [7, 6].
Our development described in  not only enables the positioning for this type of people but also allows the caregiver to know the current location of persons with cognitive disabilities. Thus, the independence of people with cognitive disabilities is increased and the same occurs to their caregiver s that may have other work without neglecting the care provision. In section 2 is presented work developed by other authors. Section 3 describes the proposed system, including all its features.
Finally, at section 4 a brief reflection about this work is presented. The authors, based on traditional orientation meth- ods, developed a system that enables human beings to use the public transportation system. The person with cognitive disabilities with a smartphone may make use of the bus to travel from one particular place to another. The reduced number of routes that were drawn in a simple map is surpassed and the user may travel to a greater set of destinations.
The former had in mind to provide assistance to the user through just-in-time information about the travel path including routes and the bus that should be reached for and hold. The extra goal aims to a simple and fast way of a process of communication between the user and a caregiver.
The position of each bus is given in real-time by a GPS module previously installed on it. This position is then sent to a server. The route is calculated based on the information presented on the server. Besides the previous described system the authors also developed a second pro- totype that did not need a support structure. Using an end-user programming tool the caregiver could create scripts according to the activities to be carried out by the person with cognitive disabilities.
In , Liu et al. On their study the players freely use the prototype, while being remotely controlled, i. Liu et al. The former tries to identify which features of the indoor system should be extrapolated to the outdoor one. Combining pictures with overlaid arrows, audio and text messages, the user could successfully attain a particular destination. Outside the premises, the orientation is more complicated since it is a more dynamic environment e.
The second study examines the usability of landmarks in orientation of people with cognitive disabilities. The obtained results show that there are a few considerations that must be taken into consideration when orientation is provided. For example, a near landmark should be used instead of a marker that is outside the user view e. If the image is hard to associate to the real landmark, the user may become stressed and confused and the orientation system may fail.
AlzNav from Fraunhover Portugal  is an open project that intends to familiar- ize elder people and people in general within their early stages of dementia. This system presents the positioning to the user through an arrow that rotates like a com- pass indicating the travel path. AlzNav also provides a localization system that al- lows the caregiver to send a Short Message Service SMS and receive the location of the person with needs of care.
As an alternative, cellphones may be used and caregivers act as reminders to people with cognitive disabilities. Nowadays, cellphones are being replaced by smartphones. However, there is a flaw when referring to applications specifically developed for people with disabilities.
This work describes a system that is being developed for this group of people. The main goal is to provide an application easy-to-use that helps the user that moves from one location to another. This feature may allow the caregiver to develop an- other activity without neglecting the care provided to the user. The framework of this system Figure 1 is divided into three major parts accord- ing to its destinated user: the application for the person with cognitive disabilities designated by Cognitive Helper Mobile Solution, Section 3.
The server is composed by two modules: database and Communication Software. The database stores all the important data that is necessary for the correct operation of the system like usernames and locations. The Communication Software ensures the communications established between the applications and the server.
The detailed framework of this application is present in Figure 2 and it is divided into three parts. The system, once it get the user location, may start the routing since it is possible to calculate the journey between the present location and the destination point. To turn easier the user routing it is used augmented reality Figure 3. These three elements enable the augmented reality environment, letting the application know to where the user is turned to.
A simple green arrow shows the travel path and the distance to be traveled to the next turn. To interact with the user it is required to use an interface. This module shows, in an interactive way, the information to the user. The selection of a destination is exe- cuted through few menus and options.
According to the type of destinations stored on the database the user may choose a fixed destination more common location, like work place or home or a normal one generic location, like the mall. To keep this information confidential it is necessary to securely store this information in the database and guarantee that only the user has access to it.
The Communication Software establishes the connections between the applica- tion and the server. This application intends to create a navigation system that is easy-to-use, espe- cially by people that may not be able to perform a complex mental task.
The main goal of both applications is to let the caregiver be aware of the current location of the person with cognitive disabilities; it also presents all the walking paths accomplished from the starting point. The framework for these applications Figure 4 is divided into four modules.
The Communication Software ensures the transmission of the information between the applications and the server. The caregiver is also in charge of the creation of the destination points through Travel Path Designer that may be used by the patient. This creation may be done by two different methods, i. Besides the creation of destinations it is the caregiver that specifies if they are starred which is considered favorite and will be more used or common ones.
Notifications Creator enables the caregiver to send simple messages of Yes or No type. This feature allows an easier and fast communication between caregivers and the people with cognitive disabilities. Instead of calling and pausing the Fig. This module informs the caregiver about any events created by the person with the cognitive disabilities, e. Figure 5a represents the mobile application and shows a travel path that was already done by the person with cognitive disabilities.
Figure 5b represents the Web application and shows a travel path that is being done the line is updated when the person with cognitive disabilities changes position. To indicate starting and ending points there is a marker on each one.
Cognitive disabilities are an example of this situation and physicians tries to reduce the disease progression through medicines. One of the major problems to people with cognitive disabili- ties is the lack of orientation, so the risk of getting lost once they go outside alone is very high.
The lack of orientation of these patients is then having a solution but caregivers still have a problem: when they are not present how do they know where the person with cognitive disabilities is? To answer this question the proposed system is being improved. Besides being an orientation system it is also a localization system. The system is currently in a development stage and it is expected to do field tests in a near future with users, adding more features e.
Alper, S. Journal of Special Education Technology 21 2 , 47—64 2. Anacleto, R. In: Antunes, L. EPIA Augusto, J. Computer Science and Information Systems 4 1 , 1—27 4. Carmien, S. Carneiro, D. In: Tscheligi, M. AmI Dawe, M. ACM 7. Technology, pp. Liu, A. Ramos, J. In: Novais, P. Ambient Intelligence - Software and Applications. Sadri, F. In: Aip Conference Proceedings, vol. Aip Stefanov, D. At present, information regarding patents is usually represented and stored in large databases.
Information from these databases is commonly retrieved in the form of files with a CSV- or XML-based codification but with little seman- tics that enable the inference of further relationships among patents. In these databases, each patent is associated with a technological field by a code for a hie- rarchical classification.
This paper presents an approach to automatically translate the hierarchies found in the patent classification codes into ontologies of concept hi-erarchies. This proposal also enables the automatic infe- rence of implicit knowledge of patent information.
A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposal. A patent document provides valuable information related to the patent innovation, such as, the firm that generates it, location, date, technological field and information about the other patents that it cites. Department of Software Engineering, E.
Bermudez-Edo et al. All of these data that describe or are related to patent documents are called patent metadata . Patent documents are usually stored in large databases that exhibit a rigid struc- ture. Likewise, these databases often use different data structures that make it difficult to automatically and efficiently process the information contained therein.
Several works have proposed the use of an ontology-based approach to represent patent metadata using the Web Ontology Language OWL e. The main objective of these works is to provide a semantically well-defined and homogeneous representation for the major types of patent metadata. The use of ontologies enables the representation of knowledge and allows for the identifica- tion of context and dependency information more easily than using database- centric structures and interfaces . Previous patent ontologies have also included technological field codes in their concept ontologies; however, they do not fully exploit the formal representation of the patent code classification hierarchies of these technological fields.
This paper proposes to enrich the previously proposed ontologies by providing additional meaning to the patent classification codes of technological fields, by representing the hierarchy of the technological codes.
This additional meaning enables to analyze the technological activities to identify new context and depen- dency information by means of description-logics-based reasoning. However, in the patent databases, the technological codes hierarchy is not explicitly described, and it cannot be used in automatic processing by computers.
Furthermore, when a new patent classification code is introduced, the database must be changed as well as the applications running on top of the databases. This paper proposed a more flexible and easier way to evolve and maintain patent information repositories so that adding a new code only involves changing the patent ontology.
This approach allows the automatic creation of ontologies from the patent databases. To illustrate the applicability of our proposal, this paper presents a practical application in which new information is inferred from the hierarchy of concepts. A case study demonstrates an automatic mechanism for reclassification of patents when a new patent classification code appears.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 3 describes the re- lated work. Section 2 explains the translation of hierarchical patent codes into ontological hierarchies of concepts. Section 3 presents the case study. Finally, Section 4 concludes the paper by discussing the contributions of the research. Patexpert was created to bring pa- tents from all patent databases into a common format and to provide them with semantic meaning.
Both ontologies make use of the a technolo- gical classification from patents, but have not implement a full hierarchy of con- cepts implicit in the technological codes. This field is widely used to delimit the scope of the searches and is one of the most used items of patent metadata .
These ontologies basically define a concept for each patent code without leverag- ing further reasoning capabilities. Specifically, these proposals do not take into account the context of the intermediate parts of each technological code. The method begins by splitting the codes for the technolo- gical fields into structural parts pieces of codes that aid in inferring a hierarchy of concepts as a final output.
To automatically create a classification hierarchy of concepts in the patent ontology, this approach includes the following steps: 1. Provide a mechanism to address these features for using a patent ontology for the analysis of the hierarchical classification code. Automatically populate the patent ontology. When dividing the code into its parts, the meaning of the individual parts could be different although their representations are the same. This code can be split into the following parts: section H , class 03 , subclass K , main group 3 , subgroup In this example, the class and the subgroup have the same representation 03 , but they have different meanings because of their position in the code.
Therefore, when translating IPC codes into a hierarchy of con- cepts, one restriction is that the same individual in the example, 03 has different meaning depending on the part of the code to which it belongs in the example, the class or the subgroup. Importance of the Context of the Codes Another relevant feature found in the study of IPC codes is that the meaning of the representation of one part of the code depends on the previous parts of the code.
This fact must be also taken into account when translating IPC codes into a hie- rarchy of concepts; that is, the need to put the code into context to understand the meaning of each part. In particular, it is necessary to consider not only the value of a particular part of the code, but also the values of the previous parts.
Next, for each IPC section, we have created sub- classes for all of the possible IPC classes of the corresponding section e. In the same way, we have created the IPC subclasses e. Thus, we make the hierarchy found in the patent classification codes explicit and enable automatic processing, filling the gaps in the previous patent metadata ontologies. The hierarchy of classes in HCOntology solves the first restriction Subsection 2.
The proposed HCOntology also addresses the second restriction. In the exam- ple of Subsection 2. Therefore, the meanings of the two codes are well differentiated be- cause the hierarchy of classes takes into account the values of the previous parts of the code.
Adding Sense to Patent Ontologies: A Representation of Concepts and Reasoning 71 Furthermore, HCOntology allows reasoning and exploiting the semantics of its hierarchy to create relationships between patents with the same parent technologi- cal field.
Hence, this individual will be found in the searches of IPC codes H03 because it belongs to this parent class. We have implemented an automatic mechanism that populates the ontology from the query responses of the patent databases.
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